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Special Issue "Physicochemical Properties of Food"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Adam Figiel
Website
Guest Editor
Head of the Department of Thermal Technology and Process Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 37a, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: food science and technology; physicochemical properties; food processing and engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Anna Michalska-Ciechanowska
Website
Guest Editor
The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
Interests: Food processing; Food Engineering; Bioactive compounds; Process contaminants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The editorial board of Molecules invites you to submit an article to a Special Issue entitled ‘Physicochemical Properties of Food’. Among different quality aspects of food products, physical and chemical properties together play an important role due to their significant impact on the bioactive potential and sensory attributes which influence consumer acceptance. Biological raw materials have native physicochemical properties that can be modified during processing, leading to  changes in and providing the specific functions of the obtained food products. The modification of the physicochemical properties of biological materials comprises structural changes and alterations in chemical composition under the influence of external factors such as temperature, pressure and numerous treatments including microwaving, sonication or chemical fortification. All these actions effect the final physicochemical properties of food products. The most important from the scientific point of view are physical and chemical relationships within the food product occurring at the molecular level. The explanation and modeling of these relationships is crucial for the design of high-quality functional food, showing not only high nutritional value and a desired sensory profile, but also health-promoting properties. Therefore the results of research works dealing with the interactions between the physical and chemical properties of food during its preparation and storage are especially anticipated, considering the possibility of solving contemporary problems related to food and nutrition. The manuscripts submitted may be original research papers describing complete investigations or review articles highlighting recent achievements regarding the modification of the physicochemical properties of food products.

Prof. Dr. Adam Figiel
Dr. Anna Michalska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Chemical composition
  • Functional compounds
  • Bioactivity
  • Volatiles
  • Color
  • Water activity
  • Sorption isotherms
  • Thermodynamics
  • Electric properties
  • Texture
  • Rheology

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Salmon (Salmo salar) Cooking: Achieving Optimal Quality on Select Nutritional and Microbiological Safety Characteristics for Ready-to-Eat and Stored Products
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5661; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235661 - 01 Dec 2020
Abstract
This study was performed in order to assess technological characteristics, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, and microbiological safety of sous-vide processed salmon in comparison with steaming and roasting. The cooking loss was lower in the sous-vide method (6.3–9.1%) than in conventional methods (11.6–16.2%). [...] Read more.
This study was performed in order to assess technological characteristics, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, and microbiological safety of sous-vide processed salmon in comparison with steaming and roasting. The cooking loss was lower in the sous-vide method (6.3–9.1%) than in conventional methods (11.6–16.2%). The preparation of salmon using sous-vide was more time- and energy-consuming than steaming. The dry matter content of the salmon fillets was higher in conventionally processed samples than sous-vide due to the evaporation of water, and it was connected with total protein (r = 0.85) and lipid content (r = 0.73). Analysis of the fatty acids profile only revealed significant differences in six fatty acids. All of the heat treatment methods ensured microbiological safety with regard to coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. However, in sous-vide (57 °C, 20 min) and steamed samples after storage Enterobacteriaceae bacteria (<104) was detected. Summing up, high parameters of sous-vide salmon cooking, when considering both technological parameters, nutritional value, and microbiological status should be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Filtration on Physical and Chemical Properties of Osmo-Dehydrated Material
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225412 - 19 Nov 2020
Abstract
Osmotic dehydration (OD) performed in concentrated fruit juices used as osmotic solution (OS) comes with some limitations resulting from the material cell structure and is not entirely recognized at the moment. Filtration of the juice could provide some insight into the phenomena occurring [...] Read more.
Osmotic dehydration (OD) performed in concentrated fruit juices used as osmotic solution (OS) comes with some limitations resulting from the material cell structure and is not entirely recognized at the moment. Filtration of the juice could provide some insight into the phenomena occurring throughout the OD. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to recognize the mechanism of selective penetration during OD and evaluate the effect of filtration on physical and chemical properties of osmo-dehydrated material. For this purpose, OD of pumpkin in non-filtrated and filtrated (filters 0.2, 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, 3, 5 and 8 μm) concentrated chokeberry juice was carried out in the study. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were provided. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity measured by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC ABTS) of OS and the material were determined. It was found that even though filtration of osmotic solution had a moderate influence on the mass transfer, it greatly affected the chemical composition of dehydrated material. The best option, considering both chemical and physical properties of the dehydrated material, is the use of non-filtrated solution. However, when shorter time of OD is considered, much better results are obtained for filtrated solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pear Variety and Drying Methods on the Quality of Dried Fruit
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5146; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215146 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
In this study, the impacts of two different pear cultivars, “Conference” and “Alexander Lucas”, on the kinetics and the final quality of samples dried by convection (CD) and microwave-convection (MCD) methods, were investigated. The quality of dried material was evaluated by the analysis [...] Read more.
