Special Issue "Fluid Interfaces"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Liquid–Fluid Coatings, Surfaces and Interfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Eduardo Guzmán
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: polyelectrolyte; surfactants; interfaces; polymer; layer by layer; colloids; emulsions; interfacial rheology; biophysics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluid interfaces are promising candidates for confining different types of materials, for example, polymers, surfactants, colloids, or even small molecules, by direct spreading or self-assembly from solutions in the design of new functional materials. The development of such materials requires a deepening on the physico-chemical bases underlying the formation of  layers at fluid interfaces, as well as on the characterization of their structures and properties. This is of particular importance, because the constrains associated with the assembly of materials at the interface lead to the emergence of equilibrium and dynamics features in the interfacial systems, which are far from those conventionally found in the traditional materials. These new properties are of importance in many scientific and technological fiels, such as food science, cosmetics, biology, oil recovery, electronic, drug delivey, detergency, and tissue engineering. Therefore, an understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects involved in the preparation of these interfacial systems to improve on their usage for designing new technological systems are of paramount importance. This Special Issue is devoted to the fundamental and applied aspects involved in the study of fluid interfaces, with the aim of providing a comprehensive perspective on the current  status of the research field. It is expected that this will help to provide a bridge between the most fundamental knowledge on fluid interface, and the development of new applications based on it, closing the gap between different views.

Dr. Eduardo Guzmán
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • interfaces
  • confinenent
  • dynamics
  • materials
  • applications

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Editorial
Fluid Interfaces
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10101000 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Fluid interfaces are promising candidates for the design of new functional materials by confining different types of materials, e.g., polymers, surfactants, colloids, or even small molecules, by direct spreading or self-assembly from solutions. The development of such materials requires a deep understanding of [...] Read more.
Fluid interfaces are promising candidates for the design of new functional materials by confining different types of materials, e.g., polymers, surfactants, colloids, or even small molecules, by direct spreading or self-assembly from solutions. The development of such materials requires a deep understanding of the physico-chemical bases underlying the formation of layers at fluid interfaces, as well as the characterization of the structures and properties of such layers. This is of particular importance, because the constraints associated with the assembly of materials at the interface lead to the emergence of equilibrium and dynamic features in the interfacial systems that are far from those found in traditional 3D materials. These new properties are of importance in many scientific and technological fields, such as food science, cosmetics, biology, oil recovery, electronics, drug delivery, detergency, and tissue engineering. Therefore, the understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects involved in the preparation of these interfacial systems is of paramount importance for improving their usage for designing innovative technological solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Microstructure and Inertial Characteristics of MHD Suspended SWCNTs and MWCNTs Based Maxwell Nanofluid Flow with Bio-Convection and Entropy Generation Past a Permeable Vertical Cone
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100998 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
In this research work, our goal is to scrutinize the case, where water-based nanofluids having single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) flow through a vertical cone. The second law of thermodynamic is taken for the aim of scheming effective heat storage units. The [...] Read more.
In this research work, our goal is to scrutinize the case, where water-based nanofluids having single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) flow through a vertical cone. The second law of thermodynamic is taken for the aim of scheming effective heat storage units. The body package is layered in convective heat and diluted permeable medium. The effects of Joule heating, rotary microorganisms, heat generation/absorption, chemical reactions, and heat radiation increase the novelty of the established model. By using a local similarity transformation technique, the partial differential equations (PDEs) change into a coupled differential equation. By using the numerical technique, bvp4c, to get the solution of the conservation equations and their relevant boundary conditions. The parameters appearing in the distribution analysis of the alliance are scrutinized in detail, and the consequences are depicted graphically. It can be perceived that in the situation of composed nanotubes, the velocity of fluid decreases as the magnetic field is increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fluid Morphologies Governed by the Competition of Viscous Dissipation and Phase Separation in a Radial Hele-Shaw Flow
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100960 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The displacement of a less viscous fluid by a more viscous fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell makes a circular pattern because the interface is hydrodynamically stable in this condition. Very recently, it has been experimentally reported that the hydrodynamically stable displacement in [...] Read more.
