energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Wave and Tidal Energy 2020

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 31442

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hydraulic Engineering, CIGEO Research Group, Campus Terra, University of Santiago de Compostela, Compostela, Spain
Interests: marine renewable energy; estuarine and coastal hydrodynamics; sediment transport; integrated water resources management of marine and freshwater systems; aquaculture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hydraulic Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, EPSE, Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Interests: marine renewable energy; ocean engineering, coastal modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, marine renewable energy has emerged as one of the most powerful renewables with the potential to replace fossil fuel generation. Amongst the different marine energy resources, wave and tidal energy stand out because of their high-density, well-predictability, and low environmental impact. In addition, they present significant synergies with other marine renewables, as is the case for offshore wind energy, along with other coastal uses, thereby enhancing their economic viability. In this context, intensive research has led to the development of the wave and tidal industry, and, as a result, the exploitation of these forms of energy is approaching commercial viability.

This Special Issue deals with any research on the improvement of the understanding of wave and tidal energy exploitation. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Resource assessment;
  • Performance analysis;
  • Impact of farm operation;
  • Coastal protection;
  • Cost assessment;
  • Synergies with other renewables and coastal uses;
  • Array design;
  • Farm deployment planning and integrated coastal zone management;
  • Device optimization through numerical and physical modeling;
  • PTO design;
  • Grid connection;
  • Installation and maintenance;
  • Implications of climate change on energy exploitation

Dr. Rodrigo Carballo Sánchez
Dr. Iván López Moreira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wave energy
  • tidal energy
  • performance
  • impact
  • coastal protection
  • economics
  • integrated coastal zone management
  • technologies
  • device optimization
  • numerical modeling
  • physical modeling
  • multiuse platforms
  • climate change

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

18 pages, 10086 KiB  
Article
Design Selection and Geometry in OWC Wave Energy Converters for Performance
by Iván López, Rodrigo Carballo, David Mateo Fouz and Gregorio Iglesias
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061707 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Although oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters are arguably one of the most studied technologies, it is not clear which chamber geometry, among all of the available alternatives, would provide the best performance at a site of interest. In this work, a [...] Read more.
Although oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters are arguably one of the most studied technologies, it is not clear which chamber geometry, among all of the available alternatives, would provide the best performance at a site of interest. In this work, a numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations for two compressible fluids, using a volume-of-fluid interface-capturing approach, is implemented to determine the best performing OWC geometry in a case study off the Port of Vigo (NW Spain). Four general shapes of OWC are analyzed: classic, stepped-bottom, U-shaped and L-shaped, and geometrical variants are investigated. In total, 18 chamber geometries are studied, considering the same turbine geometry in all of them. It was found that the U-shaped and L-shaped designs are the most easily tuned to resonate at a period of interest. Of these two, the L-shaped performs better. The best performance is achieved for an L-shaped OWC design with a shallow entrance, a high horizontal chamber duct and a wide vertical duct, for which a maximum capture-width ratio of 71.6% was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Tidal Energy Flows between the Midriff Islands in the Gulf of California
by Federico Angel Velazquez-Muñoz and Anatoliy Filonov
Energies 2021, 14(3), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030621 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
The Gulf of California has many regions of potential tidal-stream energy that have been identified and characterized using in-situ measurements and numerical ocean models. The Midriff Islands region has received particular attention due to its increased current speeds and high kinetic energy. This [...] Read more.
The Gulf of California has many regions of potential tidal-stream energy that have been identified and characterized using in-situ measurements and numerical ocean models. The Midriff Islands region has received particular attention due to its increased current speeds and high kinetic energy. This increase in energy can be seen in the formation of internal wave packets propagating for several hundred kilometers. Here we present a brief description of internal wave measurements travel towards the Northern Gulf and explore energy generation sites. In this paper we characterize the tidal inflow and outflow that passes throughout the Midriff Islands in the central part of the Gulf. We use a three-dimensional numerical ocean model that adequately reproduces the tidal flow and the increase in speed and kinetic energy between the islands. The current flow structure shows the highest velocity cores near the shore and far from the bottom. During the rising tide, the maximum current flow (~0.6 ms−1) was found between Turón Island and San Lorenzo Island, from the surface to 200 m depth. When the currents flowed out of the Gulf, during the falling tide, the maximum negative current (−0.8 ms−1) was found between Tiburon Island and Turón Island, from near the surface to 80 m depth. Although there are favorable conditions for power generation potential by tidal flows, the vertical variability of the current must be considered for field development and equipment installation sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5102 KiB  
Article
Mooring Angle Study of a Horizontal Rotor Wave Energy Converter
by Zhongliang Meng, Yanjun Liu, Jian Qin and Shumin Sun
Energies 2021, 14(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020344 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
The horizontal rotor wave energy converter is a newly designed wave energy converter. While the mooring system plays a vital role in keeping the device floating stably, the selection of the mooring angle has immediate effects on the device’s floating stability and energy [...] Read more.
The horizontal rotor wave energy converter is a newly designed wave energy converter. While the mooring system plays a vital role in keeping the device floating stably, the selection of the mooring angle has immediate effects on the device’s floating stability and energy generation efficiency. Given the properties of wave energy along the coast in Shandong Province, this study combines wave statistics gathered from field measurements of a certain area in the Bohai Sea with hydrological data obtained in a field test in the same sea area and adopts Stokes’ fifth-order wave theory to theoretically design and simulate the mooring system for the new type of power generating device. With the help of AQWA software, data on the dynamics of the device at various angles are obtained to construct models and carry out regular wave experiments according to the most appropriate mooring angles to show the validity of the selected mooring angles. The consistency of the results between the experiment and simulation confirms that under the same working conditions of regular waves, as the mooring angle increases, the roll angle decreases first and then increases, the pitch angle barely varies, and the yaw angle decreases first and then increases. The adoption of this simulation method and the gathered experimental data help to provide theoretical and practical bases for choosing the mooring method for the engineering prototype and obtaining a reliable supply of power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 12992 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Tubular Slotted Linear Generators for Direct Drive Wave Energy Conversion Systems
by Naily Akmal Mohd Zamri, Taib Ibrahim and Nursyarizal Mohd Nor
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6171; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236171 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Linear generator utilization in a wave energy converter (WEC) is an attractive alternative to a rotary generator. This paper presents the design of a permanent magnet linear machine (PMLM) for WEC applications in low wave power areas. In this paper, the wave height [...] Read more.
Linear generator utilization in a wave energy converter (WEC) is an attractive alternative to a rotary generator. This paper presents the design of a permanent magnet linear machine (PMLM) for WEC applications in low wave power areas. In this paper, the wave height and vertical speed of Malaysian water is used for the simulation and design. Two design variants are introduced which are tubular PMLM with no spacer (TPMLM-NS) and tubular PMLM with spacer (TPMLM-S). Finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted to investigate the performance and to refine the main dimensions of the design in terms of split ratio, pitch ratio and tooth width. The FEA results are then validated using an analytical method which is established according to the design’s magnetic field distribution. Based on main dimension refinement, it can be deduced that both the split ratio and the pitch ratio have a significant influence on the airgap flux density and back EMF of the design. The obtained FEA results also reveal that the TPMLM-NS variant is capable of producing 240 V back EMF, 1 kW output power with satisfactory efficiency. Consequently, this indicates the capability of the design to convert wave energy with good performance. Additionally, good agreement between the analytical predictions and FEA results was obtained with a low percentage of error, thus providing concrete assurance of the accuracy of the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 9580 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Coupling for a 10 kW Tidal Current Turbine: Design and Small Scale Experiments
by In-cheol Kim, Joji Wata, Watchara Tongphong, Jong-Su Yoon and Young-Ho Lee
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5725; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215725 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
This paper presents a coupling design that improves water tightness of a marine current turbine (MCT). The coupling is numerically analyzed and incorporated into the design of an MCT from a previous study. The performance of the MCT with the magnetic coupling is [...] Read more.
This paper presents a coupling design that improves water tightness of a marine current turbine (MCT). The coupling is numerically analyzed and incorporated into the design of an MCT from a previous study. The performance of the MCT with the magnetic coupling is compared to the previous results in small scale turbine experiments. The results show that the new design is water tight and has lower mechanical losses when compared with previous results. The new turbine has increased maximum power output (from 116 W to 122 W) and hydrodynamic coefficient of power (Previously 0.45 to 0.46). Using these results, the coupling design is scaled for a 10 kW MCT and further analyzed by finite element analysis. The results obtained show that the magnetic coupling is capable of withstanding the combined weight of the hub and blade assembly. The results in this study will be used for developing a prototype for deployment in real seas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of an Inverted Pendulum System in Water under Parametric Excitations for Energy Harvesting: A Conceptual Approach
by Saqib Hasnain, Karam Dad Kallu, Muhammad Haq Nawaz, Naseem Abbas and Catalin Iulin Pruncu
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5215; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195215 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
In this paper, we have investigated the dynamic response, vibration control technique, and upright stability of an inverted pendulum system in an underwater environment in view point of a conceptual future wave energy harvesting system. The pendulum system is subjected to a parametrically [...] Read more.
