Special Issue "Diamond and Diamond-like Coatings: Deposition, Characterization, and Applications"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ivan Buijnsters Website E-Mail
Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Research Group of Micro and Nano Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
Phone: +31 (0)15-27-85396
Interests: functional surfaces and nanomaterials; micro and nano engineering; thin film technology; synthetic diamond; (bio)sensors; tribology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diamond has been seen as a valuable material since ancient times. Diamond’s superlative physical properties make it very useful in jewelry, but also in a broad range of industrial applications. This Special Issue of Coatings incorporates many of the important aspects of the growth, characterization and application of synthetic diamond films and special attention to diamond-like (carbon) coatings is given as well.

Diamond combines a number of superior mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. This has triggered the development of diamond films in a wide range of scientific and technological applications, such as protective coatings, heat spreaders, optical windows and biological platforms, and their use in electrochemistry and microdevices. The rapid advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have enabled the growth of diamond with a wide variety of film properties. New synthesis methods of nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline diamond coatings have been developed and tailoring the microstructure, morphology, surfaces and impurities has become a common practice.

In parallel, there has been an extensive activity on diamond-like film materials, such as hard amorphous carbons and carbon nitrides. These materials too exhibit high hardness, wear resistance and chemical inertness. In particular, the structure and tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings can be tailored effectively by doping with different light elements and metals. Recent developments are on carbon-based nanocomposites with novel multifunctionality and unique combinations of properties, which are difficult to achieve otherwise.

The present Special Issue addresses the key aspects of either deposition, characterization, and application of diamond and diamond-like carbon film materials. Both fundamental science and engineering concepts as well as theoretical and experimental studies addressing deposition-structure-properties relationships will be welcomed as the subject of submitted manuscripts. In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to CVD diamond, amorphous carbons (DLC, carbon nitride), advances in deposition methods and modification, wear resistant coatings, as well as cases of successful applications in the areas of optics, electronics, biomedics and electrochemistry.

In conclusion, it is my pleasure to invite all researchers from the R&D community of diamond and related hard carbon materials to submit a manuscript in the field for this special issue. Full papers, communications, and review articles are all welcome.

Dr. Ivan Buijnsters
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diamond

  • diamond-like carbon, carbon nitride and boron carbide

  • deposition techniques (CVD and PVD)

