Food Additives

A topical collection in Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This collection belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

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Collection Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, rúa Galicia No. 4, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain
Interests: food analysis; meat and meat products; healthy meat; bioactive compounds; active packaging; chromatography; mass spectrometry; fatty acids; polyphenols; natural antioxidant extracts; food science; food technology
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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have witnessed a growing consumer demand for healthier and more nutritional food. With this in mind, the use of multiple additives (traditionally used by the food industry), both in foods of animal and vegetable origin and in the beverage industry, is normally considered by consumers to be “unhealthy”. For this reason, the trend toward the consumption of “clean label” products is increasingly important. However, the use of multiple additives during food processing to improve their technological properties or improve the shelf life of foods is generally necessary, since otherwise, it would be impossible to achieve all the characteristics and the stability that allow their commercialization. In this sense, multiple additives with technological purposes (humectants, gelling agents, acidity regulators, antifoaming agents, emulsifiers, etc.), sensory/organoleptic purposes (sweeteners, colorants, flavor enhancers, etc.) or additives to increase shelf life (antioxidants, preservatives, acids, glazing agents, sequestrants, etc.) are used in the production of all kinds of foods. Recently, and because the safety of some additives used is highly questioned, there has been a tendency to substitute synthetic additives for extracts or natural bioactive compounds. Several compounds from natural sources (vegetable, marine, or animal) have characteristics that make them perfect candidates to be used as colorants (carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, etc.), antioxidants (polyphenols, vitamins, peptides, etc.), antimicrobials (essential oils, terpenes, etc.), emulsifiers, and stabilizing agents (carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, etc.) and to reduce or replace synthetic additives. However, both the substitution of some additives and variations in their use can have negative effects on the quality of food.

As such, it seems clear that the use of synthetic and/or natural additives is mandatory for the beverage and food industry. Therefore, I invite researchers to contribute with original or review articles related to the analysis, application, or substitution of additives (both of synthetic and natural origin) to increase the quality of food and beverages.

Dr. Rubén Domínguez
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • synthetic additives
  • natural additives
  • functional foods
  • food shelf life
  • food industry
  • beverage industry
  • food safety
  • antioxidants and antimicrobials
  • bioactive agents
  • colorants

Published Papers (15 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

12 pages, 1082 KiB  
Article
Dietary Exposure to Glutamates of 2- to 5-Year-Old Toddlers in China Using the Duplicate Diet Method
by Yanjun Zhou, Haixia Sui, Yibaina Wang, Ling Yong, Lei Zhang, Jiang Liang, Jing Zhou, Lili Xu, Yanxu Zhong, Jinyao Chen and Yan Song
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091898 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
A duplicate diet collection method was used to estimate dietary exposure to glutamates in children aged 2–5 years in selected provinces of China. Daily duplicate diet samples were collected from 86 healthy toddlers over three consecutive days. Glutamates were analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid [...] Read more.
A duplicate diet collection method was used to estimate dietary exposure to glutamates in children aged 2–5 years in selected provinces of China. Daily duplicate diet samples were collected from 86 healthy toddlers over three consecutive days. Glutamates were analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography–MS/MS (UHPLC–MS/MS). Results showed that the highest glutamates content was found in mixed meals, at 5.12 mg/kg, followed by powdered formula (3.89 mg/kg), and milk and dairy products (2.29 mg/kg). The total mean daily dietary exposure for subjects was 0.20 mg/kg BW, and P95 daily dietary exposure was 0.44 mg/kg BW, both below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (120 mg/kg BW) recommended by the Joint (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the ADI (30 mg/kg BW) set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Hence it can be considered that glutamates exposure would cause low risk in this group. Full article
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15 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Physical and Chemical Characterization and Bioavailability Evaluation In Vivo of Amaranth Protein Concentrate
by Yuliya S. Sidorova, Nikita A. Petrov, Irina B. Perova, Alexey I. Kolobanov and Sergey N. Zorin
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081728 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Special attention is being paid to the study of amaranth proteins. They are characterized by a high biological value that significantly exceeds those of grain crops. The production of protein concentrate from amaranth flour includes preliminary enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction of the resulting mixture, [...] Read more.
