Special Issue "New Insights into the Biodiversity and Applications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Patrizia Romano Website E-Mail
Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Angela Capece Website E-Mail
Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Phone: 0971-205686

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found naturally on the surface of fruits and plants, in the soil, and in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It is a species in use for thousands of years for bread making and the production of wine, beer, and distilled beverages and it plays an important role in the fermentation of kefir, coffee and cacao beans, and the production of traditional fermenting products.

Despite its widespread use, mainly in the fermented food sector, new frontiers have opened up for the recommended use of S. cerevisiae in functional foods due to potential probiotic properties and positive health effects due to beta-glucans and polysaccharides present in the cell wall. Research is in progress to develop and optimize the use of this yeast as a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and bioethanol. The application of integrated ‘omics’ approaches provides new insights into S. cerevisiae biology.

The goal of this Special Issue is to publish recent innovative research results, as well as review papers, on the yeast S. cerevisiae regarding strain biodiversity, activity, and role in traditional and innovative fermented foods, functional foods, and the production of biofuel.

Sincerely,

Prof. Dr. Patrizia Romano
Prof. Dr. Angela Capece
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

• Saccharomyces cerevisiae
• Fermented foods
• Starter cultures
• Wine
• Beer
• Bread
• Distilled beverages
• Kefir
• Probiotic
• Biofuel
• Omic approaches

