Special Issue "Reading Fluency"

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020) | Viewed by 25212

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Timothy Rasinski
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Guest Editor
School of Teaching Leadership and Curriculum, Kent State University, 404 White Hall, Kent, OH 44242, USA
Interests: reading fluency and word study; reading in the elementary and middle grades; readers who struggle
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. William Rupley
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University, MS 4232, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Interests: reading acquisition and development; reading comprehension and text processing; reading in the early grades and reading assessment
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Prof. Dr. David Paige
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Annsley Frazier Thornton School of Education, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY 40205, USA
Interests: reading fluency; foundational skill development; assessment; development of teacher capacity and the quality improvement of reading instruction across schools and districts
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Prof. Dr. Chase Young
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Teaching and Learning, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341, USA
Interests: reading interventions and developing fluent readers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

William Rupley, David Paige, Chase Young and I are guest-editing a Special Issue of Education Sciences that will focus on reading fluency and reading fluency instruction. We are looking for both empirical research and conceptual pieces that advance our thinking in how fluent reading develops in children and how we might best nurture students’ fluency development through instruction.

Fluency has been a controversial topic for years. Allington described it as a neglected goal of the reading curriculum in 1985. The National Reading Panel (2000) provided empirical evidence of its importance in reading development. Measurement approaches to fluency have given rise to fluency as nothing more than fast reading, and recent surveys of experts in the field have consistently identified reading as a “not hot” issue and one that does not deserve to be hot. Based on our own research and interest in fluency, as well as work by other scholars, we are convinced that fluency is a critical competency for readers to gain full reading proficiency. Given your own interest and expertise in this area we are delighted to invite you to submit an article for this issue. We define the theme for this issue, Reading Fluency, in rather broad terms. It can encompass conceptualizing reading fluency, fluency development at various ages, assessing and measuring fluency, and effective fluency instruction.

Articles should be in the range of 20–30 pages including references (double-spaced) with a due date of January 15, 2020 for publication in spring or summer 2020. You may include co-authors if you wish. If you think you are interested and able to contribute to this issue of Education Sciences, please respond back to us within two weeks and also include a brief description and title of your article.

Thank you for your consideration of this invitation. Best wishes and looking forward to hearing from you shortly,

Prof. Dr. Timothy Rasinski
Prof. Dr. William Rupley
Prof. Dr. David Paige
Prof. Dr. Chase Young
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Reading Fluency
  • Word Recognition Automaticity
  • Prosody
  • Reading Rate