Special attention is being paid to the study of amaranth proteins. They are characterized by a high biological value that significantly exceeds those of grain crops. The production of protein concentrate from amaranth flour includes preliminary enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction of the resulting mixture, protein precipitation, microfiltration, and freeze-drying. In our study, the obtained amaranth protein concentrate was limited by valine, with an amino acid score of 74%. The true digestibility of the amaranth protein concentrate determined in vivo was 97.6 ± 0.3%, which was significantly lower than that of casein (99.3 ± 0.2%). The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score value of the concentrate was 72.2%. The obtained concentrate was a rich source of selenium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and iron. Ferulic acid was the only polyphenolic compound found in the amaranth protein concentrate, but its content was significantly greater compared to the original flour. Saponins were not removed completely during the process of obtaining the amaranth protein concentrate. We identified 15 saponins in the concentrate, mainly of the bidesmoside type, the sapogenins of which are related derivatives of oleanolic acid. Thus, the developed amaranth protein concentrate can be used as an ingredient in functional food products, with a high biological value. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

12 pages, 964 KiB  
Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB): Autochthonous and Probiotic Microbes for Meat Preservation and Fortification
by Dibyajit Lahiri, Moupriya Nag, Tanmay Sarkar, Rina Rani Ray, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Maksim Rebezov, Sneh Punia Bangar, José M. Lorenzo and Rubén Domínguez
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182792 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The enhanced concern of the consumers regarding the safety, quality of the food products, and avoidance of the use of chemical food preservatives has resulted in a breakthrough in biopreservation. This has resulted in the use of beneficial microbial species, including bacteria and [...] Read more.
The enhanced concern of the consumers regarding the safety, quality of the food products, and avoidance of the use of chemical food preservatives has resulted in a breakthrough in biopreservation. This has resulted in the use of beneficial microbial species, including bacteria and their secondary metabolites, to enhance the shelf-life and quality of the food products. Meat preservation and fortification are among the biggest concerns, as they are relevant to the majority of food products. The chemical preservatives conventionally used in preserving meat and meat products possess several detrimental effects on the consumers. Thus, alternative strategies are needed to combat strategically in facilitating the shelf-life and quality. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered the safest organism and have a profound role in food and food-processing industries. The biofilm developed by the bacteria prevents the growth of various undesirable microorganisms on meat and meat products. Various studies depicted that LAB produces various antimicrobial metabolites that can act effectively on the food-degrading pathogens, rendering it safe and enhancing shelf-life. This review, thus, deals with the use of LAB as biopreservatives for enhancing the shelf-life of meat and meat products and helping its fortification. Full article
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21 pages, 4105 KiB  
Article
Selective Survival of Protective Cultures during High-Pressure Processing by Leveraging Freeze-Drying and Encapsulation
by Meghan R. McGillin, Dana L. deRiancho, Timothy A. DeMarsh, Ella D. Hsu and Samuel D. Alcaine
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162465 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
High-Pressure Processing’s (HPP) non-thermal inactivation of cells has been largely incompatible with food products in which the activity of selected cultures is intended (e.g., bio-preservation). This work aims to overcome this limitation using a cocoa butter encapsulation system for freeze-dried cultures that can [...] Read more.
High-Pressure Processing’s (HPP) non-thermal inactivation of cells has been largely incompatible with food products in which the activity of selected cultures is intended (e.g., bio-preservation). This work aims to overcome this limitation using a cocoa butter encapsulation system for freeze-dried cultures that can be integrated with HPP technology with minimal detrimental effects on cell viability or activity capabilities. Using commercially available freeze-dried protective cultures, the desiccated cells survived HPP (600 MPa, 5 °C, 3 min) and subsequently experienced a 0.66-log increase in cell counts during 2 h of incubation. When the same culture was rehydrated prior to HPP, it underwent a >6.07-log decrease. Phosphate-buffered saline or skim milk inoculated with cocoa butter-encapsulated culture up to 24 h before HPP displayed robust cell counts after HPP and subsequent plating (8.37–9.16 CFU/mL). In addition to assessing viability following HPP, the study sought to test the applicability in a product in which post-HPP fermentation is desired While HPP-treated encapsulated cultures initially exhibited significantly delayed fermentative processes compared to the positive controls, by 48 h following inoculation, the HPP samples’ pH values bore no significant difference from those of the positive controls (encapsulated samples: pH 3.83 to 3.92; positive controls: pH 3.81 to 3.85). The HPP encapsulated cultures also maintained high cell counts throughout the fermentation (≥8.95 log CFU/mL). Full article
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20 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Mass Spectrometric Detection of Proteins of Ten Oilseed Species in Meat Products
by Johannes Spörl, Karl Speer and Wolfgang Jira
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142155 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Food fraud is a common issue in the modern food industry. The undeclared use of foreign proteins in meat products is a major concern in this context. Oilseeds are ideal for this purpose due to their high protein content and since huge amounts [...] Read more.
