Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 12448

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
FoodMicroTeam S.r.l. Spin Off, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
Interests: wine; microbial diversity; food fermentation; food microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine fermentation can be carried out spontaneously by the microbial populations naturally associated with the grapes and the cellar or using selected microbial starters. In any case, the adequate management of the fermentation processes is essential to obtain quality wines with the desired sensory characteristics. The management of spontaneous fermentation processes can be achieved by exploiting predictive microbiology. In winemaking, mathematical models have been used for monitoring yeast growth during alcoholic fermentation or predicting the contamination of grapes by mycotoxin-producing fungi over recent years, even if the potentiality of this approach in wine microbiology is little employed yet. Fermentation management using starter preparations is the most widespread. A careful selection of the strains is required to make this approach efficient. This approach is fundamental for the production of wines obtained with innovative processes, without added sulphur dioxide, with chemical–physical characteristics that make malolactic fermentation difficult, with high sugar content in the starting grape must or “special wines” like liqueur wines or sparkling wine. This Special Issue addresses and encourages the submission of manuscripts that cover a wide range of novel approaches, solutions, and methods for managing wine fermentation processes.

Dr. Simona Guerrini
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • wine fermentations
  • malolactic fermentation
  • winemaking
  • wine quality
  • microbial starters
  • predictive microbiology
  • yeasts
  • lactic acid bacteria

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Aroma Features of Hanseniaspora vineae Hv205 Wines in Sequential and Co-Inoculation Strategies
by Adelaide Gallo, Tomas Roman, Mauro Paolini, Nicola Cappello, Raffaele Guzzon, Francisco Carrau, Rémi Schneider and Roberto Larcher
Fermentation 2024, 10(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10040191 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Hanseniaspora vineae (Hv) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast with unique metabolic features, making it appealing for wine production. However, Hv presents high nutritional requirements that may lead to slow fermentation. This study investigated the impact of sequential inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) in [...] Read more.
Hanseniaspora vineae (Hv) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast with unique metabolic features, making it appealing for wine production. However, Hv presents high nutritional requirements that may lead to slow fermentation. This study investigated the impact of sequential inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) in white winemaking at different time points (24, 48, 74, 100 and 200 h) during Hv fermentation and compared them to simultaneous inoculations. The 200 h protocol extended fermentation by an average of 13 days compared to pure Sc, decreasing with earlier sequential inoculation. Sc wines were richer in isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate than Hv wines, with no significant differences among inoculation protocols. β-phenylethyl acetate was increased in Hv wines, particularly in the 24 h protocol. The 2-phenylethanol concentration was negatively correlated with the S. cerevisiae inoculation delay. Hv altered the wine aroma features, enhancing the compounds associated with rose-like scents. Reducing the Sc inoculation delay aligned Hv with industrial standards while maintaining increased β-phenylethyl acetate production. However, co-inoculation with Sc seems to better meet the Hv requirement without sacrificing the main aromatic features of Hv, demonstrating faster sugar depletion and higher acetate and ethyl ester contents, suggesting that co-inoculation yields a more modulable wine aroma profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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17 pages, 1399 KiB  
Article
Influence of Cryoextraction and Cold Pre-Fermentative Maceration on the Yeast Microbiota and the Volatile Compounds Profile of Sangiovese Wine
by Simona Guerrini, Viola Galli, Silvia Mangani and Lisa Granchi
Fermentation 2024, 10(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10030148 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Low-temperature treatments can be applied to grapes or must before alcoholic fermentation to enhance the wine’s sensory characteristics. Several studies have shown that such practices have a positive effect on the polyphenol profile of the wine, but only a few surveys have examined [...] Read more.
