Special Issue "Carbon Emission Reduction—Carbon Tax, Carbon Trading, and Carbon Offset"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.
Prof. Dr. Wen-Hsien Tsai
Distinguished Professor of Information & Accounting Systems, Department of Business Administration, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
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Interests: sustainability; green production decision model; Industry 4.0; corporate social responsibility (CSR); activity-based costing (ABC); enterprise resource planning (ERP); carbon emission cost; energy saving and carbon emission reduction; international financial reporting standards (IFRS)
The Paris Agreement was signed by 195 nations in December 2015 to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, following the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. In Article 2 of the Paris Agreement, the increase in the global average temperature is anticipated to be held to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and efforts are being employed to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. It is estimated that about 72% of the totally emitted greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2), 18% methane, and 9% nitrous oxide. Therefore, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (or carbon emissions) are the most important cause of global warming. The United Nations has made efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or mitigate their effect. In Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, three cooperative approaches that countries can take in attaining the goal of their carbon emission reduction are described, including direct bilateral cooperation, new sustainable development mechanisms, and non-market-based approaches.
The World Bank stated that there are some incentives which have been created to encourage carbon emission reduction, such as the removal of fossil fuels subsidies, the introduction of carbon pricing, the increase of energy efficiency standards, and the implementation of auctions for the lowest-cost renewable energy. Among these, carbon pricing refers to charges those who emit carbon dioxide (CO2) for their emissions, including carbon taxes, emissions trading systems (ETSs), offset mechanisms, results-based climate finance (RBCF), and so on. In view of the urgent need for carbon emission reduction, this Special Issue will focus the on the discussion of carbon tax, carbon trading, and carbon offset.
Carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide. It is a pollution tax and a form of carbon pricing. The objective of a carbon tax is to reduce the harmful and unfavorable levels of carbon dioxide emissions, thereby decelerating climate change and its negative effects on the environment and human health. Carbon tax also can prompt companies to find more efficient ways to manufacture their products or deliver their services. Generally, carbon tax is determined by the carbon tax rate and the quantity of carbon emissions of a company in its manufacturing processes, and it is represented as the amount paid for every ton of greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. However, carbon tax also will have some disadvantages, such as imposing expensive administration costs for businesses, prompting them to move their operations to “pollution havens”, and so on.
Carbon trading is another form of carbon pricing under cap-and-trade systems. Cap-and-trade is one method for regulating and ultimately reducing the amount of carbon emissions. The government sets a cap on carbon emissions for the whole country, then limits the amount of carbon dioxide that companies are allowed to release. A company that can more efficiently reduce carbon emissions can sell any extra permits in the emission market to companies that cannot easily afford to reduce carbon emission. Thus, carbon trading markets are set up. The number of emissions trading systems around the world is increasing. In addition to the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS), national or subnational systems are already in operation or under development in Canada, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United States.
A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. One ton of carbon offset represents the reduction of one ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets: (1) The larger compliance market, where companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit; and (2) the smaller voluntary market, where individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. Carbon offset usually supports projects that reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the short- or long-term. A common project type is renewable energy, such as wind farms, biomass energy, or hydroelectric dams. Others include energy efficiency projects, the destruction of industrial pollutants or agricultural byproducts, the destruction of landfill methane, LULUCF (land use, land-use change, and forestry), REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation), and so on.
In view of the urgent need for carbon emission reduction, we would like to invite researchers and professionals from universities, enterprises, and governmental units to share new ideas, innovations, trends, and experiences concerning the related issues of carbon tax, carbon trading, carbon offset, and other related methods of carbon emission reduction. Both original research articles as well as review articles are welcome.
Prof. Dr. Wen-Hsien Tsai
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
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- climate change
- global warming
- carbon emission
- direct carbon emission
- indirect carbon emission
- carbon footprint
- greenhouse gas (GHG)
- carbon emission reduction
- greenhouse gas reduction
- carbon emission cost analysis
- quota decline scheme
- computable general equilibrium (CGE)
- certified emission reductions (CERs)
- emission reduction units (ERUs)
- carbon pricing
- internal carbon pricing
- carbon tax
- energy tax
- gasoline tax
- emission permit
- emission allowances
- allowance allocation mechanism
- carbon (emission) trading
- carbon trading market
- international emission trading (IET)
- personal carbon trading
- carbon credit
- tradable renewable credit
- emission trading schemes (ETS)
- European Union emission trading schemes (EU ETS)
- carbon offset
- renewable energy project
- energy efficiency project
- low-carbon energy
- zero carbon energy
- zero emission vehicle
- vehicle electrification
- zero emission building
- methane collection and combustion
- forestry project
- land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF)
- reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)
- carbon retirement
- carbon capture and storage
- forest carbon sinks
- CO2 recycling
- carbon leakage
- enterprise carbon accounting