Special Issue "Biomarkers of Oral Cancer"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paweł Golusiński

Guest Editor
Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oral cancer is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, with 354,864 new cases and 177,384 deaths worldwide (GLOBOCAN, 2018) The highest incidence of these cancers has mainly been reported in South and Southeast Asia and some countries in southern Europe.

The most important risk factors for oral cancer development are tobacco use and extensive alcohol consumption. Moreover, infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a significant risk factor for a subset of oral cancer.

The main reasons for failure in oral cancer treatment, and the strongest adverse factors for prognosis, are the spread to the regional lymph nodes and early development of local recurrence or second primary tumors. Modern head and neck oncology can offer a plethora of treatment modalities including surgical resection with reconstructive options, radiotherapy (including proton therapy), conventional and targeted systemic treatment, and also, as of late, immunotherapy. The success rates of treatments can significantly vary between particular patients. Thus, one of the biggest future challenges is to tailor multidisciplinary treatments such that they are based not only on clinical assessment of disease advancement determined by stage, but also on the biological factors of the tumor.

Advances in genetics and molecular biology have improved our knowledge of cellular mechanisms, which provide insights into the pathophysiological processes that turn healthy epithelial cells into cancer. Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets can be investigated to identify genetic signatures that could potentially be used for early diagnosis, treatment personalization, and finally, determination of prognosis for individual patients.

Prof. Dr. Paweł Golusiński
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Oral cancer
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
  • Biomarkers
  • Molecular diagnostics
  • Risk factors
  • Treatment strategies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Open AccessCommunication
Impact of Chromosome 9 Numerical Imbalances in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Grid-Based Centromere Analysis
Diagnostics 2020, 10(7), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070501 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered an aggressive malignancy, mainly due to its increased propensity to provide local and distant lymph node metastases. Gross chromosome instability (CI; polysomy/aneuploidy/monosomy), combined or not with specific gene alterations, is implicated in the development and progression [...] Read more.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered an aggressive malignancy, mainly due to its increased propensity to provide local and distant lymph node metastases. Gross chromosome instability (CI; polysomy/aneuploidy/monosomy), combined or not with specific gene alterations, is implicated in the development and progression of solid malignancies, including OSCC. In order to further study the relationship between these genetic alterations and the aggressive biological behavior of OSCCs, we investigated the frequency and impact of chromosome 9 numerical imbalances in these tumors. Fifty (n = 50) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary OSCC tissue sections were used. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was implemented for detecting chromosome 9 (CEN—centromere enumeration) numerical alterations. Concerning the screening process in CISH slides, a novel, real-time reference and calibration grid platform was implemented. Chromosome 9 polysomy was observed in 8/50 (16%) tissue sections, whereas the rest of them demonstrated a normal, diploid pattern (42/50; 84%). Chromosome 9 polysomy was associated with the grade of differentiation of the examined tumors (p = 0.036). Chromosome 9 numerical imbalances (polysomy) were observed in sub-groups of OSCCs correlating with a progressive dedifferentiation of the malignant tissues. Concerning the implementation of the proposed grid-based platform as described above on CISH slides, it provides a novel, fast, and accurate screening mapping mechanism for detecting chromosome numerical imbalances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Oral Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Overexpression of EIF5A2 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Diagnostics 2020, 10(7), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070436 - 27 Jun 2020
Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity, and it is especially significant in Asian countries. Patients diagnosed with OSCC have an unfavorable prognosis and additional prognostic markers would help improve therapeutic strategies. We sought to [...] Read more.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity, and it is especially significant in Asian countries. Patients diagnosed with OSCC have an unfavorable prognosis and additional prognostic markers would help improve therapeutic strategies. We sought to investigate the association between eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers as well as the prognostic significance of EIF5A2 in OSCC. The expression of EIF5A2 and EMT markers was measured through the immunohistochemical staining of specimens from 272 patients with OSCC. In addition, the correlation between different clinicopathological factors and EIF5A2 expression was analyzed. The prognostic role of EIF5A2 was then analyzed via Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Among the 272 patients, high EIF5A2 expression was significantly associated with an advanced N value (p = 0.008). High tumor expression of EIF5A2 was prone to the expression of low E-cadherin and high beta-catenin (p = 0.046 and p = 0.020, respectively). Patients with high EIF5A2 expression had unfavorable five-year survival rates as compared with those with low expression (49.7% and 67.3%, respectively). The prognostic role of EIF5A2 was further confirmed through multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.714, 95% confidence interval: 1.134–2.590, p = 0.011). High EIF5A2 expression is associated with an advanced N value and EMT markers and may serve as a marker for an unfavorable prognosis in patients with OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Oral Cancer)
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Open AccessCase Report
Biphasic Thyroid-Like Low-Grade Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma with a Prominent Spindle Cell Component: A Case Report
Diagnostics 2020, 10(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050323 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TLLG-NPPA) is a distinctly rare malignancy of the nasopharynx. Morphologically and immunophenotypically, TLLG-NPPA resembles papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and is characterized by a papillary architecture with PTC-like nuclear features and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression. Recently, some cases of [...] Read more.
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TLLG-NPPA) is a distinctly rare malignancy of the nasopharynx. Morphologically and immunophenotypically, TLLG-NPPA resembles papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and is characterized by a papillary architecture with PTC-like nuclear features and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression. Recently, some cases of TLLG-NPPA with a spindle cell component have been reported. In this study, we report a very interesting case of biphasic TLLG-NPPA that was predominantly composed of spindle cells, with comprehensive analyses of its clinical, pathological, and immunophenotypical features. A 50-year-old woman presented with a sensation of a foreign body in the nasopharynx. Nasopharyngoscopy and computed tomography demonstrated a pedunculated mass arising from the nasopharyngeal roof. Based on the clinical impression of a nasopharyngeal tumor, an excisional biopsy was performed. At low-power magnification, the nasopharyngeal mass consisted of papillary tumor tissue, the growth pattern and architecture of which resembled those of PTC. The papillae were complex and packed tightly with fibrovascular cores. At high-power magnification, each papillary structure was lined with a pseudostratified cuboidal-to-columnar epithelium. The tumor cell nuclei frequently showed a ground-glass appearance, intranuclear grooves, pseudoinclusions, and membrane thickening and irregularity, resembling the characteristic nuclear morphology of PTC. These histological features were compatible with TLLG-NPPA. Intriguingly, in between the papillary components were spindle cells that appeared very similar to the glandular epithelial cells that imperceptibly merged with the papillary component. This spindle cell component comprised two-thirds of the entire tumor volume. The nuclear morphology of the spindle cell component was similar to that of the papillary component. On immunostaining, both the papillary and spindle cell components were diffusely and strongly positive for thyroid transcription factor-1, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, vimentin, and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1. In contrast, the tumor cells tested negative for p63, p40, smooth muscle actin, S-100, cytokeratin 5/6, thyroglobulin, BRAF V600E, and Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNAs. Only two cases of biphasic TLLG-NPPA exhibiting a prominent spindle cell component had been reported previously in the English literature. When the pathologist receives a primary nasopharyngeal mass with the aforementioned histological features, particularly biopsy specimens with predominant spindle cells, biphasic TLLG-NPPA should be considered in the differential diagnosis. By describing its detailed clinicopathological characteristics, we anticipate that this report will expand the existing knowledge on the spindle cell component associated with TLLG-NPPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Oral Cancer)
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