Low-temperature treatments can be applied to grapes or must before alcoholic fermentation to enhance the wine’s sensory characteristics. Several studies have shown that such practices have a positive effect on the polyphenol profile of the wine, but only a few surveys have examined the effect of these treatments on the yeast microbiota of grapes and wine. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate how cryoextraction (freezing the grape with liquid nitrogen) and cold pre-fermentative maceration (at 5 °C for 48 h) affect the Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces populations during the winemaking process of red grapes, cv Sangiovese, conducted at two temperatures (20 and 30 °C). This research analyzed the concentration of various yeast species, their fermentation abilities, and the resulting wine’s aromatic profile. The Principal Component Analysis performed on yeast concentrations during the fermentations of various wines did not group the experimental wines based on treatment. However, the same groupings were highlighted when the concentrations of the volatile compounds, quantified in the experimental wines, were processed using the same statistical approach. Therefore, cryoextraction and cold pre-fermentative maceration seem to contribute less to the aromatic profile than the yeasts involved in the fermentation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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15 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Effect of New Methods for Inhibiting Malolactic Fermentation on the Analytical and Sensory Parameters of Wines
by Bozena Prusova, Josef Licek, Michal Kumsta, Mojmir Baron and Jiri Sochor
Fermentation 2024, 10(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10030122 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
This study focuses on the impact of new methods for inhibiting malolactic fermentation in white wines on their analytical and sensory properties. Enological preparations with different mechanisms of effect were tested: fumaric acid, chitosan, Estaan (a preparation based on tannin inhibition), medium-chain fatty [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the impact of new methods for inhibiting malolactic fermentation in white wines on their analytical and sensory properties. Enological preparations with different mechanisms of effect were tested: fumaric acid, chitosan, Estaan (a preparation based on tannin inhibition), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), sulphur dioxide and a control variant. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) was also performed. The samples underwent analysis through HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to determine the concentrations of malic and lactic acid, as well as biogenic amines. GC (gas chromatography) analysis was used to monitor volatile substances, alongside sensory evaluation. This study demonstrated a significant influence of individual enological preparations on the aromatic profile of the examined wines. The SO2 and MCFA variants exhibited the highest concentrations of volatile substances within the esters group, specifically isoamyl acetate, 1-hexyl acetate and phenylethyl acetate. Conversely, the fumaric acid and Estaan variants displayed the lowest concentrations of these esters. The most notable disparities were observed in acetoin concentration, with the MCFA variant exhibiting the lowest values. Additionally, the chitosan variant showed higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine compared to the MCFA and fumaric acid variants, which presented the lowest levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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13 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Addition of Yeast Mannoprotein to Oenococcus oeni Starter Cultures to Improve Wine Malolactic Fermentation
by Paloma Toraño, Jordi Gombau, Iratxe Mejías, Albert Bordons, Nicolas Rozès and Cristina Reguant
Fermentation 2024, 10(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10010052 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine is driven by the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni in most cases. Although this bacterium is resistant to wine stress conditions, it often faces difficulties completing MLF. Previous studies indicate that yeast mannoproteins may improve O. oeni growth [...] Read more.
