Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 28160

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea and Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China
Interests: fermented foods; fuzhuan brick tea; human health safety; gut microbiota; metabolic syndrome
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Guest Editor
Institute of Agro-Product Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
Interests: fermented foods; nutrients; carotenoids; gut microbiota; polysaccharides; friuts and vegetables
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A definition for fermented foods was developed in September 2019 by an expert panel convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), which defined fermented foods and beverages as “foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components”. Fermented foods have long been an important part of the human diet for thousands of years in nearly every culture on every continent. Fermented foods could be served as important and stable sources of human nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

Currently, fermented foods are attracting increased attention among biologists, nutritionists, technologists, clinicians, and consumers, and numerous encouraging findings about the health-beneficial effects of fermented foods have been extensively obtained, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-hypertensive activities. However, there are still some remaining challenges regarding the “nutrition and health of fermented foods” that need to be explored.

Thus, this Special Issue of Fermentation focuses on the interaction between fermented foods and our health, and it is expected that this Special Issue could substantially expand our knowledge of the health-promoting functions of fermented foods and further stimulate future research. Accordingly, this Special Issue welcomes experts working in the field to submit original experimental studies, and reviews that cover state-of-the-art advances in this important area.

This Special Issue will highlight the most recent advances in, but not limited to, the following subjects:

  • Characterization and potential health-beneficial effects of fermented foods;
  • Changes in physicochemical and biological properties during fermentation;
  • Extraction, identification, and bioactivities of bioactive compounds from fermented foods;
  • Metabolic characteristics and biotransformation of fermented foods in the digestive system;
  • Innovative fermentation approaches to improve the nutrition and health of fermented foods;
  • Modulation of gut microbiota by fermented foods;
  • The potential risk of fermented foods on health.

Dr. Guijie Chen
Dr. Zhuqing Dai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  •  fermented foods
  •  nutrition and health
  •  innovative fermentation approaches
  •  multi-omics techniques
  •  fermentation process
  •  metabolic characteristics and biotransformation
  •  molecular mechanisms
  •  potential risk
  •  prebiotic activity

