Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 18020

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
VetAgro Sup, Unité Mixte de Recherche sur les Herbivores, Lempdes, France
Interests: rearing management; rearing practices; beef meat; meat quality

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Guest Editor
Food Quality and Sensory Science Department, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
Interests: foodomics; meat science; proteomics; muscle and meat biochemistry; biomarkers of meat quality; novel strategies to improve meat quality; meat tenderization; meat products
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Meat is at the center of many controversies despite the importance it has in the human diet. It provides undeniable nutritional elements, particularly good-quality proteins, for a balanced diet. Meat must meet numerous regulatory and consumer expectations. Consequently, its microbiological, quality and safety properties are central. In the production chain, many aspects can be involved in the final properties of the product. Therefore, the rearing conditions experienced throughout the life of the animals determine their properties before slaughter. Slaughter conditions, along with transport, stress and hygiene conditions, impact on the properties of the carcasses and meat. The processes of muscle to meat transformation and the treatments applied during or after aging can improve the final properties of the product. Throughout the meat production chain, risks of contamination can occur and require procedures and controls to ensure product quality and safety. Ultimately, meat quality can be ensured on a global scale that considers different dimensions of product quality.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an update on the latest research in the fields of meat microbiology, quality and safety. New scientific knowledge is constantly being developed. The transfer of this knowledge at the operational level will be particularly appreciated in this Special Issue. Some factors may be more relevant to one animal species compared to another, but works on all meat-producing species are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Valérie Monteils
Dr. Mohammed Gagaoua
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • meat microbiology
  • meat quality
  • meat safety
  • rearing management
  • slaughter conditions
  • aging process
  • meat process
  • contamination risks
  • traceability
  • control
  • global quality

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 7996 KiB  
Article
Nisin and Organic Acid Salts Improved the Microbial Quality, Extended the Shelf Life, and Maintained the Sensory Attributes of Semidry Beef Luncheon Marketed at Adverse (35–40 °C) Ambient Summer Temperatures
by Ahmed Medhat Elbanna, Rana Fahmi Sabala, Samir Mohammed Abd-Elghany, Kálmán Imre, Adriana Morar, Viorel Herman and Khalid Ibrahim Sallam
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4283; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234283 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Semidry beef luncheon may undergo deteriorative changes during storage at ambient temperatures in tropical and subtropical regions including Egypt. This study was conducted in a meat plant in Egypt with the aim of overcoming the economic losses from the returns of spoiled unsold [...] Read more.
Semidry beef luncheon may undergo deteriorative changes during storage at ambient temperatures in tropical and subtropical regions including Egypt. This study was conducted in a meat plant in Egypt with the aim of overcoming the economic losses from the returns of spoiled unsold beef luncheon displayed in grocery stores at adverse summer temperatures of 37 °C or more. Ten approaches were applied using different preservatives, comprising sodium nitrite, nisin, potassium sorbate, and organic acid salts (a combination of sodium lactate, sodium acetate, and sodium diacetate). In addition, the product was cooked at different temperatures and was stored for 21 days at 37 °C, during which time the shelf life, microbial quality, pH, and sensory attributes were investigated. By Day 21 of storage, the luncheon contained 50 mg/kg sodium nitrite, 25 mg/kg nisin, and 1000 mg/kg organic acid salts and, when cooked at a final core temperature of 92 °C, exhibited reductions in aerobic plate count, anaerobic plate count, lactic acid bacterial count, and mold and yeast counts by 4.32, 3.54, 3.47, and 1.89 log10 CFU/g, respectively, when compared with the control. The sensory attributes and pH were also maintained in the final products of such treatment, with no product return and the avoidance of economic loss. This study presents a novel approach for solving the major problem of the deteriorative changes that occur in semidry luncheon sausage and similar meat products which require rejection with a huge economic loss, especially in tropical and semitropical areas of the world that have similar problems of high climatic temperatures and a low availability of energy or technological resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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18 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Techno-Functional Properties of Burgers Fortified by Wild Garlic Extract: A Reconsideration
by Vladimir S. Kurćubić, Slaviša B. Stajić, Nemanja M. Miletić, Marko M. Petković, Marko P. Dmitrić, Vesna M. Đurović, Volker Heinz and Igor B. Tomasevic
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112100 - 23 May 2023
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