The displacement of a less viscous fluid by a more viscous fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell makes a circular pattern because the interface is hydrodynamically stable in this condition. Very recently, it has been experimentally reported that the hydrodynamically stable displacement in a partially miscible system induces fingering patterns while stable circular patterns are made at fully miscible and immiscible systems. The fingering instability in the partially miscible system results from complex and entangled elements involving viscous dissipation, molecular diffusion, and phase separation. The analyzing mechanism requires a quantitative relationship between the hydrodynamic interfacial fingering patterns and underlying physicochemical properties. Here, we experimentally investigated the change in fluid patterns formed by the progression of phase separation in the partially miscible systems and categorized them into three patterns: finger-like pattern, annular-like pattern, and circular pattern. Moreover, we propose the mechanism of the pattern formation by an interfacial tension measurement and evaluate the patterns by modified capillary number and newly defined body force ratio, Bf. Our analysis revealed that the deformation index of the pattern can be expressed as a function of Bf on a single curve regardless of the miscibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for Second Grade Nanofluid Flow with Hall Effect through Entropy Generation over Stretchable Rotating Disk
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070610 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
The second grade nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model by a stretching disk is examined in this paper. The nanofluid flow is characterized with Hall current, Brownian motion and thermophoresis influences. Entropy optimization with nonlinear thermal radiation, Joule heating and heat absorption/generation [...] Read more.
The second grade nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model by a stretching disk is examined in this paper. The nanofluid flow is characterized with Hall current, Brownian motion and thermophoresis influences. Entropy optimization with nonlinear thermal radiation, Joule heating and heat absorption/generation is also presented. The convergence of an analytical approach (HAM) is shown. Variation in the nanofluid flow profiles (velocities, thermal, concentration, total entropy, Bejan number) via influential parameters and number are also presented. Radial velocity, axial velocity and total entropy are enhanced with the Weissenberg number. Axial velocity, tangential velocity and Bejan number are heightened with the Hall parameter. The total entropy profile is enhanced with the Brinkman number, diffusion parameter, magnetic parameter and temperature difference. The Bejan number profile is heightened with the diffusion parameter and temperature difference. Arithmetical values of physical quantities are illustrated in Tables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Structure of DPPC Monolayers at the Air/Buffer Interface: A Neutron Reflectometry and Ellipsometry Study
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060507 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Langmuir monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine, known as DPPC, at the air/water interface are extensively used as model systems of biomembranes and pulmonary surfactant. The properties of these monolayers have been mainly investigated by surface pressure–area isotherms coupled with different complementary techniques such as Brewster [...] Read more.
Langmuir monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine, known as DPPC, at the air/water interface are extensively used as model systems of biomembranes and pulmonary surfactant. The properties of these monolayers have been mainly investigated by surface pressure–area isotherms coupled with different complementary techniques such as Brewster angle microscopy, for example. Several attempts using neutron reflectometry (NR) or ellipsometry have also appeared in the literature. Here, we report structural information obtained by using NR and ellipsometry on DPPC monolayers in the liquid condensed phase. On one side, NR can resolve the thickness of the aliphatic tails and the degree of hydration of the polar headgroups. On the other side, ellipsometry gives information on the refractive index and, therefore, on the physical state of the monolayer. The thickness and surface excess obtained by multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry (MAIE) is compared with the results from NR measurements yielding a good agreement. Besides, a novel approach is reported to calculate the optical anisotropy of the DPPC monolayer that depends on the orientation of the aliphatic chains. The results from both NR and ellipsometry are also discussed in the context of the existing results for DPPC monolayers at the air/water interface. The differences observed are rationalized by the presence of buffer molecules interacting with phospholipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interaction of Particles with Langmuir Monolayers of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-Sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine: A Matter of Chemistry?
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050469 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Lipid layers are considered among the first protective barriers of the human body against pollutants, e.g., skin, lung surfactant, or tear film. This makes it necessary to explore the physico-chemical bases underlying the interaction of pollutants and lipid layers. This work evaluates using [...] Read more.
Lipid layers are considered among the first protective barriers of the human body against pollutants, e.g., skin, lung surfactant, or tear film. This makes it necessary to explore the physico-chemical bases underlying the interaction of pollutants and lipid layers. This work evaluates using a pool of surface-sensitive techniques, the impact of carbon black and fumed silica particles on the behavior of Langmuir monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). The results show that the incorporation of particles into the lipid monolayers affects the surface pressure–area isotherm of the DPPC, modifying both the phase behavior and the collapse conditions. This is explained considering that particles occupy a part of the area available for lipid organization, which affects the lateral organization of the lipid molecules, and consequently the cohesion interactions within the monolayer. Furthermore, particles incorporation worsens the mechanical performance of lipid layers, which may impact negatively in different processes presenting biological relevance. The modification induced by the particles has been found to be dependent on their specific chemical nature. This work tries to shed light on some of the most fundamental physico-chemical bases governing the interaction of pollutants with lipid layers, which plays an essential role on the design of strategies for preventing the potential health hazards associated with pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interfacial Properties and Emulsification of Biocompatible Liquid-Liquid Systems
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040397 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
A comparative study is reported on the interfacial properties of a set of surfactants and is discussed in terms of the effects on the features of the corresponding oil-water emulsions. The surfactants are saponin, Tween 80 and citronellol glucoside (CG), while the oil [...] Read more.