Food fraud is a common issue in the modern food industry. The undeclared use of foreign proteins in meat products is a major concern in this context. Oilseeds are ideal for this purpose due to their high protein content and since huge amounts of oil meal are obtained as a by-product of oil production. Therefore, a UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of chia, coconut, flaxseed, hemp, peanut, pumpkin, rapeseed, sesame, soy, and sunflower proteins in meat products. Potential tryptic peptide markers were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The final twenty peptide markers selected, which are specific for one of the ten species targeted, were each measured by multiple reaction monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, twelve new heat-stable marker peptides for chia, coconut, flaxseed, pumpkin, rapeseed, sesame and sunflower have not been reported previously. Emulsion-type sausages with 0.01, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% protein addition by each oilseed species were produced for matrix calibration. No false-positive results were recorded. In the quantification of the ten oilseed species, 466 of 480 measuring data points of the recovery rate in unknown sausages (0.15 and 0.85% protein addition by each oilseed species) were in the accepted range of 80–120%. Full article
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13 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of the Effects of Dietary Vitamin E or Selenium on Lipid Oxidation in Rabbit Hamburgers: Comparing TBARS and Hexanal SPME-GC Analyses
by Fabiana Trombetti, Paola Minardi, Attilio Luigi Mordenti, Anna Badiani, Vittoria Ventrella and Sabrina Albonetti
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131911 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
The effects and specificity of dietary supplementation of EconomasETM (EcoE), mainly consisting of organic selenium (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg feed; Se) or of vitamin E (100 or 200 mg/kg feed; VE), on lipid oxidation were evaluated in rabbit hamburgers during refrigerated storage. [...] Read more.
The effects and specificity of dietary supplementation of EconomasETM (EcoE), mainly consisting of organic selenium (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg feed; Se) or of vitamin E (100 or 200 mg/kg feed; VE), on lipid oxidation were evaluated in rabbit hamburgers during refrigerated storage. Oxidation data obtained by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) spectrophotometric analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) to determine hexanal content were compared. The relationships between oxidation levels, colour and pH and the discriminability of EcoE- or VE-treatment compared with control were also examined. TBARS content decreased in both VE and EcoE groups, while hexanal showed lower values only in the VE100 dietary group. The colour parameters were compatible with acceptable product quality and seemed to parallel the TBARS values up to the second day storage. Both VE and EcoE improved oxidative stability without affecting the sensory properties, but the VE effect appeared to more specifically hamper lipid oxidation, as evidenced by the determination and quantification of hexanal, a specific product of fatty acid peroxidation. Full article
14 pages, 2860 KiB  
Article
Extraction and Characterization of Cellulose from Jerusalem Artichoke Residue and Its Application in Blueberry Preservation
by Xiaotong Zhou, Liu Liu, Jianke Li, Lin Wang and Xueying Song
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081065 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
The utilization of industrial by-products is becoming more and more important for resource utilization. In this study, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was extracted from Jerusalem artichoke residue, and a series of characterizations of SDF were carried out. The results showed that SDF had [...] Read more.
The utilization of industrial by-products is becoming more and more important for resource utilization. In this study, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was extracted from Jerusalem artichoke residue, and a series of characterizations of SDF were carried out. The results showed that SDF had good properties. SDF (0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4%) and chitosan (2%) were further used to prepare the coating that was used for the preservation of blueberry. The chemical structure of the film was obtained by FT-IR and XRD analysis. The microstructure of the film was analyzed by SEM, and the properties of the film were tested. The blueberry fresh-keeping test proved that the SDF-added film could effectively prolong the quality of blueberries in storage for 16 days. After 16 days of storage, compared with the control group, the decay rate of the coating group with 0.2% SDF decreased by 16.3%, the consumption of organic acids decreased by 43.7%, and the content of anthocyanin increased by 29.3%. SDF has a potential application in food preservation. Full article
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17 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Antiradical Potential of Food Products as a Comprehensive Measure of Their Quality
by Victor Gorbachev, Maria Klokonos, Sherzodkhon Mutallibzoda, Svetlana Tefikova, Olga Orlovtseva, Natalia Ivanova, Galina Posnova, Daria Velina, Igor Zavalishin, Mars Khayrullin, Elena Bobkova, Elena Kuznetsova, Alla Vorobeva, Dmitry Vorobyev and Igor Nikitin
Foods 2022, 11(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070927 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5027
Abstract
Antiradical potential (ARP) is an important measure of food safety. In addition, it directly or indirectly affects the rate of occurrence of a number of human pathologies. Using a photocolorimetric analysis of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) solutions, we estimated the antiradical potential of food raw [...] Read more.
