Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2023) | Viewed by 21598

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the time, changes in flavor compounds, such as phenolics, volatiles, amino acids, and sugars, during the manufacturing process of food have increased attention since some of these compounds contribute to its final quality and bioactive properties.

Many studies have demonstrated the importance that the fermentation process have in the composition of some beverages, such as wine or beer. However, research must go deeper in the knowledge in order to establish more accurate changes in food composition after this process.

In the last decades, the innovation on fermented food is aimed to improve their healthy profile while maintaining their sensory characteristics. The analysis of the volatile flavor of fermented food is of great interest for industry as well as for actual consumers. This special issue is intended to present and discuss thoroughly the role of fermentation in the final composition of food and their value on organoleptic quality, especially in the aroma related aspects.  

In the last years, The scope of the special issue will be covered by contributions in the topics:

  • Aromatic precursors and fermentation metabolites
  • Changes in volatile flavor according to fermentation microorganism’s
  • Fermentation process and final composition of food and beverages
  • Fermentation, aroma related aspects and consumer preference

Dr. Raul Ferrer-Gallego
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • food
  • flavor
  • fermentation
  • volatiles
  • aroma
  • beverages

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 5455 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Correlation of Microbiota and Higher Alcohols Based on Metagenomic and Metabolite Profiling during Rice-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation
by Hong Wang, Minqian Zhang, Chunyun Qu, Yongtao Fei, Jinglong Liang, Weidong Bai, Wenhong Zhao, Gengsheng Xiao and Gongliang Liu
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142720 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Higher alcohol, as an inevitable product of fermentation, plays an important role in the flavor and quality of Baijiu. However, the relationship between the complex microbial metabolism and the formation of higher alcohols in rice-flavor Baijiu was not clear. To investigate the relationship [...] Read more.
Higher alcohol, as an inevitable product of fermentation, plays an important role in the flavor and quality of Baijiu. However, the relationship between the complex microbial metabolism and the formation of higher alcohols in rice-flavor Baijiu was not clear. To investigate the relationship between microorganisms and higher alcohol production, two fermentation mashes inoculated with starters from Heyuan Jinhuangtian Liquor Co., Ltd. (Heyuan, China) as JM and Guangdong Changleshao Co., Ltd. (Meizhou, China) as CM, respectively, with significant differences in higher alcohol profiles during rice-flavor Baijiu fermentation were selected. In general, higher alcohols presented a rapid accumulation during the early fermentation stages, especially in JM, with higher and faster increases than those in CM. As for their precursors including amino acids, pyruvic acid and ketoacids, complex variations were observed during the fermentation. Metagenomic results indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus microsporus were the microorganisms present throughout the brewing process in JM and CM, and the relative abundance of R. microsporus in JM was significantly higher than that in CM. The results of higher alcohol metabolism in JM may contribute to the regulation of higher alcohols in rice-flavor Baijiu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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18 pages, 3242 KiB  
Article
Enological Suitability of Indigenous Yeast Strains for ‘Verdejo’ Wine Production
by Jennifer Vázquez, Ana Maria Mislata, Victor Vendrell, Carlos Moro, Sergi de Lamo, Raúl Ferrer-Gallego and Imma Andorrà
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091888 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The use of indigenous yeasts for the production of wines is a tool to defend the typicity of a particular region. The selection of appropriate indigenous yeasts ensures the maintenance of oenological characteristics by simulating spontaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) while avoiding the risks [...] Read more.
The use of indigenous yeasts for the production of wines is a tool to defend the typicity of a particular region. The selection of appropriate indigenous yeasts ensures the maintenance of oenological characteristics by simulating spontaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) while avoiding the risks of stuck or sluggish fermentations. In this study, autochthonous yeasts from Verdejo grape juice (Appellation of Origin Rueda) were selected, identified, and characterized to exploit the characteristics of the ‘terroir’. The fermentation capacity of seven strains was studied individually at the laboratory scale. The most suitable strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Sacch 1, Sacch 2, Sacch 4, and Sacch 6) and Sacch 6 co-inoculated with Metschnikowia pulcherrima were characterized at the pilot scale. The fermentation kinetics, bioproduct release, volatile composition, and sensory profile of the wines were evaluated. Significant differences were found, especially in the aroma profile. In particular, Sacch 6 and Sacch 6 co-inoculated with M. pulcherrima produced higher amounts of ethyl esters and acetates and lower amounts of higher alcohols than the spontaneous AF. Wines inoculated with indigenous yeasts had higher sensory scores for fruit aromas and overall rating. The selection of indigenous yeasts improved the aroma of Verdejo wines and could contribute to determining the wine typicity of the wine region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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21 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Aroma Active Compound Production during Kombucha Fermentation: Towards the Control of Sensory Profiles
by Sarah Suffys, Gaëtan Richard, Clément Burgeon, Pierre-Yves Werrie, Eric Haubruge, Marie-Laure Fauconnier and Dorothée Goffin
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081657 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
Since the sensorial profile is the cornerstone for the development of kombucha as a beverage with mass market appeal, advanced analytical tools are needed to gain a better understanding of the kinetics of aromatic compounds during the fermentation process to control the sensory [...] Read more.