A comparative study is reported on the interfacial properties of a set of surfactants and is discussed in terms of the effects on the features of the corresponding oil-water emulsions. The surfactants are saponin, Tween 80 and citronellol glucoside (CG), while the oil is Miglyol 812N—A Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) oil. Due to their high biocompatibility, all these compounds are variously utilized in food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical products. Among the surfactants, which are all soluble in water, CG presents also an important solubility in oil, as shown by the measured partition coefficient. For these systems, dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tensions and dilational viscoelasticity are measured as a function of the surfactant concentration and analyzed according to available adsorption models. In order to compare these results with the time evolution of the corresponding emulsions, the actual surfactant concentration in the matrix phase of the emulsion is accounted for. This may differ significantly from the nominal concentration of the solutions before dispersing them, because of the huge area of droplets available for surfactant adsorption in the emulsion. Using this approach allows the derivation of the correlations between the observed emulsion behavior and the actual surfactant coverage of the droplet interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Darcy-Forchheimer MHD Hybrid Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis over a Porous Stretching Cylinder
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040391 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
This research work deals with investigation of the thermal characteristics of the Darcy–Forchheimer hydromagnetic hybrid nanofluid (Al2O3-Cu/H2O) flow through a permeable stretching cylinder. The model equations, which consist of continuity, momentum, and energy equations, are converted to [...] Read more.
This research work deals with investigation of the thermal characteristics of the Darcy–Forchheimer hydromagnetic hybrid nanofluid (Al2O3-Cu/H2O) flow through a permeable stretching cylinder. The model equations, which consist of continuity, momentum, and energy equations, are converted to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations through similarity variables transformations and appropriate boundary conditions. Brownian motion and Thermophoresis effects are mainly focused in this work. The impacts of some interesting parameters over velocity, temperature, and concentrations profiles are graphically studied. The present study will be helpful in understanding the thermal characteristics of heat transfer liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Thin Film Flow of Couple Stress Magneto-Hydrodynamics Nanofluid with Convective Heat over an Inclined Exponentially Rotating Stretched Surface
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040338 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
In this article a couple stress magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) nanofluid thin film flow over an exponential stretching sheet with joule heating and viscous dissipation is considered. Similarity transformations were used to obtain a non-linear coupled system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from a system [...] Read more.
In this article a couple stress magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) nanofluid thin film flow over an exponential stretching sheet with joule heating and viscous dissipation is considered. Similarity transformations were used to obtain a non-linear coupled system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from a system of constitutive partial differential equations (PDEs). The system of ordinary differential equations of couple stress magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) nanofluid flow was solved using the well-known Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were demonstrated in dimensionless forms. At zero Prandtl number the velocity profile was analytically described. Furthermore, the impact of different parameters over different state variables are presented with the help of graphs. Dimensionless numbers like magnetic parameter M, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Prandtl number Pr, thermophoretic parameter Nt, Schmidt number Sc, and rotation parameter S were analyzed over the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles. It was observed that the magnetic parameter M increases the axial, radial, drainage, and induced profiles. It was also apparent that Nu reduces with greater values of Pr. On increasing values of the Brownian motion parameter the concentration profile declines, while the thermophoresis parameter increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adsorption Kinetics of a Cationic Surfactant Bearing a Two-Charged Head at the Air-Water Interface
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020095 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
We studied the dynamics of adsorption at the air-water interface of a cationic surfactant bearing two charges, Gemini 12-2-12, at concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc). We used maximum bubble pressure and Wilhelmy plate techniques in order to access all [...] Read more.
We studied the dynamics of adsorption at the air-water interface of a cationic surfactant bearing two charges, Gemini 12-2-12, at concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc). We used maximum bubble pressure and Wilhelmy plate techniques in order to access all time scales in the adsorption process. We found that the adsorption dynamics are controlled by diffusion at the initial stage of the adsorption process (milliseconds) and it is kinetically controlled by an electrostatic barrier (minute) approaching the equilibrium surfactant surface concentration. Between these two extremes, we found several relaxation phenomena, all following exponential decays with characteristic times spanning from one to hundreds of seconds. By means of time-resolved surface potential measurements, we show that these processes involve charge redistribution within the interfacial region. The surface tension data are analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the free energy approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Experiment Investigate on the Effectiveness of Flexible Pipes to Isolate Sea-Water Pump Generated Vibration
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010043 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Vibration control is important in maintaining the silence of the underwater vehicle. Among the many methods of vibration control, isolation is by far the most efficient approach. However, as one of the major vibration sources in underwater vehicle, the vibration isolation of the [...] Read more.