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine is driven by the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni in most cases. Although this bacterium is resistant to wine stress conditions, it often faces difficulties completing MLF. Previous studies indicate that yeast mannoproteins may improve O. oeni growth and survival in wine. However, very little is known about this topic. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of mannoprotein extracts to culture media on O. oeni growth and its survival to stress conditions and MLF performance. Three commercial mannoprotein extracts were characterized in terms of polysaccharide and protein richness and were used for O. oeni culture media supplementation. The addition of mannoprotein extracts improved the survival of the two evaluated O. oeni strains, PSU-1 and VP41, after acid shock (pH 3.2) in comparison to that of the control. The transcriptional response of four genes involved in mannose metabolism was different depending on the strain, indicating the complexity of sugar metabolism in O. oeni. PSU-1 cells grown with two of the mannoprotein extracts performed faster MLF compared with the control condition, indicating that mannoprotein addition may improve the performance of O. oeni starter cultures, although this effect depends on the strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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16 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
Chemometric Differentiation of White Wines from a Low-Aromatic Grape Obtained by Spontaneous Fermentation, Enriched with Non-Saccharomyces, or with a High-Glutathione-Producing Saccharomyces Yeast
by Raquel Muñoz-Castells, Juan Moreno, Teresa García-Martínez, Juan Carlos Mauricio and Jaime Moreno-García
Fermentation 2023, 9(12), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9121023 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
This work focuses on the establishment of analytical and sensory differences between young wines obtained from the same grape must fermented using different strategies. The main purpose is to provide winemakers with objective criteria to help them to choose the best fermentation method [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the establishment of analytical and sensory differences between young wines obtained from the same grape must fermented using different strategies. The main purpose is to provide winemakers with objective criteria to help them to choose the best fermentation method to obtain the desired wine characteristics. The effects of four strategies were tested: a spontaneous fermentation with wild yeasts (WYs) and the addition of starter cultures of Lachancea thermotolerans (LT), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (MP), and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that is an overproducer of glutathione (SC) in different batches of the same must of the Pedro Ximénez white grape. The analytical results obtained show as the LT wine has the highest glutathione content, while the lowest ethanol concentrations. The use of chemometric tools applied to the volatile compounds allowed to differentiate the four wines by a principal component analysis (PCA) and the identification of 27 key compounds. The four wines did not show statistical differences in their smell or taste attributes and only the LT wine was visually differentiated from the rest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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16 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Torulaspora delbrueckii Improves Organoleptic Properties and Promotes Malolactic Fermentation in Carbonic Maceration Wines
by Candela Ruiz-de-Villa, Jordi Gombau, Montse Poblet, Albert Bordons, Joan Miquel Canals, Fernando Zamora, Cristina Reguant and Nicolas Rozès
Fermentation 2023, 9(12), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9121021 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2822
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of inoculating Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td) strains during the initial phase of carbonic maceration (CM) vinification, aiming to enhance the fermentative process and unique characteristics of CM wines. CM is a winemaking technique where whole bunches (without destemming and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of inoculating Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td) strains during the initial phase of carbonic maceration (CM) vinification, aiming to enhance the fermentative process and unique characteristics of CM wines. CM is a winemaking technique where whole bunches (without destemming and crushing) are enclosed in tanks filled with carbon dioxide, inducing intracellular fermentation. This study compares the effects of two Td strains on the MLF performance and sensory characteristics of CM wines using both inoculated and spontaneous MLF strategies. Although general physicochemical parameters remained consistent across conditions, organoleptic attributes showed significant differences due to T. delbrueckii presence. T. delbrueckii introduction during CM resulted in wines with increased anthocyanin content and a particular volatile profile. Isoamyl acetate, a key aroma in CM wines, was notably elevated, especially in the TdP strain. Sensory evaluations also revealed distinctions, with TdV wines displaying more pronounced aromas of red fruit, banana, and grass. Regarding MLF, T. delbrueckii presence notably enhanced performance, particularly in spontaneous MLF cases, accelerating fermentation completion. Inoculating the Oenococcus oeni strain OoVP41 also shortened MLF duration. These findings highlight the potential of Td strains to improve MLF efficiency and sensory attributes in CM wines. Using T. delbrueckii strains strategically enables winemakers to optimize MLF and improve sensory profiles, offering an opportunity to produce higher-quality CM wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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17 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Effect of Yeast Derivatives and β-Glucanases on Ageing over Lees Process of Tempranillo Red Sparkling Wine
by Raúl Moyano-Gracia, Josefina Vila-Crespo, Violeta Ruipérez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Nogales and Encarnación Fernández-Fernández
Fermentation 2023, 9(12), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9121012 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
This study focuses on improving the second fermentation and the in-bottle ageing over lees process for 9 and 21 months of a red sparkling wine. The aim of the study was to enhance wine quality and try to make it more pleasant for [...] Read more.