In this study, the impacts of two different pear cultivars, “Conference” and “Alexander Lucas”, on the kinetics and the final quality of samples dried by convection (CD) and microwave-convection (MCD) methods, were investigated. The quality of dried material was evaluated by the analysis of water activity, porosity, color, acoustic emission (AE) and mechanical and sensory properties. The required drying time to obtain 0.2 kg H2O/kg dry solid (d.s.) was longer for “Conference” than “Alexander Lucas” and was 20 min by CD and 5 min by MCD. The pear cultivar, in conjunction with the drying method (CD or MCD), affected the number of AE events and the work of breaking. The CD pear of the “Conference” cultivar was characterized by higher force, higher breaking work and stronger AE relative to the CD pear of the “Alexander Lucas” cultivar. There were no differences in taste or overall quality, but the hardness was higher for the CD “Conference” pear. A principal component analysis showed that panelists preferred dried fruit with good taste and overall quality but lower hardness. A positive correlation was found between the number of acoustic events and sensory hardness; thus, an acoustic method can be useful for effectively evaluating the texture of dried pears. These results show that the dried pear slices that generated fewer AE events upon breaking were perceived as better by the panelists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Alpha-Tocopherol Content, and Lipid Oxidation of Meat from Ewes Fed Different Levels of Distilled Myrtle Residues
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4975; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214975 - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the sheep meat physicochemical traits as affected by distilled myrtle residues (MR) supplementation. For this, 27 culled ewes were divided into three groups receiving a ration composed by concentrate and hay for the Control group, [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the sheep meat physicochemical traits as affected by distilled myrtle residues (MR) supplementation. For this, 27 culled ewes were divided into three groups receiving a ration composed by concentrate and hay for the Control group, concentrate and MR as a total substitute to hay for the Myrt-H group, or hay, less concentrate, and MR as a partial substitute to concentrate for the Myrt-C group. The meat chemical composition, pH, and color parameters were not affected by the MR intake. However, this animal’s dietary treatment resulted in higher meat polyphenol and α-tocopherol content for both MR groups (9.38 and 8.05 vs. 3.04 μg g−1 DM for Myrt-H, Myrt-C, and Control, respectively). In addition, since day 3 of meat storage, the lipid oxidation was improved by MR intake being lower for both MR groups than the Control (0.51 vs. 1.11 mg MDA/kg of meat). The total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were similar among groups. However, the meat of Myrt-H had the highest C18:2n-6 and total PUFAn-6. In conclusion, the MR intake could be useful given it increases the meat content of vitamin E and improves its oxidative status without negative effects on the FA profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
Open AccessArticle
Drying Techniques and Storage: Do They Affect the Nutritional Value of Bee-Collected Pollen?
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214925 - 24 Oct 2020
Abstract
In this study, the effect of different drying processes (freeze-drying (FD), microwave-assisted drying (MWD) and classic hot air drying (HAD)) on the polyphenols, flavonoids, and amino acids content was investigated on bee-collected chestnut, willow and ivy pollen for human consumption. Furthermore, the pollen [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of different drying processes (freeze-drying (FD), microwave-assisted drying (MWD) and classic hot air drying (HAD)) on the polyphenols, flavonoids, and amino acids content was investigated on bee-collected chestnut, willow and ivy pollen for human consumption. Furthermore, the pollen chemical properties were monitored after three and six months of storage, and then analyzed using a multivariate approach. Chestnut pollen was the richest source of polyphenols, flavonoids, and rutin, while ivy pollen contained the highest amount of total and free amino acids, and total and free proline. Drying and storage affected pollen chemical composition with species-dependent effects. MWD allowed the best retention of flavonoids in chestnut pollen for up to six months of storage. All drying techniques led to a depletion of flavonoids in willow pollen; however, MWD ensured the highest flavonoids content after six months. FD and MWD did not lead to flavonoids depletion in ivy pollen during storage. Additionally, storage did not affect the rutin content, which was highest in FD willow samples after six months. Notably, both FD and MWD techniques are efficient in preserving amino acids-related quality of bee pollen up to six months of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Content of Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Tortillas Added with Bambara Groundnut Flour
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133035 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
The effect of substituting maize (masa) flour with Bambara groundnut flour in tortillas production was investigated. Thermal, antioxidant, physicochemical properties, degree of puffing and rollability of flour and tortillas were determined. Tortillas were produced from maize and Bambara Groundnut (BGN) flours [...] Read more.
