Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 10580

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Forestry and Geomatic Faculty, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada
Interests: height growth; regeneration; reproduction; species range; boreal and temperate forests; forest dynamic at the ecotone; climate change

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Guest Editor
Department of Forest Ecology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: forestry; stress ecology; forest ecology; tree growth; ecophysiology; climate change

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy
Interests: ecosystem land use model

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The impact of climate on tree growth has recently received increased interest in the context of climate change. Notwithstanding, studies showed that growth differed, and their pattern was often contrary. Species-specific traits, environmental conditions, and the spatio-temporal scale of the study appear to be the major factors explaining the complexity of the relationship between growth and climate change. The growth pattern associated with climate change could provide essential insights to highlight the potential interspecific growth competition. Hence, this will detect possible spatiotemporal shifts in species distribution, especially in the more limiting environment (species’ leading and tailing ranges, or at higher elevations). Accordingly, performance under future climate change scenarios could be more complex than can be anticipated by simulated predictions. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on improving the current knowledge of how climate change affects tree growth.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Tree growth and spatio-temporal climate change
  • Tree growth at the species' northern or altitudinal limits
  • Competition in tree growth at the ecotone between two forest types
  • Comparison in tree growth between geographic provenances
  • Dendroclimatology
  • Dendroecology

Dr. Yassine Messaoud
Dr. Jan Světlík
Dr. Giorgio Alberti
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • tree growth
  • ecotone
  • species northern and altitudinal limits
  • species range
  • boreal and temperate forests
  • climate change

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2819 KiB  
Article
Climate Adaptation in White Oak (Quercus alba, L.): A Forty-Year Study of Growth and Phenology
by Austin M. Thomas, Mark V. Coggeshall, Philip A. O’Connor and C. Dana Nelson
Forests 2024, 15(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030520 - 12 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Climate change poses a significant threat to the resilience and sustainability of forest ecosystems. This study examines the performance of white oak (Quercus alba, L.) across a range of provenances in a common garden planting, focusing on the species’ response to [...] Read more.
Climate change poses a significant threat to the resilience and sustainability of forest ecosystems. This study examines the performance of white oak (Quercus alba, L.) across a range of provenances in a common garden planting, focusing on the species’ response to climatic variables and the potential role of assisted migration in forest management. We evaluated the survival and growth rates of white oak provenances originating from various points along a latitudinal gradient over a period of 40 years. These provenances were planted in a common garden situated near the midpoint of this latitudinal gradient, where we also monitored their phenological traits, such as budburst and leaf senescence. The results revealed substantial variation in phenological responses and growth patterns among the provenances, with southern provenances demonstrating faster growth and later senescence relative to local sources, with limited impact on survival. In contrast, the northern provenances demonstrated slower growth, resulting in later-aged competition-induced mortality. The findings highlight the necessity of incorporating genetic diversity into white oak reforestation and conservation strategies, as the local provenance may no longer be the most suitable option for current and future conditions. We advocate for a nuanced approach to forest management that leverages genetic insights to optimize seed source selection for reforestation, fostering resilient forest landscapes in the face of ongoing climate shifts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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15 pages, 3314 KiB  
Article
Can Growth Increase of Small Trees after Drought Compensate for Large Trees’ Growth Loss?
by Mingqian Liu, Yihong Zhu, Rongrong Pang and Lushuang Gao
Forests 2024, 15(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030448 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Large trees dominate stand-level biomass but their growth suffers more from droughts, while sheltering small trees during droughts. Under a warmer and drier climate, whether the growth decline of large trees could be compensated by prompted small trees’ growth remains unknown. Based on [...] Read more.