Antiradical potential (ARP) is an important measure of food safety. In addition, it directly or indirectly affects the rate of occurrence of a number of human pathologies. Using a photocolorimetric analysis of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) solutions, we estimated the antiradical potential of food raw materials, food concentrates, biologically active substances, and wild plants. We conducted approximately 1500 analyses of almost 100 food products selected from 11 food groups: vegetables, milk, meat, fish, cereals and bread, drinks (including tea and coffee), etc. With a confidence interval (CI) of 95%, the average values for animal products range from 15.87 to 18.70 ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter. For plant materials, the range is 474.54–501.50 equivalents when wild herbs are included and 385.02–408.83 equivalents without taking herbs into account. The antiradical potential of the biologically active substances we studied ranged from 706.84 to 847.77 equivalents per gram of dry matter, which makes it possible to use some of the components to repair products with low ARP values, for example, bread and baked goods, confectionery, milk and dairy products, carbonated drinks, and juice. In this study, a low ARP value is associated with a reduction in the shelf life of products and a deterioration in their organoleptic properties; therefore, we propose using ARP as an important reference for describing the quality of food products and raw food materials. Full article
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14 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
Concentration of Pro-Health Compound of Sorghum Grain-Based Foods
by Jakub Frankowski, Anna Przybylska-Balcerek and Kinga Stuper-Szablewska
Foods 2022, 11(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020216 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
More than 35% of the world sorghum seed production is a human food source. The main ingredient of fully ripe sorghum grains is starch. Sorghum does not contain gluten, and it is also a rich source of antioxidant compounds other than vitamins or [...] Read more.
More than 35% of the world sorghum seed production is a human food source. The main ingredient of fully ripe sorghum grains is starch. Sorghum does not contain gluten, and it is also a rich source of antioxidant compounds other than vitamins or macro- and microelements, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and sterols. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and the content of selected bioactive compounds, i.e., total phenolic acids, total flavonoids, and total phytosterols, as well as determination of the qualitative and quantitative profile of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytosterols in various food products, the basic ingredient of which was sorghum grain. It was found that antioxidant activity is related to the total phenolic compounds content. The ABTS•+ ranged from 319 to 885 µmol TROLOX/kg. However, white sorghum grain flour contained almost two times more polyphenols than red sorghum grain flour. The FPA ranged from 224 in raw pasta to 689 mgGAE/100 g in white sorghum grain. During this study, the quantitative profile of selected polyphenols in grain flour, wafers, pasta, and cookies containing sorghum grain was also investigated, as well as the content of 11 selected phenolic acids. Total content of the latter ranged from 445 to 2850 mg/kg. Phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were found in all the analyzed products. Based on this research, it was investigated that the products containing sorghum grains can be classified as functional food. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

12 pages, 6364 KiB  
Article
Quality Characteristics of Senior-Friendly Gelatin Gels Formulated with Hot Water Extract from Red Maple Leaf as a Novel Anthocyanin Source
by Dong-Heon Song, Tae-Wan Gu and Hyun-Wook Kim
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123074 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to evaluate antioxidant capacity of hot water extract from red maple leaf with different extraction times (experiment I) and to determine their impacts on color, free anthocyanin content, and hardness of gelatin gels (experiment II). In experiment [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate antioxidant capacity of hot water extract from red maple leaf with different extraction times (experiment I) and to determine their impacts on color, free anthocyanin content, and hardness of gelatin gels (experiment II). In experiment I, hot water extraction time (30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min at 60 °C) was fixed as a main effect. The different extraction times had no impacts on total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (p > 0.05). However, extraction time for 360 min could decrease anthocyanin content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (p < 0.05). In experiment II, 6%, 18%, and 30% gelatin gels were prepared without/with red maple leaf extract (1000 mg/L). The red maple leaf extract significantly increased redness, yellowness, and hardness, but decreased free anthocyanin content. Such impacts were obviously observed at high gelatin concentration. Thus, red maple leaf extract could be a novel anthocyanin source for improving antioxidant capacity and reddish color of gelatin gels. However, the addition amount of red maple leaf extract may be limited in the development of senior-friendly jelly food for soft texture in that it could increase the hardness of the gelatin gel. Full article
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18 pages, 614 KiB  
Review
Nitrate Is Nitrate: The Status Quo of Using Nitrate through Vegetable Extracts in Meat Products
by Patrícia Bernardo, Luís Patarata, Jose M. Lorenzo and Maria João Fraqueza
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123019 - 05 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5086
Abstract
Nitrate and nitrites are used to give the characteristic color to cured meat products and to preserve them. According to the scientific knowledge available at the moment, these compounds are approved as food additives based on a detailed ponderation between the potential risks [...] Read more.
