Recent Advances in Camelids and their Products: Main Challenges and Strategies for Sustainable Development of One-Humped Dromedary Camel

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Small Ruminants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 18854

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Food Quality and Sensory Science Department, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
Interests: foodomics; meat science; proteomics; muscle and meat biochemistry; biomarkers of meat quality; novel strategies to improve meat quality; meat tenderization; meat products
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Guest Editor
GSPA Research Laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Université des frères Mentouri, Constantine 1, 05 Route de Batna, El-Khroub, Constantine, Algeria
Interests: veterinary medicine; food safety and quality; food poisoning; sensory quality; meat and milk products; microbial contamination; antibiotic resistance; microbiota; animal production

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Guest Editor
GSPA Research Laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Université des frères Mentouri, Constantine 1, 05 Route de Batna, El-Khroub, Constantine, Algeria
Interests: veterinary medecine; internal medecine of small and large animals; zoonoses and public health; animal production; diagnostic tools; clinical and laboratory diagnostic; medical imaging; epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The dromedary camel, especially the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), possesses a high productive potential and has been used for centuries by people in hot and arid regions as a multipurpose animal for transport, physical labor, meat and milk production, wool, hair, skin, as well as racing and tourism. In the last decade, several colleagues and experts of camelids have highlighted that due to the advancement of the desert world, the dromedary camel will be the main animal that can survive as the best livestock for future agriculture projects and the animal production sector by playing a pivotal role in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Accordingly, in this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit cutting-edge innovative research papers or review papers on the recent advances in camelids, especially the one-humped dromedary camel, and their products (milk and meat), with a focus on the impact on the food security and the achievement of the SDGs. We further welcome innovative studies (including surveys) dealing with camel production systems; farming and rearing practices; the potential use of OMICs tools to characterize the health and efficiency of dromedaries and their products; the trade and consumption of camel products; the stress and welfare of dromedaries; as well as studies on emerging dromedary diseases, such as zoonosis. This Special Issue seeks also to explain the new challenges facing camels and the associated industry and more specifically the role they can play in the coming future in different sectors such as medicine, pharmaceutical, as well as agri-food potentialities of camel products. Finally, we are highly interested in and encourage papers that address the use of new emerging technologies to recover specific new products and molecules from camel byproducts and their waste.

Dr. Mohammed Gagaoua
Dr. Amira Leila Dib
Dr. Elhacene Bererhi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Camel production systems and rearing practices
  • Camel farming in arid and semi-arid countries
  • Camel Genomics and muscle biochemistry
  • Camel meat production and associated products
  • Camel meat production and associated products including ethnic meat products
  • Camel milk production and associated products including ethnic milk products
  • Dromedary camel health and diseases
  • Medicinal potential of camel gene products
  • Emerging viral diseases and zoonosis in dromedary camels
  • Contribution of camel to the food security and Sustainable Development Goals
  • Camel stress and welfare
  • OMICs as emerging tools to characterize camel genetics and products
  • Camel economy
  • Emerging techniques of camel by-products and waste valorisation
  • Other products of camels: wool, skin, hair, etc.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances in Dromedary Camels and Their Products
by Mohammed Gagaoua, Amira Leila Dib and El-Hacene Bererhi
Animals 2022, 12(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12020162 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Dromedary camels or, more specifically, one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius), are described as having a high productive potential, and for centuries, they have been used by people (namely nomads) in arid and hot regions as multipurpose animals for physical labor, transport, the [...] Read more.
Dromedary camels or, more specifically, one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius), are described as having a high productive potential, and for centuries, they have been used by people (namely nomads) in arid and hot regions as multipurpose animals for physical labor, transport, the production of milk, meat, wool, hair, and skin, and for racing and tourism [...] Full article

Research

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12 pages, 749 KiB  
Article
Molecular Investigation on Tick-Borne Hemoparasites and Coxiella burnetii in Dromedary Camels (Camelusdromedarius) in Al Dhafra Region of Abu Dhabi, UAE
by El Tigani Ahmed El Tigani-Asil, Valeria Blanda, Ghada Elderdiri Abdelwahab, Zulaikha Mohamed Al Hammadi, Shameem Habeeba, Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla, Mohamed Ali Alhosani, Francesco La Russa, Sergio Migliore, Alessandra Torina, Guido Ruggero Loria and Salama Suhail Al Muhairi
Animals 2021, 11(3), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030666 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Camels represent an important resource for inhabitants of the most arid regions of the world and their survival is mainly related to environment conditions including the risk of parasitic diseases, which may represent a significant cause of losses in livestock production of these [...] Read more.
Camels represent an important resource for inhabitants of the most arid regions of the world and their survival is mainly related to environment conditions including the risk of parasitic diseases, which may represent a significant cause of losses in livestock production of these areas. Camels may be parasitized by several hematophagous arthropods, which can be vectors of several diseases including zoonosis. This study aimed to investigate in dromedary camels and their ticks the importance of tick-borne hemoparasites that might be responsible for a recent and obscure morbidity of camels in Al Dhafra region of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Blood samples and ticks from 93 naturally infected camels belonging to 36 herds, affected by variable acute clinical syndromes lasting from 3 to 5 days, were analyzed through molecular techniques for specific DNA presence of different blood pathogens: Anaplasmamarginale/Anaplasmaovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii,Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. DNA. All the 72 ticks collected belonged to the Hyalomma dromedarii species and were negative for blood pathogens. n = 15 camels (16.1%) were found positive to the following tick-borne hemoparasites: A. phagocytophilum 11 (11.8%), Coxiella burnetii 3 (3.2%), and Babesia/Theileria spp. 2 (2.1%). One singular camel showed coinfection of C. burnetii and A. phagocytophiulm. Genetic profile of C. burnetii showed a high phylogenetic relatedness to European, Asian and African C. burnetii strains. This is the first laboratory investigation on tick-borne pathogens in camels in UAE, and the first report of A. phagocytophilum and C. burnetii. Moreover, since the detected pathogens are recognized pathogens for humans, this study highlights the zoonotic risk for humans working in camel husbandry. Full article
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24 pages, 4554 KiB  
Article
Application of a Protocol to Assess Camel Welfare: Scoring System of Collected Measures, Aggregated Assessment Indices, and Criteria to Classify a Pen
by Laura Menchetti, Martina Zappaterra, Leonardo Nanni Costa and Barbara Padalino
Animals 2021, 11(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020494 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
This study aimed to apply a protocol for assessing camel welfare, to develop a scoring system for the welfare measures, to produce overall assessment indices, and to classify the animal units (i.e., pens) according to their welfare level. A total of 105 measures [...] Read more.
This study aimed to apply a protocol for assessing camel welfare, to develop a scoring system for the welfare measures, to produce overall assessment indices, and to classify the animal units (i.e., pens) according to their welfare level. A total of 105 measures were collected at Herd level from 76 pens at a market in Qatar. The pens held 528 camels, 132 of which were evaluated at a deeper level (i.e., Animal level). Out of the 105 measures, 71 were selected, scored, and aggregated to reach a Total Welfare Index (TWI) for each pen. The TWI ranged from 46.2 to 69.8. The Good Feeding index, including measures related to prolonged thirst and prolonged hunger, was the most critical (p < 0.001), while the Good Health index, including measures related to the absence of injuries, disease and pain, was the less problematic (p < 0.001). However, most of the pens were classified as “unsatisfactory” (61.8%) and none as “excellent”. Body Condition Score (BCS), Thirst Index, disease and physical injuries, presence of a shelter, and cleanliness of bedding were the measures which influenced the pens’ classification the most (p < 0.05). The proposed model seems useful in the identification of camel welfare issues. Further applications, as well as the involvement of many scientists and stakeholders, are needed to refine and validate the protocol and its indices. Full article
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11 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Housing Management of Male Dromedaries during the Rut Season: Effects of Social Contact between Males and Movement Control on Sexual Behavior, Blood Metabolites and Hormonal Balance
by Ramadan D. EL-Shoukary, Nani Nasreldin, Ahmed S. Osman, Nesrein M. Hashem, Islam M. Saadeldin and Ayman A. Swelum
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091621 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of different housing management systems on behavior, blood metabolites and hormonal balance in male dromedaries during the rutting season. Forty-eight adult male dromedaries were stratified in a two by three factorial experiment design, testing effects [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of different housing management systems on behavior, blood metabolites and hormonal balance in male dromedaries during the rutting season. Forty-eight adult male dromedaries were stratified in a two by three factorial experiment design, testing effects of social contact (single and group) and movement control (tied, fenced and exercise). During a ten-week experimental period, male dromedaries were filmed weekly for 20 min three times per day to evaluate their behaviors. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum metabolites and hormones. Both animal social contact and movement control significantly affected maintenance, posture and sexual behaviors. Male dromedaries housed in groups expressed higher frequencies of sexual desire-related behaviors (teeth grinding, open legs, tail flapping, dulla “soft palate exteriorization”, blathering and urination) than those individually housed. Animal movement control significantly affected sexual behavior; fenced and exercised male dromedaries expressed higher frequencies of sexual desire-related behaviors than tied ones. Male dromedaries housed in groups and allowed to walk around had significantly higher frequencies of ruminating, standing, walking and sexual-related behaviors than those housed individually or tied. Movement control had significant effects on blood serum metabolites and hormone concentrations. Fenced and exercised male dromedaries had higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of blood serum transaminases, free radicals, glucose, cholesterol and testosterone (2.91 and 2.09 ng/mL, respectively) and lower (p < 0.05) concentrations of cortisol (44.12 and 53.52 nmol/L, respectively) and triiodothyronine (1.68 and 1.91 ng/mL, respectively) than tied male dromedaries. In conclusion, animal social interaction is of particular importance for maintaining physical, psychological and sexual behaviors. Allowing walking-around exercise for captive animals improves their metabolic status and decreases captive stress effects. Housing systems that guarantee social interaction and physical activity are the most suitable housing management systems for captive male dromedaries during the rutting season. Full article

Review

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22 pages, 539 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Camel Milk Processing
by Gaukhar Konuspayeva and Bernard Faye
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041045 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 7133
Abstract
Camel milk is a newcomer to domestic markets and especially to the international milk market. This recent emergence has been accompanied by a diversification of processed products, based on the technologies developed for milk from other dairy species. However, technical innovations had to [...] Read more.
Camel milk is a newcomer to domestic markets and especially to the international milk market. This recent emergence has been accompanied by a diversification of processed products, based on the technologies developed for milk from other dairy species. However, technical innovations had to be adapted to a product with specific behavior and composition. The transformation of camel milk into pasteurized milk, fermented milk, cheese, powder, or other products was supported, under the pressure of commercial development, by technological innovations made possible by a basic and applied research set. Some of these innovations regarding one of the less studied milk sources are presented here, as well as their limitations. Technical investigations for an optimal pasteurization, development of controlled fermentation at industrial scale, control of cheese technology suitable for standardized production, and improvements in processes for the supply of a high-quality milk powder are among the challenges of research regarding camel milk. Full article
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