Special Issue "Flavour Research in Food Fermentations"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Amparo Gamero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: food fermentations; nonconventional yeasts; aroma; nutrition; health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a huge diversity in fermented food products around the world, especially those that are the result of spontaneous fermentations—that is to say, processes in which no starter is added and the natural microbiota present in raw materials is responsible for carrying out the fermentation process. Other fermented products, such as the majority of wine, beer or bread, are the outcome of industrialised processes, in which the inoculation of defined microorganisms assures homogeneity and success of the fermentation.

In both scenarios, research works have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Studies about the microbial ecology of the so-called traditional and commercial fermented products are becoming increasingly abundant. These studies will allow us to understand the role of the different microorganisms in the fermentation process.

Flavour is one of the most relevant factors in the quality of fermented food products. This sensory attribute is the result of the combination of aroma and taste. Aroma refers to odours sensed by nose receptors, whereas taste is the sensation of saltiness, sweetness, sourness, bitterness and umami (savouriness). The flavour development in fermented products is a trending topic, and more research has to be done in this sense to unravel the mechanisms, either chemical or microbiological, for its development.

Dr. Amparo Gamero Lluna
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food fermentation
  • flavour
  • aroma
  • bioflavouring
  • analytical chemistry
  • gas chromatography

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Biochemical Properties Affecting the Nutritional Quality, Safety, and Aroma of Dry-Cured Products Manufactured from Meat of Rare Native Pig Breeds
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071597 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The aim of study was to compare the biochemical properties affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and aroma of dry-cured products manufactured from valuable meat of rare native pig breeds: Pulawska (Pul) and Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS). The count of lactic acid bacteria (4.4 log [...] Read more.
The aim of study was to compare the biochemical properties affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and aroma of dry-cured products manufactured from valuable meat of rare native pig breeds: Pulawska (Pul) and Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS). The count of lactic acid bacteria (4.4 log cfu/g) and the release of palmitic (23.1% and 25.9%), oleic (44.1% and 42.2%), and linoleic acids (8.3% and 7.8%), as well as arginine (30.0 and 44.3 mg/kg), histidine (25.8 and 20.6 mg/kg), and lysine (26.8–22.9 mg/kg), shaped the final pH (5.3 and 5.4) in Pul and ZS products during the 4 week maturing, respectively. Lastly, Pul and ZS meat differed in the proportion of decanoic, lauric, stearic, arachidic, and conjugated linoleic acids. The high content of putrescine (23.7 mg/kg), cadaverine (54.3 mg/kg), and tyramine (57.2 mg/kg), as well as a twofold greater share of histamine (163.2 mg/kg) and tryptamine (9.1 mg/kg), indicated a more advanced decarboxylation of ZS meat. Volatile compounds differentiating Pul and ZS meat were primarily hexanal, 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, phenylacetalaldehyde, 2,3-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 3-methyl- and 2-cyclopenten-1-one. Most marked volatile compounds were obtained as a result of microbial activity (acetic acid, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, ethanol, acetone, and 3-hydroxybutan-2-one), advanced lipid oxidation, and decomposition of secondary oxidation products (hexanal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-cyclopenten-1-one). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Research in Food Fermentations)
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Article
Contribution of S. xylosus and L. sakei ssp. carnosus Fermentation to the Aroma of Lupin Protein Isolates
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061257 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Aroma-active compounds of lupin protein isolate and lupin protein isolate fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus were investigated. The changes in aroma-active compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry for identification, [...] Read more.
Aroma-active compounds of lupin protein isolate and lupin protein isolate fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus were investigated. The changes in aroma-active compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry for identification, and by stable isotope dilution assays for quantification. A total of 30 aroma-active compounds for non-fermented and fermented samples were identified. The aroma profile of LPI fermented with Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus was characterized as roasty and popcorn-like. Staphylococcus xylosus generated cheesy impressions, being in line with the fact that the main aroma compounds acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 2/3-methylbutanoic acid could be identified. Quantification of butanoic acid further confirmed these findings with the highest concentration of 140 mg/kg for LPI fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus. Our study provides insights into how fermentation utilizing different fermentative microbial strains, namely Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus alters the aroma profile of lupin protein isolates. This demonstrates the potential of shaping fermented protein-based foods via targeted microbiological refinement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Research in Food Fermentations)
Article
Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Plant-Based Raw Materials
Foods 2021, 10(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030573 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
To overcome texture and flavor challenges in fermented plant-based product development, the potential of microorganisms is generating great interest in the food industry. This study examines the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on physicochemical properties of fermented soy, oat, and coconut. L. rhamnosus was [...] Read more.
To overcome texture and flavor challenges in fermented plant-based product development, the potential of microorganisms is generating great interest in the food industry. This study examines the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on physicochemical properties of fermented soy, oat, and coconut. L. rhamnosus was combined with different lactic acid bacteria strains and Bifidobacterium. Acidification, titratable acidity, and viability of L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium were evaluated. Oscillation and flow tests were performed to characterize rheological properties of fermented samples. Targeted and untargeted volatile organic compounds in fermented samples were assessed, and sensory evaluation with a trained panel was conducted. L. rhamnosus reduced fermentation time in soy, oat, and coconut. L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium grew in all fermented raw materials above 107 CFU/g. No significant effect on rheological behavior was observed when L. rhamnosus was present in fermented samples. Acetoin levels increased and acetaldehyde content decreased in the presence of L. rhamnosus in all three bases. Diacetyl levels increased in fermented oat and coconut samples when L. rhamnosus was combined with a starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus and with another starter culture containing S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium. In all fermented oat samples, L. rhamnosus significantly enhanced fermented flavor notes, such as sourness, lemon, and fruity taste, which in turn led to reduced perception of base-related attributes. In fermented coconut samples, gel firmness perception was significantly improved with L. rhamnosus. The findings suggest that L. rhamnosus can improve fermentation time and sensory perception of fermented plant-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Research in Food Fermentations)
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Article
The Impact of Chitosan on the Chemical Composition of Wines Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101423 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
This study investigates the influence of the antimicrobial agent chitosan on a selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain during the alcoholic fermentation of ultra-pasteurized grape juice with a high concentration of malic acid. It also studies a selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain as a control. The [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influence of the antimicrobial agent chitosan on a selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain during the alcoholic fermentation of ultra-pasteurized grape juice with a high concentration of malic acid. It also studies a selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain as a control. The study examines several parameters relating to wine quality, including volatile and non-volatile compounds. The principal aim of the study is to test the influence of chitosan on the final chemical composition of the wine during alcoholic fermentation, and to compare the two studied fermentative yeasts between them. The results show that chitosan influences the final concentration of acetic acid, ethanol, glycerol, acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, α-ketoglutarate, higher alcohols, acetate esters, ethyl esters, and fatty acids, depending on the yeast species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Research in Food Fermentations)
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