Special Issue "Surface and Interface Science and Engineering for the Society of the Future"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi

Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (ICCOM-CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: electrodeposition of materials for renewable energy production; surface engineering; corrosion and corrosion protection; thermal barriers coatings; electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); X-ray techniques for surface structure and composition (XPS, XRF, XRD); electroless deposition of metals and cermets; simulation and modelling of complex electrochemical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface and interface science and engineering have a central role in addressing major societal challenges that, without being exhaustive, include the transition to renewable energy, pollution mitigation and remediation, saving of critical raw materials, food security and health science. Accordingly, we launch this new Special Issue of Coatings that will collect original research articles and review papers. Contributions will focus on the fundamentals and application of surface and interface science and engineering and will emphasize the potential of the covered subject in addressing these important societal challenges.

We look forward to receiving your contribution.

Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Decaphenylcyclopentasilane Addition on Photovoltaic Properties of Perovskite Solar Cells
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120461
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Perovskite solar cells, in which decaphenylcyclopentasilane (DPPS) layers were formed on the surface of the perovskite layer, were fabricated, and the influence on photovoltaic characteristics was investigated. The devices were fabricated by a spin-coating technique, and the surface morphology and crystal structures were
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Perovskite solar cells, in which decaphenylcyclopentasilane (DPPS) layers were formed on the surface of the perovskite layer, were fabricated, and the influence on photovoltaic characteristics was investigated. The devices were fabricated by a spin-coating technique, and the surface morphology and crystal structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. By adding the DPPS, the fill factor and open circuit voltage were increased, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency was improved. A stability test in ambient air was carried out for seven weeks, and the photoelectric conversion efficiencies were remarkably improved for the devices with DPPS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Inactivation by Using Plastic Materials Activated with Combinations of Natural Antimicrobials
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120460
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Natural antimicrobials have gained interest as possible inhibitors of biofilm formation. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of antimicrobials derived from essential oils (carvacrol, thymol) plus bacteriocin AS-48 immobilized on two plastic supports (low density polyethylene and polyethylene–polyamide
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Natural antimicrobials have gained interest as possible inhibitors of biofilm formation. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of antimicrobials derived from essential oils (carvacrol, thymol) plus bacteriocin AS-48 immobilized on two plastic supports (low density polyethylene and polyethylene–polyamide films) on bacterial inactivation. The polyethylene–polyamide vacuum-packaging plastic film activated with a combination of thymol plus enterocin AS-48 was the most effective in reducing the concentrations of viable planktonic and sessile cells for Listeria innocua, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis. Results from the study highlight the potential of polyethylene–polyamide film activated with thymol plus enterocin AS-48 for reducing the viable cell concentrations of spoilage Gram-positive bacteria and Listeria in both planktonic and sessile states. Full article
Open AccessArticle Wear and Corrosion Properties of Cold-Sprayed AISI 316L Coatings Treated by Combined Plasma Carburizing and Nitriding at Low Temperature
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120456
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Cold-sprayed AISI 316L stainless steel coatings are treated to form an austenite phase with excessive dissolved nitrogen (known as the S-phase) by plasma nitriding at temperatures below 450 °C. The S-phase is a hard and wear-resistant layer with high corrosion resistance. However, the
[...] Read more.