Nitrate and nitrites are used to give the characteristic color to cured meat products and to preserve them. According to the scientific knowledge available at the moment, these compounds are approved as food additives based on a detailed ponderation between the potential risks and benefits. The controversy over nitrites has increased with the release of an IARC Monograph suggesting an association between colorectal cancer and dietary nitrite in processed meats. The trend in “clean label” products reinforced the concern of consumers about nitrates and nitrites in meat products. This review aims to explain the role of nitrates and nitrites used in meat products. The potential chemical hazards and health risks linked to the consumption of cured meat products are described. Different strategies aiming to replace synthetic nitrate and nitrite and obtain green-label meat products are summarized, discussing their impact on various potential hazards. In the light of the present knowledge, the use or not of nitrite is highly dependent on the ponderation of two main risks—the eventual formation of nitrosamines or the eventual out-growth of severe pathogens. It is evident that synthetic nitrite and nitrate alternatives must be researched, but always considering the equilibrium that is the safety of a meat product. Full article
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16 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Green Propolis to the Antioxidant, Physical, and Sensory Properties of Fruity Jelly Candies Made with Sugars or Fructans
by Cristina Cedeño-Pinos, María Cristina Marcucci and Sancho Bañón
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112586 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3115
Abstract
Enrichment with phenolic compounds is proposed as a strategy to obtain more stable and healthier candy products. A green propolis ethanolic dry extract (PEE) from Braccharis dracunculifolia (Brazilian Alecrim-do Campo) was assessed as an antioxidant in jelly candies. Three levels (0, 0.01, and [...] Read more.
Enrichment with phenolic compounds is proposed as a strategy to obtain more stable and healthier candy products. A green propolis ethanolic dry extract (PEE) from Braccharis dracunculifolia (Brazilian Alecrim-do Campo) was assessed as an antioxidant in jelly candies. Three levels (0, 0.01, and 0.02% w/w) of PEE were tested in jelly candies alternatively made with two carbohydrate bases (sugars or fructans) and three fruity dyes and flavours (menthe, orange, or strawberry). Propolis polyphenol content (identified by HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD/UV-Vis), antioxidant capacity (total phenolics and radical scavenging activity), physical properties (moisture, pH, CIELab colour, and texture profile analysis), and flavour were studied in candies. PEE was rich in polyphenols (>8.7%), including several prenylated p-coumaric, caffeoylquinic and diterpenic acids, and flavonoids, with Artepillin-C (3.4%) as the main bioactive compound. The incorporation of PEE into the hot liquor at 80 °C for 5 min before moulding allowed a good retention of propolis polyphenols in the final product (recovery percentages of up to 97.4% for Artepillin-C). Jelly candies made with sugars or dietetic fructans have poor antioxidant properties, which depend on the dyes and flavours used. Using PEE (at 0.02%) strongly improved the antioxidant capacity (relative increases of up to 465%) of candies without altering the pH, colour, or texture, although off-flavour may appear. Propolis, due to its good antioxidant properties, has potential for use as a functional ingredient in jelly candies. Full article
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12 pages, 2273 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Chemical Profiles and Anti-S. aureus Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Different Parts of Three Oregano Cultivars
by Yuanpeng Hao, Jingyi Li, Wenying Zhang, Meiyu Sun, Hui Li, Fei Xia, Hongxia Cui, Hongtong Bai and Lei Shi
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102328 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
The use of antibiotics in the food industry is highly regulated owing to the potential harmful effects of antibiotics on human health. Therefore, it is crucial to seek alternatives for ensuring food safety. Essential oils (EOs) extracted from plants of the genus Origanum [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics in the food industry is highly regulated owing to the potential harmful effects of antibiotics on human health. Therefore, it is crucial to seek alternatives for ensuring food safety. Essential oils (EOs) extracted from plants of the genus Origanum exhibit a wide range of chemical and antibacterial activities. Species and tissue factors shape the production and accumulation processes of EOs in Origanum plants, thereby affecting their bactericidal activity. In this study, the morphologies and EO yields from the inflorescences, leaves, and stems of three oregano cultivars were evaluated. In addition, the chemical compositions and antibacterial abilities of oregano EOs (OEOs) were assessed. The results showed that OEOs from the different parts of the plant displayed only minor differences in chemical composition, whereas the yield of EOs varied considerably. Additionally, the chemical profiles of OEOs differed significantly among cultivars. The carvacrol content in the OEOs was closely related to its activity against Staphylococcus aureus; the antibacterial properties of the OEOs were further verified using carvacrol. These findings suggested that OEOs possessing high antibacterial activity may have the potential to be developed as bactericides in the food industry. Full article