  • microstructure and morphology

  • mechanical and tribological properties

  • wear resistant coatings

  • optics and electronics

  • electrochemistry

  • biomedical applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multilayer CVD Diamond Coatings in the Machining of an Al6061-15 Vol % Al2O3 Composite
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100165 - 03 Oct 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Ceramic cutting inserts coated with ten-fold alternating micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MCD/NCD) layers grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were tested in the machining of an Al based metallic matrix composite (MMC) containing 15 vol % Al2O3 particles. [...] Read more.
Ceramic cutting inserts coated with ten-fold alternating micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MCD/NCD) layers grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were tested in the machining of an Al based metallic matrix composite (MMC) containing 15 vol % Al2O3 particles. Inserts with total coating thicknesses of approximately 12 µm and 24 µm were produced and used in turning: cutting speed (v) of 250 to 1000 m·min1; depth of cut (DOC) from 0.5 to 3 mm and feed (f) between 0.1 and 0.4 mm·rev1. The main cutting force increases linearly with DOC (ca. 294 N per mm) and with feed (ca. 640 N per mm·rev1). The thicker coatings work within the following limits: DOC up to 1.5 mm and maximum speeds of 750 m·min1 for feeds up to 0.4 mm·rev1. Flank wear is predominant but crater wear is also observed due to the negative tool normal rake. Layer-by-layer wear of the tool rake, and not total delamination from the substrate, evidenced one of the advantages of using a multilayer design. The MCD/NCD multilayer diamond coated indexable inserts have longer tool life than most CVD diamond systems and behave as well as most polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deposition and Patterning of Polycrystalline Diamond Films Using Traditional Photolithography and Reactive Ion Etching
Coatings 2017, 7(9), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7090148 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Given the exceptional characteristics of diamond films, they have become increasingly popular in the fields of medicine, microelectronics, and detector electronics. However, despite all the advantages, there are many technological problems that complicate their widespread application and impose limitations on diamond use in [...] Read more.
Given the exceptional characteristics of diamond films, they have become increasingly popular in the fields of medicine, microelectronics, and detector electronics. However, despite all the advantages, there are many technological problems that complicate their widespread application and impose limitations on diamond use in technological processes. In this study, we proposed a new technique for obtaining a complex topology of polycrystalline diamond coatings by selective seeding of the substrate by nucleation centers and subsequent surface treatment with reactive ion etching to reduce the number of parasitic particles. As a result, diamond films were obtained with a high particle concentration in the film region and high repeatability of the pattern. Moreover, parasitic particles influenced neutralization in areas where film coverage was not needed. The effect of the diamond nanoparticle concentration in a photoresist and the effect of reactive ion etching on the formation of a continuous film and the removal of parasitic nucleation centers were examined. The relative simplicity, low power consumption, and high efficiency of this method make it attractive for both industrial and scientific applications. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Surface Texturing of CVD Diamond Assisted by Ultrashort Laser Pulses
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110185 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent physical properties which allow it to operate under extreme conditions. However, the technological use of diamond was mostly conceived for the fabrication of ultraviolet, ionizing radiation and nuclear detectors, of electron emitters, and of power [...] Read more.
Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent physical properties which allow it to operate under extreme conditions. However, the technological use of diamond was mostly conceived for the fabrication of ultraviolet, ionizing radiation and nuclear detectors, of electron emitters, and of power electronic devices. The use of nanosecond pulse excimer lasers enabled the microstructuring of diamond surfaces, and refined techniques such as controlled ablation through graphitization and etching by two-photon surface excitation are being exploited for the nanostructuring of diamond. On the other hand, ultrashort pulse lasers paved the way for a more accurate diamond microstructuring, due to reduced thermal effects, as well as an effective surface nanostructuring, based on the formation of periodic structures at the nanoscale. It resulted in drastic modifications of the optical and electronic properties of diamond, of which “black diamond” films are an example for future high-temperature solar cells as well as for advanced optoelectronic platforms. Although experiments on diamond nanostructuring started almost 20 years ago, real applications are only today under implementation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Guide to and Review of the Use of Multiwavelength Raman Spectroscopy for Characterizing Defective Aromatic Carbon Solids: from Graphene to Amorphous Carbons
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100153 - 25 Sep 2017
Cited by 36
Abstract
sp2 hybridized carbons constitute a broad class of solid phases composed primarily of elemental carbon and can be either synthetic or naturally occurring. Some examples are graphite, chars, soot, graphene, carbon nanotubes, pyrolytic carbon, and diamond-like carbon. They vary from highly ordered [...] Read more.
sp2 hybridized carbons constitute a broad class of solid phases composed primarily of elemental carbon and can be either synthetic or naturally occurring. Some examples are graphite, chars, soot, graphene, carbon nanotubes, pyrolytic carbon, and diamond-like carbon. They vary from highly ordered to completely disordered solids and detailed knowledge of their internal structure and composition is of utmost importance for the scientific and engineering communities working with these materials. Multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very powerful and non-destructive tool for the characterization of carbons containing both aromatic domains and defects and has been widely used since the 1980s. Depending on the material studied, some specific spectroscopic parameters (e.g., band position, full width at half maximum, relative intensity ratio between two bands) are used to characterize defects. This paper is addressed first to (but not limited to) the newcomer in the field, who needs to be guided due to the vast literature on the subject, in order to understand the physics at play when dealing with Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based solids. We also give historical aspects on the development of the Raman spectroscopy technique and on its application to sp2 hybridized carbons, which are generally not presented in the literature. We review the way Raman spectroscopy is used for sp2 based carbon samples containing defects. As graphene is the building block for all these materials, we try to bridge these two worlds by also reviewing the use of Raman spectroscopy in the characterization of graphene and nanographenes (e.g., nanotubes, nanoribbons, nanocones, bombarded graphene). Counterintuitively, because of the Dirac cones in the electronic structure of graphene, Raman spectra are driven by electronic properties: Phonons and electrons being coupled by the double resonance mechanism. This justifies the use of multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy to better characterize these materials. We conclude with the possible influence of both phonon confinement and curvature of aromatic planes on the shape of Raman spectra, and discuss samples to be studied in the future with some complementary technique (e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy) in order to disentangle the influence of structure and defects. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Interlayers Applied to CVD Diamond Deposition on Steel Substrate: A Review
Coatings 2017, 7(9), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7090141 - 08 Sep 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Academics and industry have sought after combining the exceptional properties of diamonds with the toughness of steel. Since the early 1990s several partial solutions have been found but chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond deposition on steel substrate continues to be a persistent problem. [...] Read more.
Academics and industry have sought after combining the exceptional properties of diamonds with the toughness of steel. Since the early 1990s several partial solutions have been found but chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond deposition on steel substrate continues to be a persistent problem. The main drawbacks are the high carbon diffusion from gas phase into substrate, the transition metals on the material surface that catalyze sp2 bond formation, instead of sp3 bonds, and the high thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) mismatch between diamond and steels. An intermediate layer has been found necessary to increase diamond adhesion. Literature has proposed many efficient intermediate layers as a diffusion barrier for both, carbon and iron, but most intermediate layers shown have not solved TEC mismatch. In this review, we briefly discuss the solutions that exclusively work as diffusion barrier and discuss in a broader way the ones that also solve, or may potentially solve, the TEC mismatch problem. We examine some multilayers, the iron borides, the chromium carbides, and vanadium carbides. We go through the most relevant results of the last two and a half decades, including recent advances in our group. Vanadium carbide looks promising since it has shown excellent diffusion barrier properties, its TEC is intermediary between diamond and steel and, it has been thickened to manage thermal stress relief. We also review a new deposition technique to set up intermediate layers: laser cladding. It is promising because of its versatility in mixing different materials and fusing and/or sintering them on a steel surface. We conclude by remarking on new perspectives. Full article
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