The effect of substituting maize (masa) flour with Bambara groundnut flour in tortillas production was investigated. Thermal, antioxidant, physicochemical properties, degree of puffing and rollability of flour and tortillas were determined. Tortillas were produced from maize and Bambara Groundnut (BGN) flours at the ratio of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20, respectively. Compositing maize with BGN flour showed an improvement on the proximate composition of maize flour and tortillas; however, carbohydrate content of tortillas significantly decreased with the addition of BGN in blends from 77.07 to 55.22. The temperatures of gelatinisation such as onset temperature (To) of flour blends increased from 57.50 to 71.95 °C, peak temperature (Tp) from 74.94 to 76.74 °C and the end temperature (Te) from 81.72 to 91.58 °C. Composite flours and tortillas had higher values of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities than the control sample. Textural properties of control tortillas were higher than that of composite tortillas. Increase in the levels of BGN flour improved the weight and thickness of tortillas. However, diameter and spread ratio decreased. Degree of puffing and rollability of tortillas increased with the incorporation levels of BGN flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Coffee Cascara Dietary Fiber on the Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of a Gluten-Free Bread Formulation
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061358 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber (ICCDF) as a food ingredient. ICCDF was obtained by aqueous extraction. The oil and water holding capacity and the nutritional profile of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber (ICCDF) as a food ingredient. ICCDF was obtained by aqueous extraction. The oil and water holding capacity and the nutritional profile of the novel ingredient were determined. Its safety was certificated by analysis of ochratoxin A, caffeine and gluten. Gluten-free bread formulations were prepared enriching a commercial bakery premix in rice protein (8%) and ICCDF (3% and 4.5%). Nutritional profile of the novel gluten-free breads (dietary fiber, protein, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile and resistant starch), as well as bread volume, crumb density, moisture, firmness, elasticity and color intensity were determined. A sensory quantitative descriptive analysis of the breads was conducted using eight trained panelists. New breads showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of dietary fiber and protein than the control bread. The addition of ICCDF allowed increasing dough yield, a less crumb firmness and a higher crumb elasticity. The nutrition claims “source of protein and high in dietary fiber” were assigned to the new formulations. In conclusion, a certificated gluten-free bread with improved nutritional and physicochemical properties and good sensorial profile was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of New Canned Chub Mackerel Products Incorporating Edible Seaweeds—Influence on the Minerals and Trace Elements Composition
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051133 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to develop new canned chub mackerel products incorporating edible seaweeds (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus spiralis, Saccorhiza polyschides, Chondrus crispus, Porphyra sp. and Ulva sp.) harvested in the Portuguese North-Central coast, with simultaneous sensory improvement and minerals [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop new canned chub mackerel products incorporating edible seaweeds (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus spiralis, Saccorhiza polyschides, Chondrus crispus, Porphyra sp. and Ulva sp.) harvested in the Portuguese North-Central coast, with simultaneous sensory improvement and minerals enrichment. Two processes were compared, namely the addition of seaweeds in i) the canning step and ii) in the brining step (as the replacement for salt). The concentrations of four macrominerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg), chloride, and twelve trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determined by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Results showed that canned chub mackerel incorporating C. crispus and F. spiralis was found to be the preferred sensory option, also exhibiting contents enriched with Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Sr. This effect was more pronounced when both seaweed species were added to replace the salt added in the brining step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Properties of Dried Apple Slices: Impact of Osmo-Dehydration, Sonication, and Drying Methods
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051078 - 28 Feb 2020
Abstract
Apple slices of the Elise variety were previously osmo-dehydrated in erythritol, xylitol, and sucrose for 2 h. In some parts of the experiment, 30 min of ultrasound pre-treatment (US) were applied. Afterwards, fruit samples were dried by convective (CD), microwave-vacuum (VM), and a [...] Read more.
Apple slices of the Elise variety were previously osmo-dehydrated in erythritol, xylitol, and sucrose for 2 h. In some parts of the experiment, 30 min of ultrasound pre-treatment (US) were applied. Afterwards, fruit samples were dried by convective (CD), microwave-vacuum (VM), and a combined method (CD/VM, mix two of them). The main aim of the research was to characterize an impact of osmotic dehydration, sonication pre-treatment, and drying method on the physicochemical properties of the dried apples. The use of sugar alcohols (xylitol, erythritol) in the production of dried apples did not badly affect the taste of the obtained dried products; it enabled a noticeable cooling/refreshing effect felt in the mouth when consuming a snack, and enabled the production of dried snacks with lower calorific value. Polyol residues in the product were at a level that was safe for consumers. The most popular convective drying was long lasting, whereas the VM drying method allowed for the shortest drying time, amounting to 76 min; moreover, additional application of ultrasounds reduced this time to 36 min. The combined drying method allowed the total duration of the process to be reduced 2–4.5 times. Ultrasound applied during osmotic dehydration did not significantly affect attributes of the descriptive sensory analysis for the obtained dried apples. The best hygroscopic properties, ensuring the storage stability of the dried product, showed dried apples previously osmo-dehydrated in erythritol and sucrose solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
The Content of Selected Minerals, Bioactive Compounds, and the Antioxidant Properties of the Flowers and Fruit of Selected Cultivars and Wildly Growing Plants of Sambucus nigra L.
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040876 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study compared the mineral content and bioactive properties of flowers and fruit coming from wild elderberry plants with those of flowers and fruit harvested from elderberry cultivars grown in an orchard. Elderberry fruit and flowers were analyzed for the content of selected [...] Read more.
This study compared the mineral content and bioactive properties of flowers and fruit coming from wild elderberry plants with those of flowers and fruit harvested from elderberry cultivars grown in an orchard. Elderberry fruit and flowers were analyzed for the content of selected minerals, phenolic compounds, and anthocyanins, as well as for antioxidant activity. Mineral content was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method, while antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Flowers were found to contain more total ash and much higher content of most of minerals, except magnesium which was present in high concentrations in fruit. Fruit showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than flowers, whereas the total phenolic content varied depending on the growing location or cultivar. The material obtained from selected cultivars growing in an orchard had higher antioxidant activity and polyphenol and anthocyanin content than the material obtained from wild plants. Fruit of the ”Haschberg” cultivar and flowers of the ”Sampo” cultivar had the best bioactive properties of the studied samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Enhancement Mechanism of Alkali-Free Chinese Northern Steamed Bread by Sourdough Acidification
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030726 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alkali was used to adjust the pH and neutralize the excess acids of dough in the processing of Chinese northern steamed bread (CNSB). However, extra alkali addition generally resulted in alkalic flavor and poor appearance. The aim of this work was to investigate [...] Read more.
Alkali was used to adjust the pH and neutralize the excess acids of dough in the processing of Chinese northern steamed bread (CNSB). However, extra alkali addition generally resulted in alkalic flavor and poor appearance. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of proofed dough pH on the texture of CNSB. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the pH value of proofed dough has a significant effect on the textural properties of CNSB. The mechanism studies found that gradual acidification of dough by lactic acid bacteria is a critical factor affecting the process. Conversely, chemical acidification weakened the texture property of products and reduced the dough rheology. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that fermentation with starter for 12 h produced a continuous and extensional protein network in the proofed dough. Furthermore, the decreasing pH of proofed dough increased the extractability of protein in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-containing medium and the content of free sulfhydryl (SH). The structure and content of gluten, especially influenced by gradual acidification level, change the quality of the final product. It is a novel approach to obtain an alkali-free CNSB with excellent quality by moderate gluten adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Mineralization of Chokeberry and Cranberry Fruit Juices Using a New Functional Additive on the Protection of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidative Properties
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030659 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