This study focuses on improving the second fermentation and the in-bottle ageing over lees process for 9 and 21 months of a red sparkling wine. The aim of the study was to enhance wine quality and try to make it more pleasant for consumers. For this purpose, four different yeast derivatives (yeast walls, yeast walls with tannins, inactivated yeasts and mannoproteins) and β-glucanases were added to a red base sparkling wine and were aged over lees during two different periods: 9 and 21 months. Oenological parameters, total polysaccharides, total proteins, free amino nitrogen, phenolic composition, foaming properties, and volatile compounds were analysed in conjunction with a sensory evaluation. Results show the different incidences of the studied adjuvants on the final parameters, highlighting the importance of the interactions of the studied adjuvants over time. In fact, time itself turned out to be one of the main factors affecting the final characteristics of the wine, so influencing consumers’ opinions and modifying the wine’s acceptability and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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14 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Modulation of the Aromatic Profile of Verdejo Wine through Sequential Inoculation of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
by Lorena López-Enríquez, Josefina Vila-Crespo, José Manuel Rodríguez-Nogales, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández and Violeta Ruipérez
Fermentation 2023, 9(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9110977 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc01 and Sc02) and one strain of Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Wa) were isolated from organic Verdejo spontaneous fermentations and used for the development of experimental winemaking. Sc01 and Sc02 represented 52.7% of the population of the Saccharomyces strains isolated [...] Read more.
Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc01 and Sc02) and one strain of Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Wa) were isolated from organic Verdejo spontaneous fermentations and used for the development of experimental winemaking. Sc01 and Sc02 represented 52.7% of the population of the Saccharomyces strains isolated throughout the fermentation process. W. anomalus appeared as the predominant species among the non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Wa turned out to be the strain of this species with the shortest lag phase and positive enzymatic activities, and it was selected for white wine production. Fermentations with unique inoculation of S. cerevisiae strains were compared with sequential inoculation with W. anomalus. The results showed that the sequential inoculations did not affect the fermentation kinetics or physicochemical characteristics of the wines compared with the unique inoculations. However, this study identified a significant impact on the aromatic profiles of the produced wines due to the sequential inoculations. This modification resulted in a similar new aromatic profile in both sequential inoculations, demonstrating common characteristics related to the contribution of W. anomalus. In general, the sequential fermentations were mainly characterized by lower levels of acetate esters and an increase in ethyl acetate levels, whereas lower levels of ethyl octanoate and ethyl dec-9-enoate were detected. Propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol showed an increase in the sequential fermentations, while 4-methylpentan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol were found in lower concentrations. These results highlight the great influence that the presence of specific strains of native non-Saccharomyces yeasts exerts on the characteristics of elaborate wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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Review

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16 pages, 3697 KiB  
Review
Advancements and Future Directions in Yellow Rice Wine Production Research
by Jingxian Zhang, Tian Li, Gen Zou, Yongjun Wei and Lingbo Qu
Fermentation 2024, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10010040 - 04 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Yellow rice wine is a traditional fermented beverage in China. The microorganisms in the brewing process play a crucial role in shaping the composition and quality of the wine through their regulation of microbial growth, fermentation metabolites, metabolic balance, and ethanol production. Yellow [...] Read more.
Yellow rice wine is a traditional fermented beverage in China. The microorganisms in the brewing process play a crucial role in shaping the composition and quality of the wine through their regulation of microbial growth, fermentation metabolites, metabolic balance, and ethanol production. Yellow rice wine not only has culinary value but also possesses potential medicinal value. This is attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidants, and other natural products that can provide antioxidant and other probiotic effects. The fermentation process of yellow rice wine offers potential nutritional supplementation and improved digestion. While traditional brewing techniques have long been employed, modern biotechnology helps enhance the quality and stability of the wine by selecting suitable microbial strains, optimizing fermentation conditions, and precisely controlling the fermentation process. The collection of diverse fermentation microbes and the construction of specifically designed microbiota for yellow rice wine production could expedite the production of high-quality yellow rice wine. The ultimate goal is to enhance the nutritional value, conditioning function, and overall consumption experience of yellow rice wine. Future research will delve into exploring the relationship between microorganisms and active ingredients in yellow rice wine, improving both the quality and functionality of the wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for the Management of Wine Fermentations)
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