Since the sensorial profile is the cornerstone for the development of kombucha as a beverage with mass market appeal, advanced analytical tools are needed to gain a better understanding of the kinetics of aromatic compounds during the fermentation process to control the sensory profiles of the drink. The kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was determined using stir bar sorptive extraction—gas chromatography—mass spectrometry, and odor-active compounds were considered to estimate consumer perception. A total of 87 VOCs were detected in kombucha during the fermentation stages. The synthesis of mainly phenethyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol probably by Saccharomyces genus led to ester formation. Moreover, the terpene synthesis occurring at the beginning of fermentation (Δ-3-carene, α-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, m- and p-cymene) could be related to yeast activity as well. Principal component analysis identified classes that allowed the major variability explanation, which are carboxylic acids, alcohols, and terpenes. The aromatic analysis accounted for 17 aroma-active compounds. These changes in the evolution of VOCs led to flavor variations: from citrus-floral-sweet notes (geraniol and linalool domination), and fermentation brought intense citrus-herbal-lavender-bergamot notes (α-farnesene). Finally, sweet-floral-bready-honey notes dominated the kombucha flavor (2-phenylethanol). As this study allowed to estimate kombucha sensory profiles, an insight for the development of new drinks by controlling the fermentation process was suggested. Such a methodology should allow a better control and optimization of their sensory profile, which could in turn lead to greater consumer acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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19 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Volatile Aroma Compound Composition Produced by Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in the Early Phase of Grape Must Fermentation
by Doris Delač Salopek, Ivana Horvat, Ana Hranilović, Tomislav Plavša, Sanja Radeka, Igor Pasković and Igor Lukić
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193088 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
There is a lack of studies evaluating the metabolic contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in early fermentation phases. This study aimed to investigate the volatile aroma profiles produced by various non-Saccharomyces yeasts just before sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to provide an [...] Read more.
There is a lack of studies evaluating the metabolic contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in early fermentation phases. This study aimed to investigate the volatile aroma profiles produced by various non-Saccharomyces yeasts just before sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to provide an insight into the particular effects they induce at this stage. The grape must of Malvazija istarska was inoculated with monocultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, alongside a S. cerevisiae control. Eighty volatile compounds were quantified via headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the data were statistically elaborated. Volatile profiles of non-Saccharomyces yeasts differed significantly from the S. cerevisiae control. Most treatments caused increases in linalool and β-damascenone, decreases in higher alcohols and fatty acids, and improved synthesis of odoriferous esters. Torulaspora delbrueckii and M. pulcherrima produced compounds not commonly found in S. cerevisiae fermented wines. Multivariate statistical analysis linked the investigated yeasts to specific, particularly abundant compounds. Future studies should explore to what degree these contributions persist after sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae in diverse grape must matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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15 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Wheat Bran by Three Fungi Solid-State Fermentation: Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Flavor Characteristics
by Ningjie Li, Songjun Wang, Tianli Wang, Rui Liu, Zijian Zhi, Tao Wu, Wenjie Sui and Min Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121722 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Three medicinal fungi were used to carry out solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat bran. The results showed that the use of these fungi for SSF significantly improved wheat bran’s nutritional properties including the extraction yield of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), total phenolic content [...] Read more.
Three medicinal fungi were used to carry out solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat bran. The results showed that the use of these fungi for SSF significantly improved wheat bran’s nutritional properties including the extraction yield of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), physical properties containing swelling capacity (SC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC), as well as antioxidant activities. Electronic nose and GC–MS analyses showed that fermented wheat bran had different volatiles profiles compared to unfermented wheat bran. The results suggest that SSF by medicinal fungi is a promising way for the high-value utilization of wheat bran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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20 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
Influence of Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains on Changes in Quality, Functional Compounds and Volatile Compounds of Mango Juice from Different Cultivars during Fermentation
by Nobahle P. Cele, Stephen A. Akinola, Vimbainashe E. Manhivi, Tinotenda Shoko, Fabienne Remize and Dharini Sivakumar
Foods 2022, 11(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050682 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3477
Abstract
The effects of lactic acid fermentation using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 75 (L75), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 56 (L56) and its combination (L56 + 75) on the quality, bioactive and volatile compounds of mango juices (MJ) from three cultivars (‘Peach’, ‘Sabre’ [...] Read more.
The effects of lactic acid fermentation using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 75 (L75), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 56 (L56) and its combination (L56 + 75) on the quality, bioactive and volatile compounds of mango juices (MJ) from three cultivars (‘Peach’, ‘Sabre’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’) were investigated. Fermented and unfermented MJ were evaluated for LAB growth, physicochemical parameters, volatile compounds, antioxidants activities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP methods), total phenolic content (TPC) and sensory properties. The unfermented juices served as a control. Twenty-four-hour fermentation was ideal for MJ based on LAB growth profiles. Generally, titratable acidity, TPC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities significantly increased with fermentation by the L75 strain and were highest in the L75-fermented ‘Sabre’ MJ, while L75-fermented ‘Peach’ MJ had higher ABTS activity (p < 0.05). In contrast, the L56 strain enhanced β-carotene retention, with improved colour properties in L56-fermented ‘Peach’ MJ. Fermentation with L75 in ‘Sabre’ and ‘Peach’ MJ aided the synthesis of new volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones and aldehydes). A PLS-DA scatter plot showed two clusters separating the ‘Peach’ and ‘Sabre’ mango juice fermented with L75 from the rest. Based on the variable importance of the projection value (VIP) scores, pentadecane, 8-hexyl and butyl isobutyrate were shown as marker candidates to distinguish ‘Peach’ and ‘Sabre’ MJ fermented with L75 from the other treatments, whereas ethyl octanoate and isobutyl acetate differentiated the ‘Sabre’ MJ fermented with L75 from the other treatments. ‘Sabre’ and ‘Peach’ MJ fermented with L75 and L56 could provide antioxidants, meeting the recommended daily requirements for ascorbic acid and carotenoids in adults and teenagers. Hence, lactic acid fermentation of these local cultivars is a way to benefit consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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Review