The aim of this research was to examine the chemical properties of freshly squeezed wild garlic extract (FSWGE) and its use as an additive in burgers (BU). Technological and sensory properties of such fortified burgers (BU) were determined. LC-MS/MS analyses identified thirty-eight volatile [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to examine the chemical properties of freshly squeezed wild garlic extract (FSWGE) and its use as an additive in burgers (BU). Technological and sensory properties of such fortified burgers (BU) were determined. LC-MS/MS analyses identified thirty-eight volatile BAC. Allicin prevalence (11.375 mg/mL) is the key parameter determining the amount of FSWGE added in raw BU (PS-I 1.32 mL/kg, PS-II 4.40 mL/kg, and PS-III 8.79 mL/kg). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the FSWGE and evaporated FSWGE (EWGE) were determined against the six microorganisms using a microdilution method. The data indicated that using FSWGE can result in a reduced risk of Serratia marcescens (MIC = 50 mg/mL; MBC = 60 mg/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (MIC = MBC = 90 mg/mL), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 90 mg/mL; MBC ≥ 100 mg/mL), and Salmonella enteritidis and Enterococcus faecium (MIC = 100 mg/mL; MBC > 100 mg/mL) in BU. Changes in antioxidant (AOX) capacity were followed during cold storage (up to 10 days) and freezing (90 days). It was shown that PS-III had the highest level of AOX capacity during the entire period of cold storage, revealing 8.79 mL FSWGE/kg BU as the most suitable effective concentration. Adding FSWGE did not negatively affect the technological and physico-chemical properties during both cold and freeze storage. Regarding sensory evaluation, modified BU received mostly higher scores compared to control. The results of this study have demonstrated the great potential of wild garlic extract usage in the creation of safe products with prolonged shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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14 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Mānuka Oil vs. Rosemary Oil: Antimicrobial Efficacies in Wagyu and Commercial Beef against Selected Pathogenic Microbes
by Ramandeep Kaur, Lovedeep Kaur, Tanushree B. Gupta and John Bronlund
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061333 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Essential oils possessing antimicrobial characteristics have acquired considerable interest as an alternative to chemical preservatives in food products. This research hypothesizes that mānuka (MO) and kānuka (KO) oils may possess antimicrobial characteristics and have the potential to be used as natural preservatives for [...] Read more.
Essential oils possessing antimicrobial characteristics have acquired considerable interest as an alternative to chemical preservatives in food products. This research hypothesizes that mānuka (MO) and kānuka (KO) oils may possess antimicrobial characteristics and have the potential to be used as natural preservatives for food applications. Initial experimentation was conducted to characterize MOs (with 5, 25, and 40% triketone contents), rosemary oil (RO) along with kanuka oil (KO) for their antibacterial efficacy against selected Gram-negative (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli), and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria through disc diffusion and broth dilution assays. All MOs showed a higher antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration below 0.04%, compared with KO (0.63%) and RO (2.5%). In chemical composition, α-pinene in KO, 1, 8 cineole in RO, calamenene, and leptospermone in MO were the major compounds, confirmed through Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Further, the antimicrobial effect of MO and RO in vacuum-packed beef pastes prepared from New Zealand commercial breed (3% fat) and wagyu (12% fat) beef tenderloins during 16 days of refrigerated storage was compared with sodium nitrate (SN) and control (without added oil). In both meat types, compared with the SN-treated and control samples, lower growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in MO- and RO- treated samples was observed. However, for Salmonella and E. coli, RO treatment inhibited microbial growth most effectively. The results suggest the potential use of MO as a partial replacement for synthetic preservatives like sodium nitrate in meats, especially against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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23 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Turkey Meat at Retail Level, Including the Presence of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus
by Alba Martínez-Laorden, Celia Arraiz-Fernández and Elena González-Fandos
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061274 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the microbiological safety and quality of marketed fresh turkey meat, with special emphasis on methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ESBL-producing E. coli, and K. pneumoniae. A total of 51 fresh turkey meat samples were [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the microbiological safety and quality of marketed fresh turkey meat, with special emphasis on methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ESBL-producing E. coli, and K. pneumoniae. A total of 51 fresh turkey meat samples were collected at retail level in Spain. Mesophile, Pseudomonas spp., enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and staphylococci counts were 5.10 ± 1.36, 3.17 ± 0.87, 2.03 ± 0.58, 3.18 ± 1.00, and 2.52 ± 0.96 log CFU/g, respectively. Neither Campylobacter spp. nor Clostridium perfringens was detected in any sample. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli were detected in 22 (43.14%), and three (5.88%) samples, respectively, all of which were multi-resistant. Resistance to antimicrobials of category A (monobactams, and glycilcyclines) and category B (cephalosporins of third or fourth generation, polymixins, and quinolones), according to the European Medicine Agency classification, was found among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates. S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were detected in nine (17.65%) and four samples (7.84%), respectively. Resistance to antimicrobials of category A (mupirocin, linezolid, rifampicin, and vancomycin) and category B (cephalosporins of third- or fourth generation) was found among S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and M. caseolyticus isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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11 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Common Antimicrobial Interventions at and above Regulatory Allowable Pick-Up Levels on Pathogen Reduction