Chicken eggshells can be used as an attractive dietary source of mineral compounds, including calcium (Ca). However, the effects of chicken eggshell powder (CESP) on berry fruit juices have not been studied to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Chicken eggshells can be used as an attractive dietary source of mineral compounds, including calcium (Ca). However, the effects of chicken eggshell powder (CESP) on berry fruit juices have not been studied to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of its addition to juices from chokeberry and cranberry on their phytochemical properties. The juices were determined for contents of polyphenols (determined by ultra-efficient liquid chromatography coupled with a mass detector (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS)), macro- and microelements (by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)), and organic acids (by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA)) as well as for their antioxidative activity by radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidative power (FRAP) assay, color profile (CIE L* a* b* system), and sensory attributes. The study results demonstrate that CESP addition to chokeberry and cranberry juices enriched them with minerals and increased their Ca content 25.7 times and 66.3 times, respectively, compared to the control samples. Juices supplementation with CESP significantly decreased their acidity and total organic acids content as well as increased their pH value. Chokeberry and cranberry juices supplementation with 1% CESP caused no significant changes in the amount of precipitate and their color, but it significantly improved their taste. For this reason, CESP addition in the amount of up to 1% can be suggested as the optimal supplementation of berry fruit juices. The study also demonstrated that CESP addition in the amount of up to 1% caused no significant differences in the content of polyphenolic compounds and in the antioxidative activity of juices, which can be deemed important from the viewpoint of their putative health benefits. In addition, the heat treatment of juices contributed to only a 4% loss of polyphenolic compounds from the CESP-supplemented juices compared to the 6% loss from the non-supplemented juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Starch Components, Starch Properties and Appearance Quality of Opaque Kernels from Rice Mutants
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244580 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Rice mutants with altered starch components and properties are important genetic resources in rice breeding programmes. In this study, 44 mutants with altered starch components were screened from 135 rice mutants with opaque kernels using a starch–iodine absorption spectrum method, and nine mutants [...] Read more.
Rice mutants with altered starch components and properties are important genetic resources in rice breeding programmes. In this study, 44 mutants with altered starch components were screened from 135 rice mutants with opaque kernels using a starch–iodine absorption spectrum method, and nine mutants from them were further selected for investigating their starch properties and kernel appearance quality. The results showed that the iodine absorption spectrum parameters, OD620, OD620/550, and λmax, could reflect the changes of starch components in rice mutants, and had significantly positive relationships with amylose content and negative relationships with the proportion of short branch-chains of amylopectin. The endosperm starches from nine mutants all showed A-type crystalline structure and similar short-range ordered structure, but had different relative crystallinities. The changes of starch components in mutants not only resulted in the different gelatinization properties of starch but also changed the appearance quality of brown rice kernels. This study provided abundant genetic plants for studying the molecular mechanism of starch synthesis and the quality regulation of rice kernels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Salt Addition Time on the Nutritional Profile of Thunnus obesus Head Soup and the Formation of Micro/Nano-Sized Particle Structure
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4447; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244447 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In order to investigate the effects of salt on the nutrients and tastes profiles of big eye tuna head soup, the typical nutrients and taste substances were analyzed. The formation and the morphology of micro/nanoparticles (MNPs) were studied using an inverted optical microscope, [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effects of salt on the nutrients and tastes profiles of big eye tuna head soup, the typical nutrients and taste substances were analyzed. The formation and the morphology of micro/nanoparticles (MNPs) were studied using an inverted optical microscope, and the interactions among components in MNPs were studied using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The results showed that the nutrients were dissolved to the maximum in the soup when salt was added at 150 min of cooking. Comparatively, much smaller MNPs with a more stable bilayer were formed at the same salt addition time. Meanwhile, Cl was found to permeate throughout the core and Na+ bonded with glycosylated molecules, which were dispersed around much smaller MNPs. These results suggested that in addition to promoting the migration of nutrients and taste substances, NaCl also participated in the formation and stability of MNPs in fish head soups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Inulin on the Retention of Polyphenolic Compounds during the Drying of Blackcurrant Juice
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224167 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
In blackcurrant juice powders made using freeze-, vacuum-, and spray-drying methods, 19 polyphenolic compounds were identified: anthocyanins (6), (+)-catechin, flavonols (8), and phenolic acids (4). The highest content of identified polyphenols was noted after vacuum drying at 90 °C, which was connected with [...] Read more.
