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Review

Impact of Oral Microbiota on Flavor Perception: From Food Processing to In-Mouth Metabolization

1
CSGA, Centre des Sciences du Gout et de l’Alimentation, UMR1324 INRAE, UMR6265 CNRS, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21000 Dijon, France
2
Department Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susana Casal
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092006
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 17 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Research in Food Fermentations)
Flavor perception during food intake is one of the main drivers of food acceptability and consumption. Recent studies have pointed to the oral microbiota as an important factor modulating flavor perception. This review introduces general characteristics of the oral microbiota, factors potentially influencing its composition, as well as known relationships between oral microbiota and chemosensory perception. We also review diverse evidenced mechanisms enabling the modulation of chemosensory perception by the microbiota. They include modulation of the chemosensory receptors activation by microbial metabolites but also modification of receptors expression. Specific enzymatic reactions catalyzed by oral microorganisms generate fragrant molecules from aroma precursors in the mouth. Interestingly, these reactions also occur during the processing of fermented beverages, such as wine and beer. In this context, two groups of aroma precursors are presented and discussed, namely, glycoside conjugates and cysteine conjugates, which can generate aroma compounds both in fermented beverages and in the mouth. The two entailed families of enzymes, i.e., glycosidases and carbon–sulfur lyases, appear to be promising targets to understand the complexity of flavor perception in the mouth as well as potential biotechnological tools for flavor enhancement or production of specific flavor compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral microbiota; flavor; perception; fermented beverages; wine; beer; glycosidases; carbon–sulfur lyases oral microbiota; flavor; perception; fermented beverages; wine; beer; glycosidases; carbon–sulfur lyases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwartz, M.; Canon, F.; Feron, G.; Neiers, F.; Gamero, A. Impact of Oral Microbiota on Flavor Perception: From Food Processing to In-Mouth Metabolization. Foods 2021, 10, 2006. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092006

AMA Style

Schwartz M, Canon F, Feron G, Neiers F, Gamero A. Impact of Oral Microbiota on Flavor Perception: From Food Processing to In-Mouth Metabolization. Foods. 2021; 10(9):2006. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schwartz, Mathieu, Francis Canon, Gilles Feron, Fabrice Neiers, and Amparo Gamero. 2021. "Impact of Oral Microbiota on Flavor Perception: From Food Processing to In-Mouth Metabolization" Foods 10, no. 9: 2006. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092006

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