Cold-sprayed AISI 316L stainless steel coatings are treated to form an austenite phase with excessive dissolved nitrogen (known as the S-phase) by plasma nitriding at temperatures below 450 °C. The S-phase is a hard and wear-resistant layer with high corrosion resistance. However, the S-phase layer formed after only nitriding is thin and the hardness abruptly decreases at a certain depth; it lacks mechanical reliability. We examined two types of combined low-temperature plasma treatment to enhance the mechanical reliability of the S-phase layer: (i) sequential and (ii) simultaneous. In the sequential plasma treatment, the carburizing step was followed by nitriding. In the simultaneous treatment, the nitriding and carburizing steps were conducted at the same time. Both combined plasma treatments succeeded in thickening the S-phase layers and changed the hardness depth profiles to decrease smoothly. In addition, anodic polarization measurements indicated that sequential treatment involving carburizing followed by nitriding for 2 h each resulted in high corrosion resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of PTFE Particle Size on Superhydrophobic Coating for Supercooled Water Prevention
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120426
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chemically repels water droplets due to the nature of fluorine substituents. This paper presents an experimental study on the impact of PTFE particle size and temperature on the hydrophobicity of a surface. The present study analyzes hydrophobicity due to both the
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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chemically repels water droplets due to the nature of fluorine substituents. This paper presents an experimental study on the impact of PTFE particle size and temperature on the hydrophobicity of a surface. The present study analyzes hydrophobicity due to both the chemical properties of PTFE and the microstructure created by PTFE particles. Herein, studies of the contact angle and the sliding angle of these surfaces are described in supercooled-water conditions ranging from −10 to 0 °C. From the equations governing the surface tension and sliding angle of a droplet on a superhydrophobic surface, it is found that particle size has a much greater effect on hydrophobicity than temperature. An increase in the PTFE particle size greatly reduces the sliding angle, which indicates a lower amount of energy required to remove the droplet from the surface. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bio-Functional Properties of Bee Pollen: The Case of “Bee Pollen Yoghurt”
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120423
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of the present work were: (a) to characterize bee pollen from the region of Epirus in terms of biofunctional activity parameters as assessed by (i) the determination of specific polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS), (ii)
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The objectives of the present work were: (a) to characterize bee pollen from the region of Epirus in terms of biofunctional activity parameters as assessed by (i) the determination of specific polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS), (ii) antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay), and (iii) total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and (b) to prepare yoghurts from cow, goat, and sheep milk supplemented with different concentrations of grounded bee pollen (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 3.0%, w/v), and study afterwards the trend in antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content along with product’s sensory properties. Results showed that bee pollen ethanolic extracts are a rich source of phytochemicals based on the high total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity that were monitored. The addition of grounded bee pollen in yoghurts resulted in a food matrix of a higher in vitro antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, whereas it improved the yoghurt’s taste, odour, appearance, and cohesion; the latter indicates its beneficial use as a general food surface and interface material enhancer due to the possible formation of surface/interface active lipid-linked proteins. Based on the present findings, bee pollen yoghurt is proposed as a novel and costless functional food whereas it may comprise a research basis for food or material science in the scientific society of the future. Results were further supported by implementation of advanced chemometric analyses providing a full characterization of the product’s uniqueness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Abrasion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Coatings on Aluminum Using PDMS/SiO2
Coatings 2018, 8(11), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8110414
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Superhydrophobic coatings have shown tremendous improvement in the usability of metals such as aluminum. These coatings are capable of adding attractive features such as self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and anti-biofouling to the array of diverse features that aluminum possesses, including lightweight and high ductility. For
[...] Read more.