In blackcurrant juice powders made using freeze-, vacuum-, and spray-drying methods, 19 polyphenolic compounds were identified: anthocyanins (6), (+)-catechin, flavonols (8), and phenolic acids (4). The highest content of identified polyphenols was noted after vacuum drying at 90 °C, which was connected with the thermally induced release of (+)-catechin. Drying at this temperature also increased the formation of the Maillard reaction/caramelization product, hydroxymethyl-l-furfural, when inulin was added. The higher the vacuum drying temperature was, the stronger the degradation of anthocyanins was. Inulin was a better protectant of anthocyanins than maltodextrin, except during vacuum drying at 90 °C, which probably triggered inulin’s participation in the formation of hydroxymethyl-l-furfural (HMF), thus limiting its capability to protect anthocyanins. Flavonols and phenolic acids were best retained after vacuum drying at 50 °C. Carrier selection affected only slightly, whereas carrier concentration did not affect, the content of flavonols and phenolic acids. The quality of fruit juice powders should be considered taking into account a broad spectrum of factors, including the initial composition of the material subjected to drying, the drying parameters, the carrier type and concentration, and the interactions that occur during the thermal treatment of fruit juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Effect of Mass Transfer in Vacuum Impregnation on the Bioactive Potential of Apples
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3533; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193533 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of mass transfer during vacuum impregnation (VI) of apple tissue by different process conditions. VI was carried out in two stages: Vacuum (4, 6, or 8 kPa maintained at time 10, 20, 30, [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of mass transfer during vacuum impregnation (VI) of apple tissue by different process conditions. VI was carried out in two stages: Vacuum (4, 6, or 8 kPa maintained at time 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 s) and atmospheric (4 min under atmospheric pressure). As infiltration liquids, fresh squeezed apple-pear juice (J), 3% citric acid solution (C), and distilled water (DW) were used. Mass transfer was analyzed based on three factors: Mass variation (MV), dry mass variation (DMV), and solid gain (SG). The outflow of native components and inflow of infiltration liquid has been described by mathematical models. The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity (ABTS+, FRAP) were evaluated as the bioactive potential factors confirming native component outflow and incorporation of liquid molecules into an apple tissue. It was found that during VI of an apple tissue, intensive mass transfer occurred: Native components of fruit tissue outflowed and external ingredients of impregnation liquid inflowed into the material with the intensity proportional to the vacuum level and process time. The most beneficial conditions of apple cube VI were noticed at a vacuum level of 4 kPa for a minimum of 40 s, which is when the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration of Apples in Polyols and Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) Solutions
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193429 - 21 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of apples v. Elise on mass transfer parameters, water activity, and colour changes. Ultrasound treatment was performed at a frequency of 21 kHz with a temperature of 40 °C [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of apples v. Elise on mass transfer parameters, water activity, and colour changes. Ultrasound treatment was performed at a frequency of 21 kHz with a temperature of 40 °C for 30–180 min using four osmotic solutions: 30% concentrated syrups of erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, and dihydroxyacetone (DHA). The efficiency of the used solutes from the polyol groups was compared to reference dehydration in 50% concentrated sucrose solution. Peleg’s model was used to fit experimental data. Erythritol, xylitol, and DHA solutions showed similar efficiency to sucrose and good water removal properties in compared values of true water loss. The application of ultrasound by two methods was in most cases unnoticeable and weaker than was expected. On the other hand, sonication by the continuous method allowed for a significant reduction in water activity in apple tissue in all tested solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Seasonal Variability on the Physicochemical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Composition of Western Peninsular Malaysia Gracilaria manilaensis
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3298; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183298 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of seasonal variation on the physicochemical, biochemical, and nutritional composition of Gracilaria manilaensis. Sampling was designed during the main monsoon seasons in Malaysia—the Southwest monsoon (SWM) and Northeast monsoon (NEM)—to understand the intraspecific variation (p < [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of seasonal variation on the physicochemical, biochemical, and nutritional composition of Gracilaria manilaensis. Sampling was designed during the main monsoon seasons in Malaysia—the Southwest monsoon (SWM) and Northeast monsoon (NEM)—to understand the intraspecific variation (p < 0.05). Carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber were found to be higher in NEM–G. manilaensis, whereas a higher ash content was quantified in SWM–G. manilaensis. No significant differences were found in crude lipid and moisture content (p > 0.05). Vitamin B2 was calculated as (0.29 ± 0.06 mg 100 g−1) and (0.38 ± 0.06 mg 100 g−1) for the NEM and SWM samples, respectively (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed the dominance of saturated fatty acids (SFAs)—palmitic acids, stearic acid, and myristic acid—while the mineral contents were found to be good sources of calcium (1750.97–4047.74 mg 100 g−1) and iron (1512.55–1346.05 mg 100 g−1). Tryptophan and lysine were recorded as the limiting essential amino acids (EAAs) in NEM G. manilaensis, while leucine and phenylalanine were found to be the limiting EAAs in the SWM samples. None of the extracts exhibited antibacterial properties against the screened strains. The study concluded that seasonal changes have a great effect on the biochemical composition of G. manilaensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