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Impact of Classroom-Based Fluency Instruction on Grade One Students in an Urban Elementary School
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090227 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
The present exploratory study examined the effect of the implementation of a reading fluency instruction protocol on the reading performance of early first grade students in an urban school. Previous research has tended to examine the effects of fluency instruction after students have [...] Read more.
The present exploratory study examined the effect of the implementation of a reading fluency instruction protocol on the reading performance of early first grade students in an urban school. Previous research has tended to examine the effects of fluency instruction after students have achieved some degree of competency in word recognition, usually toward the end of first grade and beyond. The fluency instruction provided in this study included repeated and assisted reading and was delivered daily over a ten-week period in the first semester of the school year by classroom teachers. The reading performance of students in the fluency instruction group (n = 51) was compared with a comparable group of first grade students (n = 27) who did not receive the fluency instruction, though the total number of minutes devoted to daily reading instruction and home reading was equal between groups. Descriptive analyses of pre- and post-testing data suggest that the first grade students receiving the fluency instruction made substantive, but not statistically significant, gains in reading achievement over the comparison group of students not receiving fluency instruction. The results suggest that dedicated and systematic fluency instruction may be appropriate for students before high levels of word decoding are achieved and that fluency instruction may be an effective instructional protocol as early as the beginning of first grade. Given the acknowledged limitations, including small sample size, further research into fluency instruction in early first grade is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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Article
Fluency: Deep Roots in Reading Instruction
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10060155 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3019
Abstract
Over the past two decades, reading fluency has been increasingly recognized as an important instructional variable for success in reading. Yet, this has not always been the case. This article presents a historical review of the nature and role of fluency instruction in [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades, reading fluency has been increasingly recognized as an important instructional variable for success in reading. Yet, this has not always been the case. This article presents a historical review of the nature and role of fluency instruction in the United States. The roots of oral reading fluency began in an age when texts and other forms of entertainment and information were limited. Historically, in America, oral reading was the predominant means for conveying ideas and passing the time at home with the family. In the 1800s, American education’s primary method of instruction emphasized the need for being able to read aloud with expression and fluency, in order to hold the listeners’ attention and convey information. As texts and other forms of information became more available, oral reading became deemphasized, and silent reading was viewed as a better approach to developing readers’ comprehension at the cost of fluency development. With continued research and national reports that indicate the significant contributions of oral reading fluency to reading comprehension and academic proficiency, it is clear that the roots of oral reading run deep, and that fluent reading development is important to learners’ academic achievement and reading comprehension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
Article
Whole Class or Small Group Fluency Instruction: A Tutorial of Four Effective Approaches
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10050145 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Four scientifically validated approaches to fluency instruction (Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction, Wide Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction, Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading, and Wide Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading) are reviewed. Two for the whole class and two for small groups. Key components of fluency, automaticity, and prosody are defined, [...] Read more.
Four scientifically validated approaches to fluency instruction (Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction, Wide Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction, Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading, and Wide Fluency-Oriented Oral Reading) are reviewed. Two for the whole class and two for small groups. Key components of fluency, automaticity, and prosody are defined, and their contribution to reading comprehension is discussed. Automaticity contributes through its freeing up of attention to attend to meaning, and prosody contributes through its addressing of pacing and expression that, in turn, reflect textual meaning. Four principles for effective fluency instruction are also presented: Modeling, extensive opportunities for practice, the use of scaffolding, and the incorporation of prosodic elements. The four instructional approaches presented in this article are based on two different strategies for integrating extensive opportunities to read: Repeated versus wide reading. All four approaches use challenging texts, or texts at the upper end of the learners’ zone of proximal development, thus providing learners with access to a broader range of vocabulary and concepts than would be the case if they read only instructional level texts. All four also provided highly effective procedures for either whole-class or small-group reading instruction. The goal of this summary is to provide readers with effective approaches for classroom instruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
Article
Testing the KAPS Model of Reading Comprehension in a Turkish Elementary School Context from Low Socioeconomic Background
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10040090 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
This correlational study aimed to explore the relations of background knowledge, automaticity (rate), prosody, and strategy use with reading comprehension (KAPS model of reading comprehension) in the written Turkish language context with 207 fourth grade students. Successful comprehension requires readers to make meaning [...] Read more.
This correlational study aimed to explore the relations of background knowledge, automaticity (rate), prosody, and strategy use with reading comprehension (KAPS model of reading comprehension) in the written Turkish language context with 207 fourth grade students. Successful comprehension requires readers to make meaning out of what they read. Our KAPS model of reading comprehension hypothesizes relations of background knowledge, fluency components (rate and prosody), and strategy use with reading comprehension components (literal and deep) in the Turkish language and addresses the direct effects of these predictors on the reading comprehension of fourth grade students. The results showed that, whereas fluency and strategy use made statistically significant contributions to reading comprehension, background knowledge did not. Based on the results, the study affirms the importance of automaticity in word recognition, prosody, and comprehension strategies in contributing to reading comprehension in Turkish and, as such, should be given priority for literacy instruction in Turkish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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Article
Read Like Me: An Intervention for Struggling Readers
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10030057 - 04 Mar 2020
Viewed by 2697
Abstract
The current study reports on a reading intervention method titled Read Like Me. The intervention utilizes a stacked approach of research-based methods, including reading aloud, assisted reading, and repeated reading. The student involved was a second-grade boy reading below grade level who was [...] Read more.
The current study reports on a reading intervention method titled Read Like Me. The intervention utilizes a stacked approach of research-based methods, including reading aloud, assisted reading, and repeated reading. The student involved was a second-grade boy reading below grade level who was identified as dyslexic and diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Using a single-case experimental design, the intervention was monitored in four phases, including a baseline, intervention coupled with regular schooling, intervention only, and a return to baseline. The results indicated that the intervention combined with regular schooling improved his reading expression and rate and also his decoding skills, word knowledge, and reading comprehension. In conclusion, the authors offer Read Like Me as one more intervention that may be a viable option for teachers in their effort to support developing readers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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Article
Effects of Fluency Oriented Instruction on Motivation for Reading of Struggling Readers
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10030056 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
This paper looks at the effects of an intervention, based on fluency oriented reading instruction (FORI), on the motivation for reading among struggling readers in First Class in Irish primary schools. The intervention took place in learning support settings in three primary schools [...] Read more.
This paper looks at the effects of an intervention, based on fluency oriented reading instruction (FORI), on the motivation for reading among struggling readers in First Class in Irish primary schools. The intervention took place in learning support settings in three primary schools located in urban educationally disadvantaged communities in North Dublin. The study was conducted through a pragmatic lens with research questions framed to shed light on the motivation for reading of students in First Class from disadvantaged backgrounds. A mixed methods design with a concurrent triangulation strategy was employed, facilitating the exploration of multiple research questions using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with teachers and parents and conversational interviews and surveys with students. The perspective of reading motivation guiding the study recognised the overlapping influences of teachers, parents and the student himself or herself. Findings, as reported by these research informants, indicate that the FORI intervention had a positive impact on the motivation for reading of struggling readers in First Class. In particular, the intervention was found to decrease students’ perceived difficulty with reading and increase their reading self-efficacy and orientation towards reading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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Article
Assessing the Word Recognition Skills of German Elementary Students in Silent Reading—Psychometric Properties of an Item Pool to Generate Curriculum-Based Measurements
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10020035 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Given the high proportion of struggling readers in school and the long-term negative consequences of underachievement for those affected, the question of prevention options arises. The early identification of central indicators for reading literacy is a noteworthy starting point. In this context, curriculum-based [...] Read more.
Given the high proportion of struggling readers in school and the long-term negative consequences of underachievement for those affected, the question of prevention options arises. The early identification of central indicators for reading literacy is a noteworthy starting point. In this context, curriculum-based measurements have established themselves as reliable and valid instruments for monitoring the progress of learning processes. This article is dedicated to the assessment of word recognition in silent reading as an indicator of adequate reading fluency. The process of developing an item pool is described, from which instruments for learning process diagnostics can be derived. A sample of 4268 students from grades 1–4 processed a subset of items. Each student template included anchor items, which all students processed. Using Item Response Theory, item statistics were estimated for the entire sample and all items. After eliminating unsuitable items (N = 206), a one-dimensional, homogeneous pool of items remained. In addition, there are high correlations with another established reading test. This provides the first evidence that the recording of word recognition skills for silent reading can be seen as an economic indicator for reading skills. Although the item pool forms an important basis for the extraction of curriculum-based measurements, further investigations to assess the diagnostic suitability (e.g., the measurement invariance over different test times) are still pending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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Review