Superhydrophobic coatings have shown tremendous improvement in the usability of metals such as aluminum. These coatings are capable of adding attractive features such as self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and anti-biofouling to the array of diverse features that aluminum possesses, including lightweight and high ductility. For superhydrophobic surfaces, having considerable abrasion resistance is as important as achieving a high contact angle. In this work, two types of coatings have been prepared, each composed of functionalized silica nanoparticles along with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dispersed in ethanol, and their superhydrophobicity and abrasion characteristics have been investigated. The same silica nanoparticles are present in each coating, but each has a different proportion of the PDMS base to its curing agent. The surface morphology of the coatings was studied with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface chemical composition was characterized using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX). The prepared coatings were analyzed for their degree of superhydrophobicity, abrasion resistance and adhesion characteristics. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used to understand the adhesion characteristics of the coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Potential Modulation on Lead Anodes Using Water Oxidation Catalyst Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(7), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8070246
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The oxidation of water to form oxygen gas provides charge balance for the cathodic deposition of metals, such as zinc, in the electrorefining industry. This is a corrosive, four-electron electrochemical reaction that causes deterioration of lead-silver alloy anodes employed in these processes. A
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The oxidation of water to form oxygen gas provides charge balance for the cathodic deposition of metals, such as zinc, in the electrorefining industry. This is a corrosive, four-electron electrochemical reaction that causes deterioration of lead-silver alloy anodes employed in these processes. A sacrificial manganese oxide layer on the anode surface, formed in-situ from manganese sulfate, is used in industry to reduce the corrosion rate of these anodes by preferentially enabling water oxidation rather than lead dissolution. Still, it is poorly understood how the activity of manganese oxide as a water oxidation catalyst relates to its anticorrosive properties. Here, we show how the presence of water oxidation catalysts both formed in-situ (including the industry standard manganese oxide) and heterogenized prior to electrolysis on lead anodes affect the corrosion potential of these anodes. We find that corrosion potential under dynamic polarization conditions is the parameter most affected by the coatings formed in-situ and applied ex-situ prior to electrolysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Surface Modification of Esophageal Stent Materials by a Drug-Eluting Layer for Better Anti-Restenosis Function
Coatings 2018, 8(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8060215
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is generally accepted that stent implantation is the mainstream therapy in clinics for esophageal cancer in the later period. However, the restenosis caused by tumor cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts seriously interferes with the stent medical application and limits its long-term services.
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It is generally accepted that stent implantation is the mainstream therapy in clinics for esophageal cancer in the later period. However, the restenosis caused by tumor cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts seriously interferes with the stent medical application and limits its long-term services. To address this conundrum, a series of drug-eluting stents were invented and verified to be feasible in the early stage after implantation, but the limited drug loading and good cell compatibility of the stent materials may lead to more serious restenosis and further endanger the patient’s life. In previous work, we modified the esophageal stent material 317L stainless steel (317L SS) surface with a poly-dopamine/poly-ethylenimine layer (PDA/PEI), which had strong anti-tumor functions. In this contribution, we employed a usual drug in clinic, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), with series of density onto the PDA/PEI modified 317L SS to investigate the influence of 5-Fu immobilization on the anti-restenosis function. The surface characterization including 5-Fu quantity, atomic force microscopy (AFM). Water contact angle measurement indicated successful preparation of the PDA/PEI/5-Fu layers. The spectrophotometric characterization revealed that the immobilized 5-Fu rapidly released over 24 h. However, the Eca109, Het-1A, and L929 cells culture results suggested that the released 5-Fu made a significant contribution to improving the apoptosis and necrosis of these pathological cells, and the PDA/PEI/5-Fu layers maintain the consistent anti-restenosis function on their surfaces with the PDA/PEI layer after 24 h. All the results demonstrated the PDA/PEI/5-Fu layers’ excellent ability to suppress esophageal tumor cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts, suggesting a potential application on the surface modification of esophageal stents for better anti-restenosis function. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Advances in Automotive Conversion Coatings during Pretreatment of the Body Structure: A Review
Coatings 2018, 8(11), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8110405
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Automotive conversion coatings consist of layers of materials that are chemically applied to the body structures of vehicles before painting to improve corrosion protection and paint adhesion. These coatings are a consequence of surface-based chemical reactions and are sandwiched between paint layers and
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Automotive conversion coatings consist of layers of materials that are chemically applied to the body structures of vehicles before painting to improve corrosion protection and paint adhesion. These coatings are a consequence of surface-based chemical reactions and are sandwiched between paint layers and the base metal; the chemical reactions involved distinctly classify conversion coatings from other coating technologies. Although the tri-cationic conversion coating bath chemistry that was developed around the end of the 20th century remains persistent, environmental, health, and cost issues favor a new generation of greener methods and materials such as zirconium. Environmental forces driving lightweight material selection during automobile body design are possibly more influential for transitioning to zirconium than the concerns regarding the body coating process. The chemistry involved in some conversion coatings processing has been known for over 100 years. However, recent advances in chemical processing, changes in the components used for vehicle body structures, environmental considerations and costs have prompted the automobile industry to embrace new conversion coatings technologies. These are discussed herein along with a historical perspective that has led to the use of current conversion coatings technologies. In addition, future directions for automobile body conversion coatings are discussed that may affect conversion coatings in the age of multi-material body structures. Full article
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Open AccessReview Electroplating for Decorative Applications: Recent Trends in Research and Development
Coatings 2018, 8(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8080260
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Electroplating processes are widely employed in industrial environments for a large variety of metallic coatings, ranging from technological to decorative applications. Even if the galvanic electrodeposition is certainly a mature technology, new concepts, novel applications, environmental legislation and the new material requirements for
[...] Read more.