by Sabrina E. Blandon, David A. Vargas, Diego E. Casas, Oscar Sarasty, Dale R. Woerner, Alejandro Echeverry, Markus F. Miller, Carlos E. Carpio, Marcos X. Sanchez-Plata and Jerrad F. Legako
Foods 2023, 12(4), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040883 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the food safety efficacy of common antimicrobial interventions at and above required uptake levels for processing aids on the reduction of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Salmonella spp. through spray and dip applications. Beef [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the food safety efficacy of common antimicrobial interventions at and above required uptake levels for processing aids on the reduction of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Salmonella spp. through spray and dip applications. Beef trim was inoculated with specific isolates of STEC or Salmonella strains. Trim was intervened with peracetic or lactic acid through spray or dip application. Meat rinses were serially diluted and plated following the drop dilution method; an enumerable range of 2–30 colonies was used to report results before log transformation. The combination of all treatments exhibits an average reduction rate of 0.16 LogCFU/g for STEC and Salmonella spp., suggesting that for every 1% increase in uptake there is an increase of 0.16 LogCFU/g of reduction rate. There is a statistical significance in the reduction rate of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in relation to the uptake percentage (p < 0.01). The addition of explanatory variables increases the R2 of the regression for STEC, where all the additional explanatory variables are statistically significant for reduction (p < 0.01). The addition of explanatory variables increases the R2 of the regression for Salmonella spp., but only trim type is statistically significant for reduction rate (p < 0.01). An increase in uptake percentages showed a significant increase in reduction rate of pathogens on beef trimmings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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22 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
Effect of Bamboo Essential Oil on the Oxidative Stability, Microbial Attributes and Sensory Quality of Chicken Meatballs
by Jyotishka Kumar Das, Niloy Chatterjee, Srija Pal, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Annada Das, Ligen Das, Pubali Dhar and Arun K. Das
Foods 2023, 12(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010218 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
This study explores the efficacy of bamboo essential oil (BEO) incorporated at 15 ppm (T1, BEO-I) and 30 ppm (T2, BEO-II) on the overall physicochemical and oxidative stability, microbial deterioration, and sensory acceptability of meatballs stored for 20 days under refrigerated conditions. Analysis [...] Read more.
This study explores the efficacy of bamboo essential oil (BEO) incorporated at 15 ppm (T1, BEO-I) and 30 ppm (T2, BEO-II) on the overall physicochemical and oxidative stability, microbial deterioration, and sensory acceptability of meatballs stored for 20 days under refrigerated conditions. Analysis of various parameters, including physicochemical quality, color (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*), generation of oxidative products (TBARS), microbial growth, and sensory acceptability of meatballs were evaluated at 5-day intervals. In addition, the total phenolics and flavonoid content of BEO were estimated, and fatty acids were determined by Gas chromatography (GC.) To gain insights into the biological activities of the BEO, antioxidant assays were determined in vitro using various methods. The antibacterial activity of BEO was also evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains. The BEO contained a good quantity of total phenolics and flavonoids. In addition, the oil exhibited very potent antioxidant activity scavenging reactive oxygen and other such species, effectively showing IC50 at a very minimal concentration. Further, the BEO exhibited a strong antibacterial effect with MICs within 2 µL and MBCs from 5 to 7 µL for Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. At both the concentrations used, BEO did not show any negative effect on the color of cooked meatballs but rather increased the microbiological and oxidative stability during the overall storage period. Meatballs treated with BEO had considerably reduced oxidative changes in terms of TBARS levels compared to the control. The total viable microbial count was lowest in BEO-treated meatballs and the highest in control. Both control and treated meatballs had a desirable flavor and good acceptability. The sensory attributes and aroma of treated meatballs were better and acceptable during the storage study, whereas the control samples were disliked by the panelists on 15th day. From this study, it can be concluded that bamboo essential oil could be used as a benign and non-toxic preservative to improve the quality and shelf life of cooked meatballs stored under refrigerated conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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22 pages, 1242 KiB  
Article
The Effects of the Marination Process with Different Vinegar Varieties on Various Quality Criteria and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Formation in Beef Steak
by Halenur Fencioglu, Emel Oz, Sadettin Turhan, Charalampos Proestos and Fatih Oz
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203251 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Herein, the effect of the dipping (static) marination process (at 4 °C for 2 h) with different types of vinegar (balsamic, pomegranate, apple, and grape) on various quality properties, including texture and protein profile of beef steaks and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic [...] Read more.