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Review
Assessing Expressive Oral Reading Fluency
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10030059 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Educators struggle to assess various aspects of reading in valid and reliable ways. Whether it is comprehension, phonological awareness, vocabulary, or phonics, determining appropriate assessments is challenging across grade levels and student abilities. Also challenging is measuring aspects of fluency: rate, accuracy, and [...] Read more.
Educators struggle to assess various aspects of reading in valid and reliable ways. Whether it is comprehension, phonological awareness, vocabulary, or phonics, determining appropriate assessments is challenging across grade levels and student abilities. Also challenging is measuring aspects of fluency: rate, accuracy, and prosody. This article presents a history of fluency in American education with particular focus on assessing expressive oral reading. In addition, the two major approaches to prosody assessment will be explained, and the three most prominent tools for rating expressive oral reading will be analyzed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
Review
Fluency Interventions for Elementary Students with Reading Difficulties: A Synthesis of Research from 2000–2019
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10030052 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5223
Abstract
Oral reading fluency (ORF) deficits are a hallmark of reading difficulties. The impact of fluency struggles extends beyond word-level difficulties to include deficits in reading comprehension. Sixteen empirical studies conducted in 2000–2019 that examined ORF interventions among elementary students identified as having reading [...] Read more.
Oral reading fluency (ORF) deficits are a hallmark of reading difficulties. The impact of fluency struggles extends beyond word-level difficulties to include deficits in reading comprehension. Sixteen empirical studies conducted in 2000–2019 that examined ORF interventions among elementary students identified as having reading difficulties were reviewed to identify the characteristics (e.g., instructional variables, group size, type of interventionist) of effective ORF interventions and their impact on English oral reading fluency and reading comprehension outcomes. The systematic review revealed that interventions reported centered around repeated reading procedures (86.5%). Across the 16 studies, outcomes for oral reading fluency varied widely and most focused on speed and rate aspects rather than prosody. Effect sizes for rate and accuracy measures ranged from negligible to large (i.e., 0.01 to 1.18) and three studies found large effects for prosody outcomes. Effect sizes for reading comprehension ranged between non-significant and large significant effects. Findings support the use of repeated reading of text to build up ORF of students with reading difficulties. Interventions that were found to be most effective were those that were conducted one-on-one with a trained model of fluent word reading and accuracy. Findings also point to three gaps in our understanding: (1) the efficacy of interventions other than repeated reading, (2) effects of ORF interventions on prosody outcomes, and (3) sustainability of outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
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