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Anhydrobiosis in Yeasts: Changes in Mitochondrial Membranes Improve the Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells to Dehydration–Rehydration
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030082 - 17 Sep 2019
Abstract
Anhydrobiosis is a unique state of live organisms in which their metabolism is temporary reversibly suspended as the result of strong dehydration of their cells. This state is widely used currently during large-capacity production of active dry baker’s yeast. Other strains of the [...] Read more.
Anhydrobiosis is a unique state of live organisms in which their metabolism is temporary reversibly suspended as the result of strong dehydration of their cells. This state is widely used currently during large-capacity production of active dry baker’s yeast. Other strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other yeast species that could potentially find use in modern biotechnology, are not resistant to dehydration–rehydration treatments. To improve their resistance, the main factors that influence cell survival during such treatment need to be revealed. This study showed the importance of mitochondria for yeast cell survival during transfer into anhydrobiosis, a factor that was strongly underestimated until this study. It was revealed that the external introduction inside yeast cells of 50 μM of lithocholic acid (LCA), an agent that induces changes in glycerophospholipids in mitochondrial membranes, in combination with 1% DMSO, may improve the survival rate of dehydrated cells. The influence of LCA upon yeast cell resistance to dehydration–rehydration was not linked with changes in the state of the cells’ plasma membrane. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Apple Pieces to Produce Cider
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030074 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
Three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, a commercial probiotic yeast; S. cerevisiae W13, a wild yeast able to remove ochratoxin A; and S. cerevisiae 17, a wild yeast with promising probiotic traits) were screened for their ability to adhere on apple [...] Read more.
Three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, a commercial probiotic yeast; S. cerevisiae W13, a wild yeast able to remove ochratoxin A; and S. cerevisiae 17, a wild yeast with promising probiotic traits) were screened for their ability to adhere on apple pieces as a function of different contact times (15–30 min). Then, apple pieces were stored at 4 °C for 15 days, and the viable count of yeasts was periodically assessed. Yeasts were able to adhere on apple pieces after 15 min (7 log cfu/g) and retained their viability throughout the refrigerated storage. In a second step, apple pieces with S. cerevisiae W13 were used to produce cider on a small scale. The variables under investigation were (a) the recycling of pieces up to 10 times and (b) the preliminary storage of pieces at 4 °C before use. Pieces used immediately after yeast immobilization could be successfully used again 10 times and gained a fermentation performance (in terms of yeast amount in cider and ethanol after 24 h) similar to that achieved by free cells. In addition, the preliminary storage of pieces at 4 °C did not affect their performances as reusable starter carriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mannoprotein Content and Volatile Molecule Profiles of Trebbiano Wines Obtained by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus Strains
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030066 - 20 Jul 2019
Abstract
The production of volatile compounds has become one of the major technological features for yeast selection. In fact, although the aromatic profile of the wine is the sum of varietal-, pre-, post-, and fermentative-aroma compound, yeasts affect the quality of the grape from [...] Read more.
The production of volatile compounds has become one of the major technological features for yeast selection. In fact, although the aromatic profile of the wine is the sum of varietal-, pre-, post-, and fermentative-aroma compound, yeasts affect the quality of the grape from maturation throughout fermentation, metabolizing sugars and other components into alcohols, esters, organic acids, and aldehydes. Among the new technological features, the production of mannoproteins has gained interest. From this perspective, the main aim of this work was to characterize 9 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 of Saccharomyces bayanus for their volatile profiles and the release of mannoproteins. The strains were inoculated in Trebbiano musts and incubated at 15 °C; at the end of fermentation the wines were evaluated by GC/MS/SPME for their volatile profiles and mannoprotein content by enzymatic assay. The strains were inoculated at level ranging between 4.9 and 6.3 log CFU/mL but only the strains L318 and 12233X6167 were able to reach values of 7.5 log CFU/mL. The aromatic profiles resulted in a strain-specific fingerprinting. According to the principal component analysis, the wines produced by the strains L288, L234, and L318 were characterized by the presence of propanoic acid, butanol, octanoic acid, and 3 methyl pentanol while the wine obtained by the strain 12233x35G2 was characterized by the presence of propanoic acid, butanol, octanoic acid and 3 methyl pentanol while the strain 12233x35G2 was characterized by the presence of decanoic acid ethyl ester, heptanoic acid ethyl ester, and acetic acid 2 phenetyl ester. Regarding mannoproteins, the highest concentration was achieved by strain12233x6167 (104 mg/L). The data allowed to select the strains endowed with the best fermentation performances in terms of aroma and mannoproteins release. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Vine Bark in Vineyard: Influence of Plant Age and Strain Presence during Grape must Spontaneous Fermentations
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030062 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this study, two vineyards of different age were chosen. During three years, a sampling campaign was performed for isolating vineyard-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Bark portions and, when present, grape bunches were regularly collected from the same vine plants [...] Read more.
In this study, two vineyards of different age were chosen. During three years, a sampling campaign was performed for isolating vineyard-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Bark portions and, when present, grape bunches were regularly collected from the same vine plants during the overall sampling period. Each bark portion was added to a synthetic must, while each grape bunch was manually crushed, and fermentations were run to isolate S. cerevisiae strains. All collected yeasts were identified at different species and strain levels to evaluate the genetic variability of S. cerevisiae strains in the two vineyards and strains dynamics. Moreover, bark-associated strains were compared with those isolated from spontaneous fermentations of grapes collected during the two harvests. Regarding the youngest vineyard, no S. cerevisiae was identified on bark and grape surface, highlighting the importance of vine age on yeast colonization. Results reported the isolation of S. cerevisiae from vine bark of the old vineyard at all sampling times, regardless of the presence of the grape bunch. Therefore, this environment can be considered an alternative ecological niche that permanently hosts S. cerevisiae. Bark-associated strains were not found on grape bunches and during pilot-scale vinifications, indicating no significative strain transfer from vine bark to the grape must. Commercial starters were identified as well both in vineyards and during vinifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling and Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Selection of Specific Growth Rate Models of Batch Cultivation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast for Ethanol Production
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030061 - 08 Jul 2019
Abstract
This study is focused on using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) for selecting specific growth rate models of batch cultivation by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ten specific growth rate models—Monod, Mink, Tessier, Moser, Aiba, Andrews, Haldane, Luong, Edward, and Han-Levenspiel—were investigated in order to [...] Read more.
This study is focused on using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) for selecting specific growth rate models of batch cultivation by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ten specific growth rate models—Monod, Mink, Tessier, Moser, Aiba, Andrews, Haldane, Luong, Edward, and Han-Levenspiel—were investigated in order to explain the cell growth kinetics by the dependence on glucose. By using the preference ranking organization method (PROMETHEE) II, it was found that the Andrews model was the highest of rank and was the most appropriate one for modelling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation under Oleic Acid and Ergosterol Depletion
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030057 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
Under anaerobic/hypoxic conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on external lipid supplements to modulate membrane lipid fraction in response to different stresses. Here, transcriptomic responses of two S. cerevisiae wine strains were evaluated during hypoxic fermentation of a synthetic must with/without ergosterol and oleic acid [...] Read more.
Under anaerobic/hypoxic conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on external lipid supplements to modulate membrane lipid fraction in response to different stresses. Here, transcriptomic responses of two S. cerevisiae wine strains were evaluated during hypoxic fermentation of a synthetic must with/without ergosterol and oleic acid supplementation. In the absence of lipids, the two strains, namely EC1118 and M25, showed different behaviour, with M25 significantly decreasing its fermentation rate from the 72 h after inoculum. At this time point, the whole genome transcriptomic analysis revealed common and strain-specific responses to the lack of lipid supplementation. Common responses included the upregulation of the genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, as well as the seripauperin and the heat shock protein multigene families. In addition, the upregulation of the aerobic isoforms of genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport is compatible with the previously observed accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the two strains during growth in absence of lipids. Considering the strain-specific responses, M25 downregulated the transcription of genes involved in glucose transport, methionine biosynthesis and of those encoding mannoproteins required for adaptation to low temperatures and hypoxia. The identification of these pathways, which are presumably involved in yeast resistance to stresses, will assist industrial strain selection. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Yeast Life Span and its Impact on Food Fermentations
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020037 - 26 Apr 2019
Abstract
Yeasts are very important microorganisms for food production. The high fermentative capacity, mainly of the species of the genus Saccharomyces, is a key factor for their biotechnological use, particularly to produce alcoholic beverages. As viability and vitality are essential to ensure their [...] Read more.
Yeasts are very important microorganisms for food production. The high fermentative capacity, mainly of the species of the genus Saccharomyces, is a key factor for their biotechnological use, particularly to produce alcoholic beverages. As viability and vitality are essential to ensure their correct performance in industry, this review addresses the main aspects related to the cellular aging of these fungi as their senescence impacts their proper functioning. Laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae have proven a very successful model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that control life span. Those mechanisms are shared by all eukaryotic cells. S. cerevisiae has two models of aging, replicative and chronological. Replicative life span is measured by the number of daughter cells a mother can produce. This kind of aging is relevant when the yeast biomass is reused, as in the case of beer fermentations. Chronological life span is measured by the time cells are viable in the stationary phase, and this is relevant for batch fermentations when cells are most of the time in a non-dividing state, such as wine fermentations. The molecular causes and pathways regulating both types of aging are explained in this review. Full article
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