Large trees dominate stand-level biomass but their growth suffers more from droughts, while sheltering small trees during droughts. Under a warmer and drier climate, whether the growth decline of large trees could be compensated by prompted small trees’ growth remains unknown. Based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) series, drought characteristics were determined, and two drought events were selected. We reconstructed historical diameters at breast height (DBH) and the aboveground biomass of Larix gmelinii through tree ring data allometric equations. To clarify the difference in the responses of tree size to drought, we calculated resistance, recovery, and resilience in each diameter class. We used a growth dominance coefficient (GDC) to exhibit the contributions of different-sized individuals to stand growth and demonstrated the growth dynamics of both the individual and stand level. The results proved that large trees were more vulnerable to local droughts, the resilience of larch had a negative relationship with the DBH (p < 0.05), and small trees could recover to even exceed their pre-drought growth level. Most plots had a negative GDC and small trees contributed more to stand growth compared with their size, but their AGB growth was far less than that of large trees, which made it difficult to compensate for stand growth decline. Our results indicate that tree resilience has a negative relationship with their pre-drought sizes, as large trees in the stand fail to regain their growth level before drought. Even with a larger relative contribution and higher resilience, small trees cannot cover deficits in large trees’ growth. Under more frequent droughts, the total aboveground biomass growth of larches would decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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18 pages, 3647 KiB  
Article
Forest Adaptation to Climate Change: Altitudinal Response and Wood Variation in Natural-Growth Cunninghamia lanceolata in the Context of Climate Change
by Gongliang Xie, Sen Liu, Ting Chang and Ninghua Zhu
Forests 2024, 15(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030411 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 839
Abstract
This research delves into the impact of climate change on the wood traits of Cunninghamia lanceolata across various altitudinal gradients, aiming to understand the influence of altitude and climatic factors like temperature and precipitation on key wood characteristics. Employing a comprehensive approach, samples [...] Read more.
This research delves into the impact of climate change on the wood traits of Cunninghamia lanceolata across various altitudinal gradients, aiming to understand the influence of altitude and climatic factors like temperature and precipitation on key wood characteristics. Employing a comprehensive approach, samples were collected from different altitudes for detailed phenotypic analysis. Methods included Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and random forest analysis. Results revealed significant variations in wood traits such as heartwood ratio, tracheid length, and width across altitudes. Notably, wood traits in lower- and middle-elevation populations exhibited higher variability compared to higher elevations, indicating greater environmental diversity and genetic adaptability at these altitudes. Climatic factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, were found to increasingly influence wood trait variation with altitude. The research concludes that the adaptation of Cunninghamia lanceolata to climate change is significantly influenced by both altitudinal and climatic factors, highlighting their importance in forest genetic breeding and conservation strategies amidst global climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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15 pages, 3688 KiB  
Article
Tracheids vs. Tree Rings as Proxies for Dendroclimatic Reconstruction at High Altitude: The Case of Pinus sibirica Du Tour
by Mikhail S. Zharkov, Bao Yang, Elena A. Babushkina, Dina F. Zhirnova, Eugene A. Vaganov and Vladimir V. Shishov
Forests 2024, 15(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010167 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is a widespread and long-lived species in the northern hemisphere, which makes it a good potential proxy for climatic data. However, the tree-ring growth of this species weakly correlates with climatic conditions, which prevents its use [...] Read more.
Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is a widespread and long-lived species in the northern hemisphere, which makes it a good potential proxy for climatic data. However, the tree-ring growth of this species weakly correlates with climatic conditions, which prevents its use in dendroclimatic reconstruction. It was proposed to use the measurements of tracheid characteristics as model predictors to reconstruct the smoothed temperature of the key periods in tree growth. In this study, algorithms for preprocessing tracheids and temperature data, as well as for model cross-validation, were developed to produce reliable high-resolution (weekly-based) temperature reconstructions. Due to the developed algorithms, the key time periods of Siberian pine growth were identified during the growing season—early June (most active cell development) and mid-July (setting new buds for the next growing season). For these time periods, reliable long-term temperature reconstructions (R2 > 0.6, p < 10−8) were obtained over 1653–2018. The temperature reconstructions significantly correlated (p < 10−8) with independent reanalysis data for the 19th century. The developed approach, based on preprocessing tracheid and temperature data, shows new potential for Siberian pine in high-resolution climate reconstructions and can be applied to other tree species that weakly respond to climate forcing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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15 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
Growth Responses to Climate and Drought in Relict Cork Oak Populations as a Benchmark of the Species Tolerance
by J. Julio Camarero, Antonio Gazol, Cristina Valeriano, Michele Colangelo and Álvaro Rubio-Cuadrado
Forests 2024, 15(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010072 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
We still lack information on the long-term growth responses to climate of relict tree populations, which often persist in topoclimatic refugia. To fill that research gap, we studied three relict cork oak (Quercus suber) populations located in northern Spain using dendrochronology. [...] Read more.