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17 pages, 3056 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Mixture of Xylooligosaccharides and Egg White Protein on the Physicochemical Properties, Conformation, and Gel-Forming Ability of Culter alburnus Myofibrillar Protein during Multiple Freeze–Thaw Cycles
by Zhongli Zhang, Zhouyi Xiong, Noman Walayat, Jose M. Lorenzo, Asad Nawaz and Hanguo Xiong
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092007 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
This study focuses on the effect of the mixture (XO/EW) of xylooligosaccharides (XO) and egg white protein (EW) on the physicochemical properties, conformation, and gel-forming ability of Culter alburnus myofibrillar proteins (MP) during multiple freeze–thaw (FT) cycles. In our methodology, MP samples added [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the effect of the mixture (XO/EW) of xylooligosaccharides (XO) and egg white protein (EW) on the physicochemical properties, conformation, and gel-forming ability of Culter alburnus myofibrillar proteins (MP) during multiple freeze–thaw (FT) cycles. In our methodology, MP samples added with EW, XO, or XO/EW mixture (1%, v/v) are prepared, and after multiple FT cycles, the XO or XO/EW-treated samples show significant (p < 0.05) inhibition on the decrease of sulfhydryl content and the increase of carbonyl content of MP. Compared with EW, XO or XO/EW could delay the increase of surface hydrophobicity and the decline of secondary and tertiary structural properties of MP, indicating that XO or XO/EW could more effectively increase the stability of MP conformation. Meanwhile, XO/EW could more effectively reduce the decrease of gel strength and gel water holding capacity, and the increase in the T2 relaxation time of MP gel, confirming that XO/EW could substantially improve the MP gel-forming ability. Analysis of intermolecular interaction force proves that, compared with EW, XO/EW could reduce the content decrease of ionic and hydrogen bonds in MP gel. Overall, XO/EW could improve the stability of MP functional properties over multiple FT cycles. This study provides a new perspective for the potential commercial application of EW as a low-calorie cryoprotectant in aquatic products. Full article
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13 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Nutritional Compositions and Essential Oil Profiles of Different Parts of a Dill and Two Fennel Cultivars
by Yuanpeng Hao, Jiamu Kang, Xiaoqi Guo, Rui Yang, Yuliang Chen, Jingyi Li and Lei Shi
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081784 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Fennel and dill are widely used as food additives owing to their various biological activities, such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, food-preservatives, and seasoning capacities. Herein, the nutritional composition and essential oil (EO) chemical profiles of fruits, umbels, stalks, and roots from one dill and [...] Read more.
Fennel and dill are widely used as food additives owing to their various biological activities, such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, food-preservatives, and seasoning capacities. Herein, the nutritional composition and essential oil (EO) chemical profiles of fruits, umbels, stalks, and roots from one dill and two fennel cultivars were evaluated. The fruits had the highest content of crude protein (≥15%), crude fat (≥8%), and phosphorus (≥0.5%), and exhibited the highest total energy (≥20 MJ/kg) and EO yield (≥2%). Moreover, estragole (86.56% in Fdf), anethole (71.17% in Fhf), fenchone (16.74% in Fhf), limonene (50.19% in Agf), and carvone (42.41% in Agf) were the main components of the EOs generated from the fruits. The chemical profiles of EOs in the roots were significantly different from those of the aerial parts of the fennel and dill; thus, the roots and aerial parts could be distinguished based on myristicin (Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) = 1.90399) and apiol (VIP = 1.85922). The EO components of the aerial parts varied remarkably, and the chemical markers for differentiating these three cultivars were anethole (VIP = 1.36571), estragole (VIP = 1.30292), and carvone (VIP = 1.11947). Overall, our results provide a noteworthy chemical basis for further development of fennel and dill, especially as food additives. Full article
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