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Foods 2018, 7(11), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7110181

A Survey of Sodium Chloride Content in Italian Artisanal and Industrial Bread

Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-AN), Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Roma, Italy
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Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
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Abstract

A nationwide survey on salt content in both artisanal and industrial bread was undertaken in Italy to establish a baseline for salt reduction initiatives. Excess sodium intake in the diet is associated with high blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Bread has been identified as a major contributor to salt intake in the Italian diet. Most of the bread consumed in Italy comes from artisanal bakeries so 135 artisanal bread were sampled in 56 locations from Northern to Southern Italy together with 19 samples of industrial bread representative of the entire Italian production. Sodium chloride content was analysed according to the Volhardt’s method. A salt content between 0.7% and 2.3% g/100 g (as is basis) was found, with a mean value of 1.5% (Standard Deviation, 0.3). However, the majority of samples (58%) had a content below 1.5%, with 12% having a very low salt content (between 0.5% and 1.0%), whereas the remaining 42% had a salt content higher than the mean value with a very high salt content (>2.0%) recorded for 3% of samples. As regards the industrial bread, an average content of 1.6% was found (SD, 0.3). In this group, most of the samples (56%) had a very high content between 2.0% and 2.5%, whereas 5% only had a content between 1.1% and 1.5%. Statistics on salt content are also reported for the different categories of bread. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sodium chloride; artisanal bread; industrial bread salt; sodium chloride; artisanal bread; industrial bread
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Carcea, M.; Narducci, V.; Turfani, V.; Aguzzi, A. A Survey of Sodium Chloride Content in Italian Artisanal and Industrial Bread. Foods 2018, 7, 181.

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