We still lack information on the long-term growth responses to climate of relict tree populations, which often persist in topoclimatic refugia. To fill that research gap, we studied three relict cork oak (Quercus suber) populations located in northern Spain using dendrochronology. The sites were subjected to humid (Zarautz), continental (Bozoó) and xeric (Sestrica) climate conditions. Cool–wet conditions during the current spring enhanced growth in Bozoó and Sestrica, whereas wet conditions in the previous October enhanced growth in Zarautz. In this site, growth also increased in response to dry conditions in the prior winter linked to high North Atlantic Oscillation indices. Correlations between the precipitation summed from the previous September to the current May peaked at the driest site (Sestrica). The strongest growth responses to drought severity were also found at this site, where growth negatively responded to 9-month early-summer droughts, followed by the continental Bozoó site, where growth was constrained by 1-month July droughts. Growth declined in response to 6-month January droughts in the wettest site (Zarautz), where cork oak was vulnerable to previous late-summer to autumn drought stress. Despite warmer and drier spring conditions that would negatively impact cork oak at the Bozoó and Sestrica sites, trees from these populations could tolerate further aridity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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14 pages, 5385 KiB  
Article
Impact of Environmental Conditions on Wood Anatomical Traits of Green Alder (Alnus alnobetula) at the Alpine Treeline
by Andreas Gruber, Gerhard Wieser, Marion Fink and Walter Oberhuber
Forests 2024, 15(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010024 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Due to land use change, green alder (Alnus alnobetula), formerly restricted to moist slopes, is now expanding to drier sun-exposed sites at the alpine treeline. The highly productive shrub is forming closed thickets, establishing nitrogen-saturated species poor shrublands. To evaluate wood [...] Read more.
Due to land use change, green alder (Alnus alnobetula), formerly restricted to moist slopes, is now expanding to drier sun-exposed sites at the alpine treeline. The highly productive shrub is forming closed thickets, establishing nitrogen-saturated species poor shrublands. To evaluate wood anatomical adaptations to changing environmental conditions, we analyzed vessel characteristics (mean vessel area, MVA; vessel density, VD; and theoretic conductive area, TCA) and axial parenchyma abundance, as well as their distribution in the annual ring at a moist north-facing and a dry south-facing site at the alpine treeline on Mt. Patscherkofel (Central European Alps, Austria). Results revealed that lower soil water availability and enhanced evaporative demand did not affect MVA while VD and TCA were significantly reduced at the dry south-facing site. This suggests that in green alder, vessel size is a static trait whereas vessel number responds plastic. Limited water availability also triggered a significant increase in axial parenchyma, confirming the important role of xylem parenchyma in water relations. Harsh environmental conditions at the distributional limit of green alder may have affected xylogenesis, leading to a near semi-ring-porous distribution of vessels and an accumulation of parenchyma in the late growing season. We conclude that in a warmer and drier climate, growth limitation and physiological stress may set limits to the distribution of Alnus alnobetula at drought-prone sites in the alpine treeline ecotone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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16 pages, 2178 KiB  
Article
The Environmental and Genetic Controls of Increment Suggest a Limited Adaptability of Native Populations of Norway Spruce to Weather Extremes
by Roberts Matisons, Juris Katrevičs, Pauls Zeltiņš, Diāna Jansone and Āris Jansons
Forests 2024, 15(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010015 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 698
Abstract
In the Baltics, warming is expected to burden the growth of Norway spruce Picea abies, with weather anomalies/extremes having strong triggering effects, which can be mitigated by tree breeding. Within the region, breeding programmes have been aiming for productivity, yet being conservative, [...] Read more.
In the Baltics, warming is expected to burden the growth of Norway spruce Picea abies, with weather anomalies/extremes having strong triggering effects, which can be mitigated by tree breeding. Within the region, breeding programmes have been aiming for productivity, yet being conservative, their sustainability depends on the adaptability of native genotypes, which is unclear. The adaptability of genotypes can be assessed through local adaptations and phenotypic plasticity, with the sensitivity of increment depicting the conformity of genotypes and environments. To assess the adaptability of native populations to anticipated climates, local genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of the weather sensitivity of the radial increment were assessed by the methods of time series analysis and quantitative genetics based on three clonal trials (low-density single-tree plot plantations of grafted clones of native plus trees) representing the local climatic gradient in Latvia. The growth of trees was sensitive to the moisture availability in summer and the thermal regime in winter, yet coinciding anomalies in both were associated with abrupt changes in tree ring width. These environmental effects differed among the clones, indicating genetic controls over the sensitivity of increment, which, however, decreased under a warmer climate, suggesting a limited adaptability of local populations to warming. Still, the weather-growth relationships showed moderate phenotypic plasticity, suggesting some mid-term adaptability. Accordingly, supplementation of breeding populations via assisted gene transfer with the genotypes that are adapted to warmer and drier climates appears crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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16 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
Climate-Sensitive Diameter Growth Models for White Spruce and White Pine Plantations
by Mahadev Sharma
Forests 2023, 14(12), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14122457 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Global change in the climate is affecting tree/forest growth. There have been many studies that analyzed climate effects on tree growth. Results presented in these studies showed that the climate had both positive and negative effects on tree growth. The nature (positive/negative) and [...] Read more.