In this paper, we have investigated the dynamic response, vibration control technique, and upright stability of an inverted pendulum system in an underwater environment in view point of a conceptual future wave energy harvesting system. The pendulum system is subjected to a parametrically excited input (used as a water wave) at its pivot point in the vertical direction for stabilization purposes. For the first time, a mathematical model for investigating the underwater dynamic response of an inverted pendulum system has been developed, considering the effect of hydrodynamic forces (like the drag force and the buoyancy force) acting on the system. The mathematical model of the system has been derived by applying the standard Lagrange equation. To obtain the approximate solution of the system, the averaging technique has been utilized. An open loop parametric excitation technique has been applied to stabilize the pendulum system at its upright unstable equilibrium position. Both (like the lower and the upper) stability borders have been shown for the responses of both pendulum systems in vacuum and water (viscously damped). Furthermore, stability regions for both cases are clearly drawn and analyzed. The results are illustrated through numerical simulations. Numerical simulation results concluded that: (i) The application of the parametric excitation control method in this article successfully stabilizes the newly developed system model in an underwater environment, (ii) there is a significant increase in the excitation amplitude in the stability region for the system in water versus in vacuum, and (iii) the stability region for the system in vacuum is wider than that in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 10316 KiB  
Article
Wave Power Assessment in the Middle Part of the Southern Coast of Java Island
by Addy Wahyudie, Tri Bagus Susilo, Fatima Alaryani, Cuk Supriyadi Ali Nandar, Mohammed Abdi Jama, Abdulrahman Daher and Hussain Shareef
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102633 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
An assessment of the wave power at the southern coast of the middle part of Java Island (Indonesia) was conducted based on a 15-year hindcast spectral wave model using the MIKE 21 Spectral Wave software. The model was forced with wind data with [...] Read more.
An assessment of the wave power at the southern coast of the middle part of Java Island (Indonesia) was conducted based on a 15-year hindcast spectral wave model using the MIKE 21 Spectral Wave software. The model was forced with wind data with a 0.125° spatial interval and hourly time resolution. The obtained model was validated with field data collected from a buoy station that provided a set of significant wave height data with an hourly data interval for the whole month of June 2014. The validation showed that the obtained model matched the observed data with a minor average error. A spatial analysis was conducted in order to find the most suitable location for installing wave energy converters while taking into consideration the potential area demand, the wave power intensity, and the distance from the shore. Moreover, spatial analysis is conducted in order to find a suitable location to install wave energy converters, with consideration to potential area demand, wave power intensity, and distance from the shore. The best prospective location reached 30 kW/m of mean wave power intensity, 2.04 m of mean significant wave height, 8.9 s of mean wave period, 150 m of distance from the shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5171 KiB  
Article
On the Development of an Offshore Version of the CECO Wave Energy Converter
by Gianmaria Giannini, Paulo Rosa-Santos, Victor Ramos and Francisco Taveira-Pinto
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051036 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Offshore locations present significant amounts of wave energy and free sea space, which could facilitate the deployment of larger numbers of wave energy converters (WECs) in comparison with nearshore regions. The present study aims to find a suitable design for an offshore floating [...] Read more.
Offshore locations present significant amounts of wave energy and free sea space, which could facilitate the deployment of larger numbers of wave energy converters (WECs) in comparison with nearshore regions. The present study aims to find a suitable design for an offshore floating version of CECO, a sloped motion WEC. For this purpose, a new design methodology is proposed in this paper for identifying and assessing possible floating configurations of CECO, which consists of four distinct set-ups obtained by varying the type of main supporting structure and the mooring system. Two options are based on spar designs and the other two on tension leg platform (TLP) designs. Based on outcomes of time-domain numerical calculations, the aforementioned configurations were assessed in terms of annual wave energy conversion and magnitude of mooring loads. Results indicate that a TLP configuration with an innovative mooring solution could increase the annual energy production by 40% with respect to the fixed version of CECO. Besides, the mooring system is found to be a key component, influencing the overall system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 4135 KiB  
Article
The Economic Feasibility of Floating Offshore Wave Energy Farms in the North of Spain
by Laura Castro-Santos, Ana Rute Bento and Carlos Guedes Soares
Energies 2020, 13(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040806 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
A technique to analyse the economic viability of offshore farms composed of wave energy converters is proposed. Firstly, the inputs, whose value will be considered afterwards in the economic step, was calculated using geographic information software. Secondly, the energy produced by each wave [...] Read more.
A technique to analyse the economic viability of offshore farms composed of wave energy converters is proposed. Firstly, the inputs, whose value will be considered afterwards in the economic step, was calculated using geographic information software. Secondly, the energy produced by each wave converter was calculated. Then the economic factors were computed. Finally, the restriction that considers the depth of the region (bathymetry) was put together with the economic outputs, whose value depends on the floating Wave Energy Converter (WEC). The method proposed was applied to the Cantabric and Atlantic coasts in the north of Spain, a region with a good offshore wave energy resource. In addition, three representative WECs were studied: Pelamis, AquaBuoy and Wave Dragon; and five options for electric tariffs were analysed. Results show the Wave Energy Converter that has the best results regarding its LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy), IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value), and which area is best for the development of a wave farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 3496 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Wave Energy Resources Using Various Time Dependent Criteria
by Bahareh Kamranzad, George Lavidas and Kaoru Takara
Energies 2020, 13(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030768 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3910
Abstract
The wave energy resources in the Indian Ocean can be considered as a potential alternative to fossil fuels. However, the wave energy resources are subject to short-term fluctuations and long-term changes due to climate change. Hence, considering sustainable development goals, it is necessary [...] Read more.
The wave energy resources in the Indian Ocean can be considered as a potential alternative to fossil fuels. However, the wave energy resources are subject to short-term fluctuations and long-term changes due to climate change. Hence, considering sustainable development goals, it is necessary to assess both short-term (intra-annual) variation and long-term change. For this purpose, the simulated wave characteristics were utilized, and the wave power and its variation and change were analyzed in the whole domain and nearshore areas. The short-term fluctuation was investigated in terms of monthly and seasonal variations and the future change was discussed based on absolute and relative changes. Both analyses show that the Southern Indian Ocean, despite experiencing extreme events and having higher wave energy potential, is more stable in terms of both short and long-term variation and change. The assessment of the total and exploitable storages of wave energy and their future change revealed the higher potential and higher stability of the nearshores of the Southern Indian Ocean. It can be concluded that based on various factors, the south of Sri Lanka, Horn of Africa, southeast Africa, south of Madagascar and Reunion and Mauritius islands are the most suitable areas for wave energy extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7201 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Wave Energy Converter Integrated into a Harbor Breakwater
by Tomás Cabral, Daniel Clemente, Paulo Rosa-Santos, Francisco Taveira-Pinto, Tiago Morais, Filipe Belga and Henrique Cestaro
Energies 2020, 13(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010236 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3790
Abstract
Seaports are highly energy demanding infrastructures and are exposed to wave energy, which is an abundant resource and largely unexploited. As a result, there has been a rising interest in integrating wave energy converters (WEC) into the breakwaters of seaports. The present work [...] Read more.
Seaports are highly energy demanding infrastructures and are exposed to wave energy, which is an abundant resource and largely unexploited. As a result, there has been a rising interest in integrating wave energy converters (WEC) into the breakwaters of seaports. The present work analyzes the performance of an innovative hybrid WEC module combining an oscillating water column (OWC) and an overtopping device (OWEC) integrated into a rubble mound breakwater, based on results of a physical model study carried out at a geometrical scale of 1:50. Before the experimental tests, the device’s performance was numerically optimized using ANSYS Fluent and WOPSim v3.11. The wave power captured by the hybrid WEC was calculated and the performance of the two harvesting principles discussed. It was demonstrated that hybridization could lead to systems with higher efficiencies than its individual components, for a broader range of wave conditions. The chosen concepts were found to complement each other: the OWEC was more efficient for the lower wave periods tested and the OWC for the higher. Consequently, the power production of the hybrid WEC was found to be less dependent on the wave’s characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tidal Energy 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop