Special Issue "Power System Simulation with Renewable Power: Protection, Optimization and Control"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. J. C. Hernandez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering department, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: power electronics; renewable systems; microgrids; electric vehicles; power quality; power systems simulation; metaheuristic optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Oscar Danilo Montoya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Smart Energy Lab, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, km 1 vía Turbaco, Cartagena 131001, Colombia
2. Engineering Faculty, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogota D.C. 11021, Colombia
Interests: power system optimization; linear and nonlinear control; power electronics; renewable energy; microgrids; dynamical simulation; exact and metaheuristic optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Undoubtedly, renewable energy sources (RES) have changed traditional transmission grids and represent a significant electricity resource in modern power systems. In this context, the analysis, operation, and control of power systems are increasingly complex tasks that require advanced simulation models to analyze and control the effects of transformations concerning electricity grids today: massive integration of RES, progressive implementation of electric vehicles, development of intelligent networks, and progressive evolution of the applications of artificial intelligence.

This Special Issue will present the latest research developments and practical applications in the field of protection, control, and optimization in new scenarios for future power systems. These include, in particular but not exclusively:

  • Modeling, design, analysis, and control of low-power and high-power converters for renewable energy conversion and their interconnections;
  • Design and control of intelligent power plants for future power grids;
  • Modelling, control, and simulation of battery-based energy storage systems integrated in renewable plants;
  • Modelling of smart grids with RES;
  • Dynamical modeling and control of flywheels, supercapacitors, superconducting coils, and energy storage technologies for AC and DC distribution applications;
  • Optimization algorithms for energy management and intelligent control of RES plants in distribution grid;
  • Impact of RES plants on power quality;
  • Planning and operation of renewable power systems;
  • Analysis and control of DC and hybrid AC/DC power networks;
  • Ancillary services of distributed generation;
  • Diagnostics, maintenance, risks, reliability, vulnerability, and self-healing of grids;
  • Big data analysis.

Dr. J. C. Hernandez
Dr. Oscar Danilo Montoya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power system modeling
  • Optimization algorithms
  • Renewable energies
  • Distributed generation
  • Systems and control for sustainability
  • Power quality
  • Hybrid AC/DC systems
  • Linear and nonlinear control methods
  • Distribution system planning and operation
  • Exact and metaheuristic optimization

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
A Flexible Operation and Sizing of Battery Energy Storage System Based on Butterfly Optimization Algorithm
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010109 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 118
Abstract
There is a surge in the total energy demand of the world due to the increase in the world’s population and the ever-increasing human dependence on technology. Conventional non-renewable energy sources still contribute a larger amount to the total energy production. Due to [...] Read more.
There is a surge in the total energy demand of the world due to the increase in the world’s population and the ever-increasing human dependence on technology. Conventional non-renewable energy sources still contribute a larger amount to the total energy production. Due to their greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution, the substitution of these sources with renewable energy sources (RES) is desired. However, RES, such as wind energy, are uncertain, intermittent, and unpredictable. Hence, there is a need to optimize their usage when they are available. This can be carried out through a flexible operation of a microgrid system with the power grid to gradually reduce the contribution of the conventional sources in the power system using energy storage systems (ESS). To integrate the RES in a cost-effective approach, the ESS must be optimally sized and operated within its safe limitations. This study, therefore, presents a flexible method for the optimal sizing and operation of battery ESS (BESS) in a wind-penetrated microgrid system using the butterfly optimization (BO) algorithm. The BO algorithm was utilized for its simple and fast implementation and for its ability to obtain global optimization parameters. In the formulation of the optimization problem, the study considers the depth of discharge and life-cycle of the BESS. Simulation results for three different scenarios were studied, analyzed, and compared. The resulting optimized BESS connected scenario yielded the most cost-effective strategy among all scenarios considered. Full article
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Article
Optimal Placement of Reclosers in a Radial Distribution System for Reliability Improvement
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243182 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
There is a need for the optimal positioning of protective devices to maximize customers satisfaction per their demands. Such arrangement advances the distribution system reliability to maximum achievable. Thus, radial distribution system (RDS) reliability can be improved by placing reclosers at suitable feeder [...] Read more.