Electroplating processes are widely employed in industrial environments for a large variety of metallic coatings, ranging from technological to decorative applications. Even if the galvanic electrodeposition is certainly a mature technology, new concepts, novel applications, environmental legislation and the new material requirements for next-generation devices make the scientific research in this field still very active. This review focuses mostly at the decorative and wearable applications, and aims to create a bridge between the past knowledge and the future direction that this process, i.e., electrodeposition, is taking. Both the theoretical fundamentals as well as some of the most widespread practical applications—limited to metallic and alloy coatings—are explored. As an integral part of the industrial process, we take a look at the main techniques thought which the quality control of deposits and surfaces is carried out. Finally, global industrial performance and research directions towards sustainable solutions are highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessReview Thin Film Thermoelectric Materials: Classification, Characterization, and Potential for Wearable Applications
Coatings 2018, 8(7), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8070244
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Thermoelectric technology has the ability to convert heat directly into electricity and vice versa. With the rapid growth of portable and wearable electronics and miniature devices, the self-powered and maintenance of free thermoelectric energy harvester is highly desired as a potential power supply.
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Thermoelectric technology has the ability to convert heat directly into electricity and vice versa. With the rapid growth of portable and wearable electronics and miniature devices, the self-powered and maintenance of free thermoelectric energy harvester is highly desired as a potential power supply. Thin film thermoelectric materials are lightweight, mechanically flexible, and they can be synthesized from abundant resources and processed with a low-cost procedure, which offers the potential to develop the novel thermoelectric devices and hold unique promise for future electronics and miniature accessories. Here, a general classification for thin film thermoelectric materials varied by material compositions, and thermoelectric properties depended on different measurement technique. Several new flexible thermoelectric strategies are summarized with the hope that they can inspire further development of novel thermoelectric applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview Porous Zinc Oxide Thin Films: Synthesis Approaches and Applications
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been widely investigated due to their multifunctional properties, i.e., catalytic, semiconducting and optical. They have found practical use in a wide number of application fields. However, the presence of a compact micro/nanostructure has often limited the resulting
[...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been widely investigated due to their multifunctional properties, i.e., catalytic, semiconducting and optical. They have found practical use in a wide number of application fields. However, the presence of a compact micro/nanostructure has often limited the resulting material properties. Moreover, with the advent of low-dimensional ZnO nanostructures featuring unique physical and chemical properties, the interest in studying ZnO thin films diminished more and more. Therefore, the possibility to combine at the same time the advantages of thin-film based synthesis technologies together with a high surface area and a porous structure might represent a powerful solution to prepare ZnO thin films with unprecedented physical and chemical characteristics that may find use in novel application fields. Within this scope, this review offers an overview on the most successful synthesis methods that are able to produce ZnO thin films with both framework and textural porosities. Moreover, we discuss the related applications, mainly focused on photocatalytic degradation of dyes, gas sensor fabrication and photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Full article
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