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile and Hematoprotective Activity of Artisanal Jabuticaba (Plinia jabuticaba) Wine and Derived Extracts
by Raissa Lima, Marcos Vinicius T. Silva, Brendo A. Gomes, Ellis Helena B. C. Macedo, Michele N. Santana, Ana Claudia F. Amaral, Jefferson R. A. Silva, Pollyane G. Corrêa, Ronoel Luiz O. Godoy, Manuela Cristina P. A. Santiago, Suzana G. Leitão, Rosineide C. Simas, Carla S. Carneiro and Igor A. Rodrigues
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020157 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
The alcoholic fermentation of jabuticaba berries (Plinia spp.) originates from a beverage with an intense taste and aroma, popularly known as jabuticaba wine (JW). In addition, polyphenols transferred from fruit peels to the final product turn this beverage into a promising source [...] Read more.
The alcoholic fermentation of jabuticaba berries (Plinia spp.) originates from a beverage with an intense taste and aroma, popularly known as jabuticaba wine (JW). In addition, polyphenols transferred from fruit peels to the final product turn this beverage into a promising source of bioactive agents. Here, the chemical profile and antioxidant potential of artisanal JW and derivative extracts were determined. Volatile organic compounds were determined by HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis. The wine was dried by lyophilization and subjected to liquid-liquid partitioning (water: ethyl acetate), resulting in three fractions (JWF1-3). ABTS•+ and DPPH•+ scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. In addition, the extracts’ hematoprotective activity was evaluated against oxidative stress. Finally, the extracts were analyzed by LC-HRMS/MS. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis highlighted 1,8-cineole as the main compound that contributes to the camphor/mint flavor. JWF2 and JWF3 displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. JWF2 stood out for preventing oxidative damage in red blood cells at 7.8 µg·mL−1 The maximal protection of ascorbic acid occurred at 8.8 µg·mL−1. The LC-HRMS/MS analysis allowed the annotation of seventeen compounds, most of them with recognized antioxidant activity such as anthocyanins, catechins, flavanols, and phenolic acids. The results presented herein reinforce JW as a pleasant beverage with bioactive potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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12 pages, 5813 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Metabolic Differences in the Water Extract of Shenheling Fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum Based on Nontargeted Metabolomics
by Xiantao Yan, Min Liu, Congcong Guo, Xinyue Lian, Yun Shen, Yang Liu, Yi Qian, Longfei Zhang, Wenqiong Wang, Dawei Chen, Jianya Qian and Ruixia Gu
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010044 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Objective: To explore the characteristics of metabolites in Shenheling (SHL) fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum. Methods: In this study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole electrostatic field orbit trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS) was used to qualitatively, quantitatively, and differentially analyze the metabolites of SHL before and [...] Read more.
Objective: To explore the characteristics of metabolites in Shenheling (SHL) fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum. Methods: In this study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole electrostatic field orbit trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS) was used to qualitatively, quantitatively, and differentially analyze the metabolites of SHL before and after fermentation. Results: A total of 102 significant differential metabolites in nine categories were analyzed before and after fermentation. It mainly includes 29 terpenoids, 17 alkaloids, 14 organic acids and derivatives, 10 flavonoids, 9 phenylpropanoids, 6 phenols, 3 aromaticity, and 3 amino acid derivatives. Further screening found that the content of most active substances, such as alkaloids, organic acids, and flavonoids, increased significantly. These metabolites play an important role in improving the taste and efficacy of SHL. After fermentation, the contents of differential metabolites, such as panaquinquecol 2, ginsenoside Rh3, ginsenoside Rg3, dehydronuciferin, nicotinic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, azelaic acid, dihydrokaempferol, and chrysin, were increased, which increased the effects of antioxidation, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, antibacterial, and improved immunity compared with those before fermentation. KEGG pathway analysis identified 10 metabolic pathways. Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolism, purine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, etc. Conclusions: Fermentation significantly changed the metabolites in SHL and played an important role in improving its taste, aroma quality, antioxidant, anti-obesity, and other health care functional components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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11 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Potential Prebiotic Effect of Cava Lees: Changes in Gut Microbiota
by Alba Martín-Garcia, Javier Gonzalez-Linares, Montserrat Riu-Aumatell and Elvira López-Tamames
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110657 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Lees are a winery by-product with a fiber-rich composition that could have a potential prebiotic effect on gut microbiota. Prebiotics cannot be digested by humans but can be used by bacteria found in the large intestine. To evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of [...] Read more.
Lees are a winery by-product with a fiber-rich composition that could have a potential prebiotic effect on gut microbiota. Prebiotics cannot be digested by humans but can be used by bacteria found in the large intestine. To evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of lees, they were administered to Wistar rats for 14 days. Feces were collected daily, and DNA was extracted and analyzed by shot gun sequencing. The supplementation with lees did not affect weight, food intake, or water consumption of the studied rats. It was found that lees promoted the increase of relative abundance of probiotic bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillaceae family, as well as other potentially probiotic species such as Blautia hansenii, Roseburia intestinalis, and Ruminococcus obeum. Moreover, lees supplementation also reduced the abundance of certain pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, lees can improve the presence of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and can be re-valorized as a new ingredient in food formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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11 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties, Functional Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Grass
by Xianxiu Li, Tao He, Jianwei Mao and Ruyi Sha
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110647 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Fermented foods are known worldwide for their functional health properties. In order to promote the relative product development of edible grass, Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lr) were used to ferment edible grass in this study. Effects of fermentation using Lp and [...] Read more.