There is a need for the optimal positioning of protective devices to maximize customers satisfaction per their demands. Such arrangement advances the distribution system reliability to maximum achievable. Thus, radial distribution system (RDS) reliability can be improved by placing reclosers at suitable feeder sections. This article presents comprehensive details of an attempt to determine the reclosers’ optimal location in an RDS to maximize the utility profit by reliability improvement. Assessment of different reliability indices such as SAIDI, SAIFI, CAIFI, CAIDI, etc., with recloser placement, exhibits a considerable improvement in these indices in contrast with the absence of recloser. Consequently, a new bidirectional formulation has been proposed for the optimized arrangement of reclosers’. This formulation efficiently handles the bidirectional power flow, resulting from distributed generation (DG) unit (s) in the system. The proposed model has been solved for a test system by utilizing the Genetic algorithm (GA) optimization method. Later, test results conclude that reclosers’ optimal placement contributes significantly towards utility profit with minimum investment and outage costs. Full article
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Article
An Approximate Mixed-Integer Convex Model to Reduce Annual Operating Costs in Radial Distribution Networks Using STATCOMs
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243102 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The problem of optimal siting and sizing of distribution static compensators (STATCOMs) is addressed in this research from the point of view of exact mathematical optimization. The exact mixed-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP) is decoupled into two convex optimization sub-problems, named the location [...] Read more.
The problem of optimal siting and sizing of distribution static compensators (STATCOMs) is addressed in this research from the point of view of exact mathematical optimization. The exact mixed-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP) is decoupled into two convex optimization sub-problems, named the location problem and the sizing problem. The location problem is addressed by relaxing the exact MINLP model, assuming that all the voltages are equal to 10, which allows obtaining a mixed-integer quadratic programming model as a function of the active and reactive power flows. The solution of this model provides the best set of nodes to locate all the STATCOMs. When all the nodes are selected, it solves the optimal reactive power problem through a second-order cone programming relaxation of the exact optimal power flow problem; the solution of the SOCP model provides the optimal sizes of the STATCOMs. Finally, it refines the exact objective function value due to the intrinsic non-convexities associated with the costs of the STATCOMs that were relaxed through the application of Taylor’s series expansion in the location and sizing stages. The numerical results in the IEEE 33- and 69-bus systems demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed optimization problem when compared with large-scale MINLP solvers in GAMS and the discrete-continuous version of the vortex search algorithm (DCVSA) recently reported in the current literature. With respect to the benchmark cases of the test feeders, the proposed approach reaches the best reductions with 14.17% and 15.79% in the annual operative costs, which improves the solutions of the DCVSA, which are 13.71% and 15.30%, respectively. Full article
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Article
Optimal Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in Direct Current Networks Using a Master–Slave Methodology That Combines the Salp Swarm Algorithm and the Successive Approximation Method
Electronics 2021, 10(22), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10222837 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
This paper addresses the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in Direct Current (DC) networks by considering the integration of Distributed Generators (DGs). In order to model said problem, this study employs a mathematical formulation that has, as the objective function, the reduction in [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in Direct Current (DC) networks by considering the integration of Distributed Generators (DGs). In order to model said problem, this study employs a mathematical formulation that has, as the objective function, the reduction in power losses associated with energy transport and that considers the set of constraints that compose DC networks in an environment of distributed generation. To solve this mathematical formulation, a master–slave methodology that combines the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) and the Successive Approximations (SA) method was used here. The effectiveness, repeatability, and robustness of the proposed solution methodology was validated using two test systems (the 21- and 69-node systems), five other optimization methods reported in the specialized literature, and three different penetration levels of distributed generation: 20%, 40%, and 60% of the power provided by the slack node in the test systems in an environment with no DGs (base case). All simulations were executed 100 times for each solution methodology in the different test scenarios. The purpose of this was to evaluate the repeatability of the solutions provided by each technique by analyzing their minimum and average power losses and required processing times. The results show that the proposed solution methodology achieved the best trade-off between (minimum and average) power loss reduction and processing time for networks of any size. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study on Power Flow Methods Applied to AC Distribution Networks with Single-Phase Representation
Electronics 2021, 10(21), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212573 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 321
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative analysis of six different iterative power flow methods applied to AC distribution networks, which have been recently reported in the scientific literature. These power flow methods are (i) successive approximations, (ii) matricial backward/forward method, (iii) triangular-based approach, (iv) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of six different iterative power flow methods applied to AC distribution networks, which have been recently reported in the scientific literature. These power flow methods are (i) successive approximations, (ii) matricial backward/forward method, (iii) triangular-based approach, (iv) product linearization method, (v) hyperbolic linearization method, and (vi) diagonal approximation method. The first three methods and the last one are formulated without recurring derivatives, and they can be directly formulated in the complex domain; the fourth and fifth methods are based on the linear approximation of the power balance equations that are also formulated in the complex domain. The numerical comparison involves three main aspects: the convergence rate, processing time, and the number of iterations calculated using the classical Newton–Raphson method as the reference case. Numerical results from two test feeders composed of 34 and 85 nodes demonstrate that the derivative-free methods have linear convergence, and the methods that use derivatives in their formulation have quadratic convergence. Full article
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Article
Voltage Regulation of an Isolated DC Microgrid with a Constant Power Load: A Passivity-based Control Design
Electronics 2021, 10(17), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10172085 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
Passivity-based nonlinear control for an isolated microgrid system is proposed in this paper. The microgrid consists of a photovoltaic array and a battery energy storage connected to a point of common converters, supplying a constant power load. The purpose of this control strategy [...] Read more.
Passivity-based nonlinear control for an isolated microgrid system is proposed in this paper. The microgrid consists of a photovoltaic array and a battery energy storage connected to a point of common converters, supplying a constant power load. The purpose of this control strategy is to maintain the output direct current voltage in its reference value under load variations, improving battery interaction. The system is represented by its state space averaged model and the proposed controller is designed using the interconnection and damping assignment strategy, which allows obtaining controller parameters while ensuring the closed-loop system stability. The unknown constant power load is estimated using an observer based on the energy function of the system. The behavior of the proposed control strategy is validated with simulation and experimental results. Full article
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Article
Vulnerability Analysis to Maximize the Resilience of Power Systems Considering Demand Response and Distributed Generation
Electronics 2021, 10(12), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10121498 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Electric power systems are subject to failures, due to both deliberate and fortuitous events. This paper addresses the first case in which a disruptive agent aims at maximizing the damage to the network (expressed through the total cost of operation), while the system [...] Read more.
Electric power systems are subject to failures, due to both deliberate and fortuitous events. This paper addresses the first case in which a disruptive agent aims at maximizing the damage to the network (expressed through the total cost of operation), while the system operator takes the necessary measures to mitigate the effects of this attack. The interaction between these two agents is modeled by means of a bi-level optimization problem. On one hand, the disruptive agent is positioned in the upper-level optimization problem and must decide which elements to render out of service (lines and generators), given a limited destructive budget. On the other hand, the system operator, located in a lower-level optimization problem, reacts to the attack by deploying mitigation measures in order to minimize cost overruns in system operation. Based on the aforementioned dynamic, this paper proposes a novel approach to maximize the resiliency of the power system under intentional attacks through the implementation of distributed energy resources (DERs), namely, distributed generation (DG) and demand response (DR). Three metrics are proposed to assess resilience by assigning DERs in islands generated by the destruction of lines and generators. The results obtained in a didactic 5-bus test system and the IEEE RTS-24 bus test system demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Full article
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Article
Optimal Placement and Sizing of D-STATCOM in Radial and Meshed Distribution Networks Using a Discrete-Continuous Version of the Genetic Algorithm
Electronics 2021, 10(12), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10121452 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 535
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new discrete-continuous codification of the Chu–Beasley genetic algorithm to address the optimal placement and sizing problem of the distribution static compensators (D-STATCOM) in electrical distribution grids. The discrete part of the codification determines the nodes where D-STATCOM [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new discrete-continuous codification of the Chu–Beasley genetic algorithm to address the optimal placement and sizing problem of the distribution static compensators (D-STATCOM) in electrical distribution grids. The discrete part of the codification determines the nodes where D-STATCOM will be installed. The continuous part of the codification regulates their sizes. The objective function considered in this study is the minimization of the annual operative costs regarding energy losses and installation investments in D-STATCOM. This objective function is subject to the classical power balance constraints and devices’ capabilities. The proposed discrete-continuous version of the genetic algorithm solves the mixed-integer non-linear programming model that the classical power balance generates. Numerical validations in the 33 test feeder with radial and meshed configurations show that the proposed approach effectively minimizes the annual operating costs of the grid. In addition, the GAMS software compares the results of the proposed optimization method, which allows demonstrating its efficiency and robustness. Full article
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Article
Reduction of Losses and Operating Costs in Distribution Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mathematical Optimization
Electronics 2021, 10(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10040419 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
This study deals with the minimization of the operational and investment cost in the distribution and operation of the power flow considering the installation of fixed-step capacitor banks. This issue is represented by a nonlinear mixed-integer programming mathematical model which is solved by [...] Read more.
This study deals with the minimization of the operational and investment cost in the distribution and operation of the power flow considering the installation of fixed-step capacitor banks. This issue is represented by a nonlinear mixed-integer programming mathematical model which is solved by applying the Chu and Beasley genetic algorithm (CBGA). While this algorithm is a classical method for resolving this type of optimization problem, the solutions found using this approach are better than those reported in the literature using metaheuristic techniques and the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). In addition, the time required for the CBGA to get results was reduced to a few seconds to make it a more robust, efficient, and capable tool for distribution system analysis. Finally, the computational sources used in this study were developed in the MATLAB programming environment by implementing test feeders composed of 10, 33, and 69 nodes with radial and meshed configurations. Full article
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Article
Data-Driven Trajectory Prediction of Grid Power Frequency Based on Neural Models
Electronics 2021, 10(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10020151 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Frequency in power systems is a real-time information that shows the balance between generation and demand. Good system frequency observation is vital for system security and protection. This paper analyses the system frequency response following disturbances and proposes a data-driven approach for predicting [...] Read more.