Open AccessArticle
Study on the Volatile Organic Compounds and Its Correlation with Water Dynamics of Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) during Cold Storage
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173119 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water play a key role in evaluating the quality of aquatic products. Quality deterioration of aquatic products can produce some off-odour volatiles and can induce water content changes. However, no previous study has investigated a correlation between water [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water play a key role in evaluating the quality of aquatic products. Quality deterioration of aquatic products can produce some off-odour volatiles and can induce water content changes. However, no previous study has investigated a correlation between water dynamics and VOCs of bigeye tuna during cold storage. The changes in VOCs, water dynamics and quality attributes of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) upon storage at 0 °C and 4 °C for 6 days were investigated. The results showed that the values of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), T21 (trapped water) and the relative value of T1 decreased (p < 0.05), while drip loss and histamine contents increased (p < 0.05), which indicated quality deterioration during cold storage. With haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, muscle tissue microstructure was observed. VOCs such as hexanal, heptanal, 4-Heptenal, (Z)-, pentadecanal-, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol significantly increased, which sharply increased the content of off-odour volatiles. T21 was positively correlated with 1-octen-3-ol, 1-penten-3-ol, while T21 was negatively correlated with hexanal, 1-hexanol. Therefore, good correlations between water dynamics and some VOCs were detected during quality deterioration of bigeye tuna throughout cold storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Heat-Induced Changes in Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Prunus domestica L. By-products
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24163008 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plum pomace, an agro-industrial waste product has received attention due to the worldwide popularity of plums. During convection, the content of flavan-3-ols decrease, except drying at 90 °C, whereas the content of i.e., chlorogenic, 3-p- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin [...] Read more.
Plum pomace, an agro-industrial waste product has received attention due to the worldwide popularity of plums. During convection, the content of flavan-3-ols decrease, except drying at 90 °C, whereas the content of i.e., chlorogenic, 3-p- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin rutinoside, and galactoside was observed to increase along with the increase in process temperature. The highest content of all identified polyphenols was found in plum pomace powders obtained using a combination of convective at 90 °C and microwave vacuum drying (MVD) at 120 W, whereas the highest retention of the group consisted of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins was noted when CD 70 °C/MVD 120 W was used, pointing to a strong influence of the type of polyphenols on their changes caused by drying. The correlations between TEAC ABTS and the sum of flavonoids (r = 0.634) and anthocyanins (r = 0.704) were established. The multiple regression analysis showed that polyphenol content was more strongly affected by drying time than by maximum temperature, whereas antioxidant capacity was more influenced by maximum temperature of sample than by drying time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant capacity and sensory properties of murici (Byrsonima Crassifolia (L.) Kunth) and taperebá (Spondias Mombin L.) beverages
Authors: Adriana Aniceto; Julia Montenegro; Rafael Cadena; Anderson Teodoro
Affiliation: 1. Nutrition Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Foods, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur,296,Rio de Janeiro,22290-240, Brazil 2. Departament of Fundamental Nutrition, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur,296, Rio de Janeiro,22290-240, Brazil
Abstract: Amazonian fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds and can be used in beverages to improve the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of these products. Considering the high potential of these fruits, the present study aimed to develop murici and taperebá based beverages through experimental design and investigating the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of murici and taperebá fruits and their beverages. The murici pulp was highlighted as higher vitamin C content (58.88 mg.100g-1) compared to taperebá pulp (25.93 mg.100g-1).The murici and taperebá pulps are good sources of total phenolic compounds (taperebá 1304.15 + 19.14 mgGAE.100g-1 and the murici of 307.52 +19.73 mgGAE.100g-1) and flavonoids (174, 87 +1.76 μgQE / g and 129.46 ± 10.68 μgQE / g, murici and taperebá, respectively), when compared to other Brazilian fruits. The antioxidant capacity using the DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC methods, revealed that taperebá had a higher antioxidant capacity in the first three methods and did not present a significant difference (p>0.05) in the ORAC in relation to the murici. The beverage development was performed using factorial experimental design 23, showed through sensory analysis and surface response methodology that murici and high sugar content (between 12.5 and 14.2% of sugar) influenced in sensory acceptance. Thus, beverages with improved nutrition and a sensory acceptance can be prepared using taperebá and murici fruits.

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