Fermented foods are known worldwide for their functional health properties. In order to promote the relative product development of edible grass, Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lr) were used to ferment edible grass in this study. Effects of fermentation using Lp and Lr in monoculture and binary mixture on physicochemical properties, the contents of functional compounds and the antioxidant activity of edible grass at different fermentation times were investigated by colorimetric method and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results show that the pH value and total sugar content of the three fermented edible grasses at the 4th day were lower than those of unfermented water extract (defined as the control sample) and kept almost unchanged at the 7th day. The total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content of the three fermented edible grasses were lower than those of the control sample by the oxidation of phenolic compounds caused by polyphenol oxidases. The highest soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were found in the binary mixture of Lp and Lr fermentation at the 7th day, which were respectively 11 and 1.78 times higher than those of control sample. The oxalic acid content of all fermented edible grasses shows a significant decrease with increasing fermentation time, especially for the binary mixture at the 7th day, reaching only 24% of the control sample. However, the contents of lactic acid and succinic acid of the three fermented edible grasses were higher than those of the control sample because of the metabolism of the microorganism. Functional compounds including soluble protein, SOD, lactic acid and succinic acid played the main positive roles in antioxidation, while oxalic acid had a negative correlation with antioxidation. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of edible grass was dramatically enhanced by Lactobacillus strain fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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13 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Suitable for the Fermentation of Shenheling Slimming Beverages Based on the Activity Inhibition of Energy Digestive Enzymes and a Sensory Evaluation
by Xiantao Yan, Ziqi Zhang, Tian Lv, Jiating Wang, Xun Yin, Xinyue Lian, Dawei Chen, Wenqiong Wang, Yubao Wang and Ruixia Gu
Fermentation 2022, 8(10), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8100482 - 25 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Obesity is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. In this study, we screened lactic acid bacteria (LAB) suitable for fermenting Shenheling extract (SHLE) to enhance its anti-obesity efficacy and improve flavor. Using SHLE as the medium, a single strain was inoculated and the lactic [...] Read more.
Obesity is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. In this study, we screened lactic acid bacteria (LAB) suitable for fermenting Shenheling extract (SHLE) to enhance its anti-obesity efficacy and improve flavor. Using SHLE as the medium, a single strain was inoculated and the lactic acid bacteria suitable for growth in SHLE were preliminarily screened through a growth curve. The growth of the initially screened LAB was characterized in detail by the pH value, titration acidity and viable bacteria count. At the same time, appropriate LAB were selected with the lipase activity inhibition rate, α-glucosidase activity inhibition rate and a sensory evaluation as the response indicators. As a result, 6 of the 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria grew well in SHLE. The fermentation of five representative LAB could significantly improve the inhibition rate of the lipase activity of SHLE and maintain the inhibition rate of the α-glucosidase activity at a high level. In addition, fermentation removed the original flavors of SHLE such as grass, bitterness and cassia and added a sour taste, fruity aroma and cool taste. Among them, Lactobacillus fermentum grx08 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus hsryfm1301 gave SHLE a soft sour taste after fermentation. L. fermentum grx08, L. rhamnosus grx10 and hsryfm1301 imparted a moderately fruity aroma to SHLE after fermentation. In summary, L. fermentum grx08 and L. rhamnosus hsryfm1301 were the candidate strains for fermenting SHLE to produce good-flavored slimming functional drinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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17 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Protection against Osteoporosis by Fermented Mulberry Vinegar Supplementation via Inhibiting Osteoclastic Activity in Ovariectomized Rats and Osteoclastic Cells
by Eun Jung Yim, Seung Wha Jo, Hyeon Jin Kang, Seul Ki Park, Kang Yeol Yu, Do-Youn Jeong and Sunmin Park
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8050211 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Menopause increases the osteoporosis risk, to which phytoestrogen intake can be beneficial. This study hypothesized that mulberry vinegar had a preventive effect on osteoporosis by decreasing osteoclastic activity. The hypothesis was tested in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and RANKL-differentiated osteoclast cells. OVX rats were [...] Read more.
Menopause increases the osteoporosis risk, to which phytoestrogen intake can be beneficial. This study hypothesized that mulberry vinegar had a preventive effect on osteoporosis by decreasing osteoclastic activity. The hypothesis was tested in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and RANKL-differentiated osteoclast cells. OVX rats were given 0(OVX-CON), 0.5(OVX-MVL), 1(OVX-MVM), and 2(OVX-MVH) fermented mulberry vinegar (MV) mL/kg body weight (BW) daily for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats had no MV supplementation (Normal-CON). The osteoporosis-related biomarkers were measured, and Micro-CT determined the bone mass of the femur. RANKL-differentiated Raw 264.7 cells were treated with MV (0–100 μg/mL). The cell viability, osteoporosis-related mRNA expression, and protein contents were measured. MV contained Acetobacter pasteurianus (7.31 log CFU/mL), citric acid (106 mg/mL), lactic acid (19.2 mg/mL), acetic acid (15.0 mg/mL), and rutin (0.36 mg/mL). OVX-MVM elevated the serum 17β-estradiol concentration similar to the Normal-CON group, but it did not prevent the decrease in uterine weight. OVX-MVM prevented the increase in osteoclastic-related parameters, including cathepsin K(CtsK), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in the circulation. OVX-MVH also lowered C-telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen as much as the Normal-CON group (p < 0.05). By contrast, OVX-MVH increased the serum osteoprotegerin concentration, an inhibitor of osteoclasts, better than the Normal-CON group (p < 0.05). These changes were integrated to alter the bone mineral density (BMD) in Micro-CT analysis: OVX-MVM and OVX-MVH prevented BMD decrease after OVX as much as the Normal-CON. In RANKL-differentiated osteoclast cells, the MV treatment for 24 and 48 h decreased RANKL-induced differentiation in osteoclast cells dose-dependently up to 100 µg/mL. Its decrease was related to inhibiting the TRAP activity and reducing TRAP-positive multinucleated cells during the five-day administration of RANKL. MV treatments also decreased mRNA expression of osteoclast-related genes (TRAP, Ctsk, OSCAR, and NFATc1). MV suppressed the protein contents of NFATc1 and c-FOS-related osteoclast. In conclusion, MV intake (1 mg/kg bw) protected against BMD loss mainly by inhibiting the osteoclastic activity (RANKL/RANK/TRAP) in OVX rats. MV may develop as a functional food for anti-osteoporosis in menopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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Review

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16 pages, 316 KiB  
Review
Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, and Fermented Foods as Potential Biotics in Nutrition Improving Health via Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis
by Divakar Dahiya and Poonam Singh Nigam
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070303 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 14749
Abstract
Biological, social, and psychological practices greatly affect the dietary intake of people; as a result, health-related complexities occur. Functional food and supplements have become popular due to their nutraceutical benefits, which make different choices of fermented food and beverages available to people. This [...] Read more.
Biological, social, and psychological practices greatly affect the dietary intake of people; as a result, health-related complexities occur. Functional food and supplements have become popular due to their nutraceutical benefits, which make different choices of fermented food and beverages available to people. This review describes the characteristics of probiotics, prebiotics, post- and paraprobiotics, and their role in nutrition and in the sustainability of health. Currently, several synbiotic supplements have attracted consumers in the nutraceutical market to offer a number of health benefits, which are complementary mixtures of selected characterized probiotic cultures and prebiotic substrates. Traditional fermented foods consumed in different cultures are different than probiotics and symbiotic preparations, though these could be considered potential biotics in nutrition. Fermented foods are part of a staple diet in several countries and are cost-effective due to their preparation using seasonal raw materials available from local agriculture practices. Intake of all biotics discussed in this article is intended to improve the population of beneficial microbiota in the gut, which has proved important for the microbiome–gut–brain axis, influencing the activity of vagus nerve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Health of Fermented Foods)
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