Global change in the climate is affecting tree/forest growth. There have been many studies that analyzed climate effects on tree growth. Results presented in these studies showed that the climate had both positive and negative effects on tree growth. The nature (positive/negative) and magnitude of the effects and the climate variables affecting growth depended on tree species. Climate-sensitive diameter growth models are not available for white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations. These models are needed to project forest growth and yield and develop forest management plans. Therefore, diameter growth models were developed for white pine and white spruce plantations by incorporating climate variables. Four hundred white pine and white spruce trees (200 per species) were sampled from 80 (40 per species) even-aged monospecific plantations (five trees per plantation) across Ontario, Canada. Diameter–age pairs were obtained from these trees using stem analysis. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to develop diameter growth models. To make the models climate sensitive, model parameters were expressed in term of climate variables. Inclusion of climate variables significantly improved model fit statistics and predictive accuracy. For evaluation, diameters (inside bark) at breast height were estimated for three geographic locations (east, west, and south) across Ontario for an 80-year growth period (2021–2100) under three climate change (emissions) scenarios (representative concentration pathway or RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 watts m−2). For both species, the overall climate effects were negative. For white spruce, the maximum pronounced difference in projected diameters after the 80-year growth period was in the west. At this location, compared to the no climate change scenario, projected spruce diameters under RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 were thinner by 4.64 (15.99%) and 3.72 (12.80%) cm, respectively. For white pine, the maximum difference was in the south. Compared to the no climate change scenario, projected pine diameters at age 80 under RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 at this location were narrower by 4.54 (13.99%) and 7.60 (23.43%) cm, respectively. For both species, climate effects on diameter growth were less evident at other locations. If the values of climate variables are unavailable, models fitted without climate variables can be used to estimate these diameters for both species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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23 pages, 4017 KiB  
Article
Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L.) Resilience to Climate Change: Insights from Coppice Forests in Southern and Central Europe
by Michaela Šimková, Stanislav Vacek, Václav Šimůnek, Zdeněk Vacek, Jan Cukor, Vojtěch Hájek, Lukáš Bílek, Anna Prokůpková, Igor Štefančík, Zuzana Sitková and Ivan Lukáčik
Forests 2023, 14(12), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14122403 - 9 Dec 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is a thermophilic oak species that is gaining importance in the context of ongoing climate change because of its better resistance to climatic extremes and drier conditions. Therefore, this article focuses on Turkey oak’s role and growth [...] Read more.
Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is a thermophilic oak species that is gaining importance in the context of ongoing climate change because of its better resistance to climatic extremes and drier conditions. Therefore, this article focuses on Turkey oak’s role and growth properties in the coppice forests of Southern Europe (Italy, Bulgaria) compared to similar site conditions in Central Europe (Slovakia, Czechia). The aims are to evaluate the basic dendrometry indicators, stand biodiversity, growth dynamics, and the effect of climatic factors on tree-ring increment on specific site chronologies. We found that the tree density in coppices of 50–60 years varied between 475 and 775 trees ha−1, and the stand volume ranged from 141 to 407 m3 ha−1. The complex stand diversity of all plots ranged from a monotonous to uniform structure. The size of tree-ring growth was closely related to indicators of stand density. The lowest influence of climatic factors on tree-ring growth was found in sites in Italy and the highest in Slovakia. The primary limiting factor for growth was the lack of precipitation during the growing season, especially in June and July. In contrast, temperature had a marginal effect on radial growth compared to precipitation. The radial growth in research plots in Southern Europe goes through longer 6 to 8-year growth cycles, and in Central European sites, it goes through shorter cycles of 2.4 to 4.8 years, which confirms better growth conditions in this region. The studied coppice stands exhibit a stable reaction to climate change. Yet, regarding cyclical growth, the Central European stands benefit from an advantageous climate and grow better than in Southern Europe. As part of the changing environmental conditions, Turkey oak is becoming an important tree species that can achieve high production potential even in drier habitats due to its regeneration characteristic as coppice and may play a critical role in its northerly introduction in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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21 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Study of the Genetic Adaptation Mechanisms of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) Regarding Climatic Stresses Based on Dendrogenomic Analysis
by Serafima V. Novikova, Natalia V. Oreshkova, Vadim V. Sharov, Dina F. Zhirnova, Liliana V. Belokopytova, Elena A. Babushkina and Konstantin V. Krutovsky
Forests 2023, 14(12), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14122358 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Dendrogenomics is a new interdisciplinary approach that allows joint analysis of dendrological and genomic data and opens up new ways to study the temporal dynamics of forest treelines, delineate spatial and temporal population structures, decipher individual tree responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, [...] Read more.