Herein, the effect of the dipping (static) marination process (at 4 °C for 2 h) with different types of vinegar (balsamic, pomegranate, apple, and grape) on various quality properties, including texture and protein profile of beef steaks and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef steaks cooked on a hot plate (at 200 °C for 24 min), were determined. The results showed that 3.12–4.13% of the marinate liquids were absorbed by beef steak as a result of the marination process. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the marinated and cooked beef steaks in terms of water content, cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness. However, significant differences were detected in terms of pH value and color values (L*, a*, and b*) (p < 0.01), and springiness, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline (MeIQx) and total HAA content (p < 0.05). The marination with pomegranate vinegar resulted in the formation of darker steak, while a lighter one was obtained when apple vinegar was used in the marination. The use of balsamic and grape vinegar in the marination process decreased the springiness value compared to the control group. The myofibrillar proteins of beef steaks marinated with different types of vinegar generally showed a similar sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile. However, some differences were observed in the band density of some proteins depending on the trial and the type of marination. In this study, of the nine examined HAAs, only two (2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoline (IQ) and MeIQx) could be detected and quantified. IQ was detected only in the control group steak (up to 0.51 ng/g), while MeIQx was detected in all treatment groups (up to 2.22 ng/g). The total HAA content varied between 0.59–2.22 ng/g. It was determined that the marination process with different vinegar types had different effects on the total HAA content of the steaks. Using balsamic and apple vinegar in the marination process decreased the total HAA content compared to the control group, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, using grape and pomegranate vinegar in the marination process increased the total HAA content, but this increase was only significant (p < 0.05) in the marination with pomegranate vinegar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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22 pages, 3497 KiB  
Article
Meat Quality and Muscle Tissue Proteome of Crossbred Bulls Finished under Feedlot Using Wet Distiller Grains By-Product
by Welder Baldassini, Mohammed Gagaoua, Bismarck Santiago, Leone Rocha, Juliana Torrecilhas, Rodrigo Torres, Rogério Curi, Otávio Machado Neto, Pedro Padilha, Felipe Santos, Dante Pazzanese Lanna and Luis Artur Chardulo
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203233 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Wet distiller grains (WDG) are a corn by-product rich in protein and fiber that can be used in feedlot diets. This study evaluated F1 Angus-Nellore bulls fed on a control diet vs. WDG (n = 25/treatment). After a period of 129 days [...] Read more.
Wet distiller grains (WDG) are a corn by-product rich in protein and fiber that can be used in feedlot diets. This study evaluated F1 Angus-Nellore bulls fed on a control diet vs. WDG (n = 25/treatment). After a period of 129 days on these feeds, the animals were slaughtered and Longissimus thoracis samples were collected for both a meat quality evaluation and gel-based proteomic analyses. A greater ribeye area (99.47 cm²) and higher carcass weight (333.6 kg) (p < 0.05) were observed in the WDG-finished cattle compared to the control (80.7 cm²; 306.3 kg). Furthermore, there were differences (p < 0.05) in the intramuscular fat between the WDG and control animals (IMF = 2.77 vs. 4.19%), which led to a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in saturated fatty acids (FA). However, no differences (p > 0.10) were observed in terms of tenderness, evaluated using Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The proteomic and bioinformatic analyses revealed substantial changes in the biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components of the WDG-finished cattle compared to the control. Proteins related to a myriad of interconnected pathways, such as contractile and structural pathways, energy metabolism, oxidative stress and cell redox homeostasis, and transport and signaling. In this experiment, the use of WDG supplementation influenced the protein expression of several proteins, some of which are known biomarkers of beef quality (tenderness and color), as well as the protein–protein interactions that can act as the origins of increases in muscle growth and reductions in IMF deposition. However, despite the effects on the proteome, the tenderness, evaluated by WBSF, and fatty acid profile were not compromised by WDG supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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25 pages, 7662 KiB  
Article
Does the Rearing Management following by Charolais Cull Cows Influence the Qualities of Carcass and Beef Meat?
by Julien Soulat, Brigitte Picard and Valérie Monteils
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182889 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
This study characterized, for the first time, the rearing managements (from birth to slaughter) applied throughout the cull cows’ life and observed the effect of these managements on the carcass and meat properties. From the individual data of 371 Charolais cull cows, three [...] Read more.
This study characterized, for the first time, the rearing managements (from birth to slaughter) applied throughout the cull cows’ life and observed the effect of these managements on the carcass and meat properties. From the individual data of 371 Charolais cull cows, three rearing managements were defined and characterized with 60 rearing factors. The results showed that the rearing managements had low effects on the carcass and meat properties. For the carcass traits, only the carcass weight, and fat and longissimus (LM) colors at the level of the sixth rib were impacted. Concerning the meat, only the red color intensity, the fat aroma, the flavor intensity and persistence were affected. According to our results, this study confirmed that it is possible to produce carcass or meat with similar properties; consequently, it is difficult to favor a rearing management. However, to manage jointly both carcass and meat qualities, trade-offs are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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