Frequency in power systems is a real-time information that shows the balance between generation and demand. Good system frequency observation is vital for system security and protection. This paper analyses the system frequency response following disturbances and proposes a data-driven approach for predicting it by using machine learning techniques like Nonlinear Auto-regressive (NAR) Neural Networks (NN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks from simulated and measured Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data. The proposed method uses a horizon-window that reconstructs the frequency input time-series data in order to predict the frequency features such as Nadir. Simulated scenarios are based on the gradual inertia reduction by including non-synchronous generation into the Nordic 32 test system, whereas the PMU collected data is taken from different locations in the Nordic Power System (NPS). Several horizon-windows are experimented in order to observe an adequate margin of prediction. Scenarios considering noisy signals are also evaluated in order to provide a robustness index of predictability. Results show the proper performance of the method and the adequate level of prediction based on the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) index. Full article
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Article
Modeling of PV Module and DC/DC Converter Assembly for the Analysis of Induced Transient Response Due to Nearby Lightning Strike
Electronics 2021, 10(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10020120 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are subject to nearby lightning strikes that can contribute to extremely high induced overvoltage transients. Recently, the authors introduced a 3D semi-analytical method to study the electromagnetic transients caused by these strikes in a PV module. In the present paper [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are subject to nearby lightning strikes that can contribute to extremely high induced overvoltage transients. Recently, the authors introduced a 3D semi-analytical method to study the electromagnetic transients caused by these strikes in a PV module. In the present paper we develop an improved model of the PV module that: (a) takes into account high-frequency effects by modelling capacitive and inductive couplings; (b) considers the electrical insulation characteristics of the module; (c) includes the connection to a DC/DC converter. The whole process involves three major steps, i.e., the magnetic-field computation, the evaluation of both common-mode- and differential-mode-induced voltages across the PV module, and the use of the calculated voltages as input to a lumped equivalent circuit of the PV module connected to the DC/DC converter. In such a framework, the influence of the PV operating condition on the resulting electrical stresses is assessed; moreover, the relevance or insignificance of some parameters, such as the module insulation or the frame material, is demonstrated. Finally, results show that the induced overvoltage are highly dependent both on the grounding of the conducting parts and on the external conditions such as lightning current waveforms and lightning channel (LC) geometry. Full article
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Article
Optimal Selection and Location of BESS Systems in Medium-Voltage Rural Distribution Networks for Minimizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122097 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
This paper explores a methodology to locate battery energy storage systems (BESS) in rural alternating current (AC) distribution networks fed by diesel generators to minimize total greenhouse gas emissions. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is formulated to represent the problem of greenhouse [...] Read more.
This paper explores a methodology to locate battery energy storage systems (BESS) in rural alternating current (AC) distribution networks fed by diesel generators to minimize total greenhouse gas emissions. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is formulated to represent the problem of greenhouse gas emissions minimization, considering power balance and devices capabilities as constraints. To model the BESS systems, a linear relationship is considered between the state of charge and the power injection/consumption using a charging/discharging coefficient. The solution of the MINLP model is reached through the general algebraic modeling system by employing the BONMIN solver. Numerical results in a medium-voltage AC distribution network composed of 33 nodes and 32 branches operated with 12.66 kV demonstrate the effectiveness of including BESS systems to minimize greenhouse gas emissions in diesel generators that feeds rural distribution networks. Full article
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Article
An Approach for Optimal Coordination of Over-Current Relays in Microgrids with Distributed Generation
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101740 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The ever increasing presence of renewable distributed generation (DG) in microgrids is imposing new challenges in protection coordination. The high penetration of renewable DG enables microgrids to operate under different topologies, giving rise to bidirectional power flows and in consequence, rendering traditional coordination [...] Read more.
The ever increasing presence of renewable distributed generation (DG) in microgrids is imposing new challenges in protection coordination. The high penetration of renewable DG enables microgrids to operate under different topologies, giving rise to bidirectional power flows and in consequence, rendering traditional coordination approaches inappropriate to guarantee network security. This paper proposes an approach for the optimal coordination of directional over-current relays (OCRs) in microgrids that integrate renewable DG and feature several operational modes. As a main contribution, the characteristic curves of directional OCRs are considered to be decision variables, instead of fixing a single type of curve for all relays as considered in previous works. The proposed approach allows for the selection of several IEC and IEEE curves which combination results in the best protection coordination. Several tests were carried out on an IEC benchmark microgrid in order to show the applicability of the proposed approach. Furthermore, a comparison with other coordination approaches evidenced that the proposed approach is able to find lower operation times and, at the same time, guarantee the suitable operation of protections under different condition faults and operational modes. Full article
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