Dendrogenomics is a new interdisciplinary approach that allows joint analysis of dendrological and genomic data and opens up new ways to study the temporal dynamics of forest treelines, delineate spatial and temporal population structures, decipher individual tree responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, and evaluate the adaptive genetic potential of forest tree populations. These data are needed for the prediction of climate change effects and mitigation of the negative effects. We present here an association analysis of the variation of 27 individual tree traits, including adaptive dendrophenotypes reflecting the individual responses of trees to drought stress, such as the resistance (Rt), recovery (Rc), resilience (Rs), and relative resilience (RRs) indexes measured in 136 Siberian larch trees in 5 populations in the foothills of the Batenevsky Ridge (Kuznetsk Alatau, Republic of Khakassia, Russia), with variation of 9742 SNPs genotyped using ddRADseq in the same trees. The population structure of five closely located Siberian larch populations was relatively weak (FST = 0.018). We found that the level of individual heterozygosity positively correlated with the Rc and RR indices for the five studied drought periods and partly with the Rs indices for three drought periods. It seems that higher individual heterozygosity improves the adaptive capabilities of the tree. We also discovered a significant negative relationship between individual heterozygosity and the Rt index in four out of five periods, which means that growth slows down during droughts more in trees with higher individual heterozygosity and is likely associated with energy and internal resource reallocation toward more efficient water and energy usage and optimization of larch growth during drought years. We found 371 SNPs with potentially adaptive variations significantly associated with the variation of adaptive dendrophenotypes based on all three different methods of association analysis. Among them, 26 SNPs were located in genomic regions carrying functional genes: 21 in intergenic regions and 5 in gene-coding regions. Based on the obtained results, it can be assumed that these populations of Siberian larch have relatively high standing adaptive genetic variation and adaptive potential underlying the adaptations of larch to various climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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15 pages, 6586 KiB  
Article
Dendrochronological Analysis of One-Seeded and Intermediate Hawthorn Response to Climate in Poland
by Anna Cedro and Bernard Cedro
Forests 2023, 14(11), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14112264 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Although the hawthorn is not a forest-forming species, and it has no high economic significance, it is a very valuable component of forests, mid-field woodlots or roadside avenues. The literature, however, lacks information on the growth rate, growth phases, or growth–climate–habitat relationship for [...] Read more.
Although the hawthorn is not a forest-forming species, and it has no high economic significance, it is a very valuable component of forests, mid-field woodlots or roadside avenues. The literature, however, lacks information on the growth rate, growth phases, or growth–climate–habitat relationship for trees of this genus. This work aimed to establish the rate of growth of Craraegus monogyna and C. xmedia Bechst growing in various parts of Poland, in various habitats; analyze the growth–climate relationship; and distinguish dendrochronological regions for these species. Samples were taken using a Pressler borer from nine populations growing in different parts of Poland, from a total of 192 trees (359 samples). The tree-ring width was measured down to 0.01 mm. The average tree-ring width in the studied hawthorn populations ranged from 1.42 to 3.25 mm/year. Using well-established cross-dating methods, nine local chronologies were compiled with tree ages between 45 and 72 years. Dendroclimatic analyses (pointer year analysis, correlation and response function analysis) were performed for a 33-year period from 1988 to 2020, for which all local chronologies displayed EPS > 0.85. The tree-ring width in the hawthorn populations depended mostly on temperature and rainfall through the May–August period. High rainfall and the lack of heat waves through these months cause an increase in cambial activity and the formation of wide tree rings. Conversely, rainfall shortages through this period, in conjunction with high air temperatures, caused growth depressions. Cluster analysis enabled the identification of two dendrochronological regions among the hawthorn in Poland: a western and eastern region, and a single site (CI), whose separation was most likely caused by contrasting habitat and genetic conditions. The obtained results highlight the need for further study of these species in Poland and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change)
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