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19 pages, 2916 KiB  
Review
Unraveling the Mystery of 3-Sulfanylhexan-1-ol: The Evolution of Methodology for the Analysis of Precursors to 3-Sulfanylhexan-1-ol in Wine
by Jennifer R. Muhl, Lisa I. Pilkington, Bruno Fedrizzi and Rebecca C. Deed
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142050 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Volatile polyfunctional thiol compounds, particularly 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), are key odorants contributing to the aroma profile of many wine styles, generally imparting tropical grapefruit and passionfruit aromas. 3SH and 3SHA are present in negligible concentrations in the grape berry, juice, [...] Read more.
Volatile polyfunctional thiol compounds, particularly 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), are key odorants contributing to the aroma profile of many wine styles, generally imparting tropical grapefruit and passionfruit aromas. 3SH and 3SHA are present in negligible concentrations in the grape berry, juice, and must, suggesting that they are released from non-volatile precursors present in the grape. The exploration of the nature and biogenesis of these precursors to 3SH and 3SHA has proven important for the elucidation of polyfunctional thiol biogenesis during alcoholic fermentation. The development and validation of appropriate analytical techniques for the analysis of 3SH precursors in enological matrices have been extensive, and this review explores the analysis and discovery of these precursor compounds. The development of analytical methods to analyze 3SH precursors, from the selection of the analytical instrument, sample preparation, and methods for standardization, will first be discussed, before highlighting how these techniques have been used in the elucidation of the biogenesis of 3SH and 3SHA in grape wines. Lastly, the future of thiol precursor analysis will be considered, with the development of new methods that greatly reduce the sample preparation time and enable multiple precursors, and the thiols themselves, to be quantitated using a single method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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14 pages, 4854 KiB  
Review
Use of Multivariate Statistics in the Processing of Data on Wine Volatile Compounds Obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS
by Maria Tufariello, Sandra Pati, Lorenzo Palombi, Francesco Grieco and Ilario Losito
Foods 2022, 11(7), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070910 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
This review takes a snapshot of the main multivariate statistical techniques and methods used to process data on the concentrations of wine volatile molecules extracted by means of solid phase micro-extraction and analyzed using GC-MS. Hypothesis test, exploratory analysis, regression models, and unsupervised [...] Read more.
This review takes a snapshot of the main multivariate statistical techniques and methods used to process data on the concentrations of wine volatile molecules extracted by means of solid phase micro-extraction and analyzed using GC-MS. Hypothesis test, exploratory analysis, regression models, and unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition methods are illustrated and discussed. Several applications in the wine volatolomic sector are described to highlight different interactions among the various matrix components and volatiles. In addition, the use of Artificial Intelligence-based methods is discussed as an innovative class of methods for validating wine varietal authenticity and geographical traceability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds during the Fermentation in Foods)
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