Vibration control is important in maintaining the silence of the underwater vehicle. Among the many methods of vibration control, isolation is by far the most efficient approach. However, as one of the major vibration sources in underwater vehicle, the vibration isolation of the sea-water pump has not been well explored. The sea-water pipe is the primary vibration transmit path from the sea-water pump to the housing. In order to realize the vibration isolation of the sea-water pump, the sea-water pipe must have certain flexibility and damping. In this study, scaled model tests were carried out to investigate the isolation effectiveness of flexible pipes in isolated sea-water pump. Specifically, three types of flexible pipes, i.e., double layer metal bellows (DLMB), rubber pipes (RP) and bellows coated rubber (BCR) were designed and tested. Tests were carried out under the operation rotate speeds of the sea-water pump. Our results show that compared with single layer metal bellows (SLMB), the isolation effectiveness of DLMB and BCR were significant and stable in high frequency regions. The optimal pipe can be chosen for different vibration reduction requirements in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid Past a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet in the Presence of Viscous Dissipation Effect
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080490 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
This paper numerically investigates the viscous dissipation effect on the boundary layer flow of an electrically-conducting viscoelastic fluid (Walter’s B liquid) past a nonlinear stretching sheet. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem are transformed into ordinary differential equations through similarity variables. [...] Read more.
This paper numerically investigates the viscous dissipation effect on the boundary layer flow of an electrically-conducting viscoelastic fluid (Walter’s B liquid) past a nonlinear stretching sheet. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem are transformed into ordinary differential equations through similarity variables. The transformed equations are then solved using the Keller box method. A careful evaluation of the influence of the pertinent parameters on the velocity field and temperature distributions through various plots is done for the prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed heat flux (PHF) boundary conditions. The computed coefficient of skin friction, the rate of heat transfer (Nusselt number), and the temperature at the wall are also presented in tabular form. It is revealed from this table that the magnitude of the heat transfer is reduced with the increase in the Eckert number E c , viscoelastic parameter K, and magnetic parameter M for the PST case by about 12%, 20%, and 29%, respectively. Similarly, the temperature at the wall for the PHF case also decreases with the increase in E c and M by about 8% and 24%, respectively. It is obvious that the application of the PST condition excels at keeping the viscoelastic fluid warmer than the PHF condition. This implies that applying the PHF condition is better for cooling the sheet faster. The temperature at the wall is unchanged with the changes in the pertinent parameters in the PST case, and it is ascertained that the present results are in close agreement with the previous published results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Two Different Scenarios for the Equilibration of Polycation—Anionic Solutions at Water–Vapor Interfaces
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070438 - 13 Jul 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
The assembly in solution of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and two different anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate (SLMT), has been studied. Additionally, the adsorption of the formed complexes at the water–vapor interface have been measured to [...] Read more.
The assembly in solution of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and two different anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate (SLMT), has been studied. Additionally, the adsorption of the formed complexes at the water–vapor interface have been measured to try to shed light on the complex physico-chemical behavior of these systems under conditions close to that used in commercial products. The results show that, independently of the type of surfactant, polyelectrolyte-surfactant interactions lead to the formation of kinetically trapped aggregates in solution. Such aggregates drive the solution to phase separation, even though the complexes should remain undercharged along the whole range of explored compositions. Despite the similarities in the bulk behavior, the equilibration of the interfacial layers formed upon adsorption of kinetically trapped aggregates at the water–vapor interface follows different mechanisms. This was pointed out by surface tension and interfacial dilational rheology measurements, which showed different equilibration mechanisms of the interfacial layer depending on the nature of the surfactant: (i) formation layers with intact aggregates in the PDADMAC-SLMT system, and (ii) dissociation and spreading of kinetically trapped aggregates after their incorporation at the fluid interface for the PDADMAC-SLES one. This evidences the critical impact of the chemical nature of the surfactant in the interfacial properties of these systems. It is expected that this work may contribute to the understanding of the complex interactions involved in this type of system to exploit its behavior for technological purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop