Tree Responses to Carbon Dioxide, Heat and Drought: Future Growth Conditions

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 5774

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Plant Production and Technologies Department, Agriculture and Natural Sciences Faculty, Konya Food and Agriculture University, 42080 Konya, Turkey
Interests: plant stress physiology
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Vegetation Management Research Cooperative (VMRC), Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, Oregon State University, 240 Peavy Forest Science Center (PFSC), Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Interests: ecophysiology; reforestation; vegetation management; silviculture; seedling production; process-based modeling
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Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey

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Institute of Bioeconomy – National Research Council of Italy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: plant-soil relationships; ecosystem services; urban green infrastructure
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Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA
Interests: tree ecophysiology; mycorrhizal fungi; plant growth promoting bacteria; environmental stress; soil metals; salinity; drought; nutrient limitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climatic changes associated with the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) are predicted to increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Drought events are considered likely to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in many parts of the world. Many of these drought events will be accompanied by heatwaves—transient increases in temperature above mean levels. These abiotic stresses will have direct effects on plant physiology, and therefore severe implications for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem service in natural and urban forests. Analysis of the response of natural and urban forests to abiotic stresses in isolation and combination is fundamental to our understanding of the impacts and mitigation of climate change.

This Special Issue will focus on the impact of temperature, water availability, atmospheric (CO2) and pollution on the morphological and physiological characteristics of urban trees. A special focus will be given to the role of heat stress on forests.

Dr. Dilek Killi
Dr. Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke
Dr. Elif Aylin Ozudogru
Dr. Francesca Ugolini
Prof. Jonathan Cumming
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • urban forests
  • natural forests
  • carbon dioxide
  • heat waves
  • drought
  • water logging
  • ozone
  • photosynthesis
  • stomatal conductance
  • biochemistry of carbon assimilation
  • chlorophyll fluorescence
  • secondary metabolism
  • plant–water relations
  • anatomical and morphological characterization
  • climate change
  • WUE
  • physiological
  • molecular
  • biochemical
  • and genetic advances in photosynthesis
  • phenotypic/genotypic response

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1536 KiB  
Article
Down-Regulation of Photosynthesis to Elevated CO2 and N Fertilization in Understory Fraxinus rhynchophylla Seedlings
by Siyeon Byeon, Kunhyo Kim, Jeonghyun Hong, Seohyun Kim, Sukyung Kim, Chanoh Park, Daun Ryu, Sim-Hee Han, Changyoung Oh and Hyun Seok Kim
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091197 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
(1) Background: Down-regulation of photosynthesis has been commonly reported in elevated CO2 (eCO2) experiments and is accompanied by a reduction of leaf nitrogen (N) concentration. Decreased N concentrations in plant tissues under eCO2 can be attributed to an increase [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Down-regulation of photosynthesis has been commonly reported in elevated CO2 (eCO2) experiments and is accompanied by a reduction of leaf nitrogen (N) concentration. Decreased N concentrations in plant tissues under eCO2 can be attributed to an increase in nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and are possibly related to N availability. (2) Methods: To examine whether the reduction of leaf N concentration under eCO2 is related to N availability, we investigated understory Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings grown under three different CO2 conditions (ambient, 400 ppm [aCO2]; ambient × 1.4, 560 ppm [eCO21.4]; and ambient × 1.8, 720 ppm [eCO21.8]) and three different N concentrations for 2 years. (3) Results: Leaf and stem biomass did not change under eCO2 conditions, whereas leaf production and stem and branch biomass were increased by N fertilization. Unlike biomass, the light-saturated photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE) increased under eCO2 conditions. However, leaf N, Rubisco, and chlorophyll decreased under eCO2 conditions in both N-fertilized and unfertilized treatments. Contrary to the previous studies, leaf NSC decreased under eCO2 conditions. Unlike leaf N concentration, N concentration of the stem under eCO2 conditions was higher than that under ambient CO2 (4). Conclusions: Leaf N concentration was not reduced by NSC under eCO2 conditions in the understory, and unlike other organs, leaf N concentration might be reduced due to increased PNUE. Full article
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15 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
Interactive Effect of Elevated CO2 and Reduced Summer Precipitation on Photosynthesis is Species-Specific: The Case Study with Soil-Planted Norway Spruce and Sessile Oak in a Mountainous Forest Plot
by Kojo Kwakye Ofori-Amanfo, Karel Klem, Barbora Veselá, Petr Holub, Thomas Agyei, Michal V. Marek, John Grace and Otmar Urban
Forests 2021, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010042 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2723
Abstract
We investigated how reduced summer precipitation modifies photosynthetic responses of two model tree species—coniferous Norway spruce and broadleaved sessile oak—to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Saplings were grown under mountainous conditions for two growing seasons at ambient (400 μmol CO2 mol [...] Read more.
We investigated how reduced summer precipitation modifies photosynthetic responses of two model tree species—coniferous Norway spruce and broadleaved sessile oak—to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Saplings were grown under mountainous conditions for two growing seasons at ambient (400 μmol CO2 mol–1) and elevated (700 μmol CO2 mol–1) CO2 concentration. Half were not exposed to precipitation during the summer (June–August). After two seasons of cultivation under modified conditions, basic photosynthetic characteristics including light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Amax), stomatal conductance (GSmax), and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured under their growth CO2 concentrations together with in vivo carboxylation rate (VC) and electron transport rate (J) derived from CO2-response curves at saturating light. An increase in Amax under elevated CO2 was observed in oak saplings, whereas it remained unchanged or slightly declined in Norway spruce, indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis. Such acclimation was associated with an acclimation of both J and VC. Both species had increased WUE under elevated CO2 although, in well-watered oaks, WUE remained unchanged. Significant interactive effects of tree species, CO2 concentration, and water availability on gas-exchange parameters (Amax, GSmax, WUE) were observed, while there was no effect on biochemical (VC, J) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The assimilation capacity (Asat; CO2 assimilation rate at saturating light intensity and CO2 concentration) was substantially reduced in spruce under the combined conditions of water deficiency and elevated CO2, but not in oak. In addition, the stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on Amax persisted in oak, but completely diminished in water-limited spruce saplings. Our results suggest a strong species-specific response of trees to reduced summer precipitation under future conditions of elevated CO2 and a limited compensatory effect of elevated CO2 on CO2 uptake under water-limited conditions in coniferous spruce. Full article
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