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Open AccessArticle

Fluency: Deep Roots in Reading Instruction

Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Department of Learning and Teaching, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Reading and Writing Center, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 155;
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 23 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reading Fluency)
Over the past two decades, reading fluency has been increasingly recognized as an important instructional variable for success in reading. Yet, this has not always been the case. This article presents a historical review of the nature and role of fluency instruction in the United States. The roots of oral reading fluency began in an age when texts and other forms of entertainment and information were limited. Historically, in America, oral reading was the predominant means for conveying ideas and passing the time at home with the family. In the 1800s, American education’s primary method of instruction emphasized the need for being able to read aloud with expression and fluency, in order to hold the listeners’ attention and convey information. As texts and other forms of information became more available, oral reading became deemphasized, and silent reading was viewed as a better approach to developing readers’ comprehension at the cost of fluency development. With continued research and national reports that indicate the significant contributions of oral reading fluency to reading comprehension and academic proficiency, it is clear that the roots of oral reading run deep, and that fluent reading development is important to learners’ academic achievement and reading comprehension. View Full-Text
Keywords: reading fluency; oral reading; academic achievement; comprehension reading fluency; oral reading; academic achievement; comprehension
MDPI and ACS Style

Rupley, W.H.; Nichols, W.D.; Rasinski, T.V.; Paige, D. Fluency: Deep Roots in Reading Instruction. Educ. Sci. 2020, 10, 155.

AMA Style

Rupley WH, Nichols WD, Rasinski TV, Paige D. Fluency: Deep Roots in Reading Instruction. Education Sciences. 2020; 10(6):155.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William D.; Rasinski, Timothy V.; Paige, David. 2020. "Fluency: Deep Roots in Reading Instruction" Educ. Sci. 10, no. 6: 155.

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