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Coatings 2019, 9(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020081

A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments

1
Laboratorio Arvedi di Diagnostica Non-Invasiva, CISRiC, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via Bell’Aspa 3, 26100 Cremona, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Informatiche, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Musicologia e Beni Culturali, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Corso Garibaldi 178, 26100 Cremona, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy
6
Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, 34194 Trieste, Italy
7
Institute of Art Conservation Science, Department of Fine Arts, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Sienkiewicza 30/32, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
8
Institute of Physics, Department of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract

Musical instruments are tools for playing music, but for some of them—made by the most important historical violin makers—the myths hide the physical artwork. Ancient violin-making Masters developed peculiar construction methods and defined aesthetic canons that are still recognizable in their musical instruments. Recently, the focus of scientific investigations has been set on the characterization of materials and methods used by the ancient violin makers by means of several scientific approaches. In this work, the merits of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the investigation of complex coatings systems on historical bowed string musical instruments are discussed. Five large fragments removed during past restorations from instruments produced by Jacobus Stainer, Gasparo da Salò, Giovanni Paolo Maggini, and Lorenzo Guadagnini have been considered for a non-invasive insight by tomographic techniques and the results are discussed considering previous micro-invasive investigations. The tomographic approach allows to highlight the micro-morphology of the coating systems and offers preliminary information on the methods that were employed by the ancient Masters to treat the wood and finish the musical instrument. View Full-Text
Keywords: varnish; musical instruments; tomography; synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography; micro-CT; optical coherence tomography; OCT varnish; musical instruments; tomography; synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography; micro-CT; optical coherence tomography; OCT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fiocco, G.; Rovetta, T.; Invernizzi, C.; Albano, M.; Malagodi, M.; Licchelli, M.; Re, A.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lanzafame, G.N.; Zanini, F.; Iwanicka, M.; Targowski, P.; Gulmini, M. A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments. Coatings 2019, 9, 81.

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