Special Issue "Disorders of Motor, Somatic and Cognitive Development in Children with Neurodysfunctions"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Child Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Agnieszka Guzik
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Health Sciences, Medical College, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
Interests: Gait analysis; neurological gait disorders; neurorehabilitation; stroke rehabilitation; hemiplegic gait; cerebral palsy
Prof. Dr. Lidia Perenc
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów, Kopisto 2a st., Poland
Interests: Anthropometry; somatic growth; cognitive and social development; health behaviors
Prof. Dr. Mariusz Drużbicki
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-959 Rzeszów, Kopisto 2a st., Poland
Interests: Neurorehabilitation; gait; biofeedback; neurodysfunctions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dysfunctions in a child’s nervous system may be caused by numerous factors: genetic, contagious physical, chemical, or environmental. The prevalence of neurodysfunctions in pediatric populations is relatively high, compared to defects of other systems. This is linked to the fact that the development of the specific structures of the nervous system occurs over a relatively long period of time, during which the processes are affected by harmful factors. It may be difficult to accurately identify the cause, even in half of the children affected by the condition. The dysfunctions of the nervous system may have an impact on locomotion, somatic growth, and cognitive and social development. Therefore, children and adolescents with neurodysfunctions require continuous, comprehensive rehabilitation, covering not only motor functions but also mental and social ones. We invite the submission of original research manuscripts as well as review articles and case studies that address somatic, motor, and cognitive development disorders in children and also those that address neurorehabilitation in children with neurodysfunctions.

We look forward to receiving your submissions for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Agnieszka Guzik
Prof. Dr. Lidia Perenc
Prof. Dr. Mariusz Drużbicki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • neurodysfunctions
  • neurorehabilitation
  • gait
  • anthropometry
  • somatic growth
  • cognitive and social development
  • health behaviors

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Utility of Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Variability Index (GVI) in Detecting Gait Changes in Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Children Using Ankle–Foot Orthoses (AFO)
Children 2020, 7(10), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7100149 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) children present complex and heterogeneous motor disorders that cause gait deviations. Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is used to identify, understand and support the management of gait deviations in CP. Children with CP often use ankle–foot orthosis (AFO) to facilitate [...] Read more.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) children present complex and heterogeneous motor disorders that cause gait deviations. Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is used to identify, understand and support the management of gait deviations in CP. Children with CP often use ankle–foot orthosis (AFO) to facilitate and optimize their walking ability. The aim of this study was to assess whether the gait deviation index (GDI) and the gait variability index (GVI) results can reflect the changes of spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters in spastic hemiplegic CP children wearing AFO. Method: The study group consisted of 37 CP children with hemiparesis. All had undergone a comprehensive, instrumented gait analysis while walking, both barefoot and with their AFO, during the same CGA session. Kinematic and spatio-temporal data were collected and GVI and GDI gait indexes were calculated. Results: Significant differences were found between the barefoot condition and the AFO conditions for selected spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters. Changes in GVI and GDI were also statistically significant. Conclusions: The use of AFO in hemiplegic CP children caused a statistically significant improvement in spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters. It was found that these changes were also reflected by GVI and GDI. These findings might suggest that gait indices, such as GDI and GVI, as clinical outcome measures, may reflect the effects of specific therapeutic interventions in CP children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Ankle Range of Motion, Gait Function and Standing Balance in Children with Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy after Ankle Mobilization by Manual Therapy
Children 2020, 7(9), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090142 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle joint mobilization in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ankle range of motion (ROM), gait, and standing balance. We recruited 32 children (spastic diplegia) diagnosed with CP and categorized them in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle joint mobilization in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ankle range of motion (ROM), gait, and standing balance. We recruited 32 children (spastic diplegia) diagnosed with CP and categorized them in two groups: the ankle joint mobilization (n = 16) group and sham joint mobilization (n = 16) group. Thus, following a six-week ankle joint mobilization, we examined measures such as passive ROM in ankle dorsiflexion in the sitting and supine position, center of pressure (COP) displacements (sway length, area) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC), and a gait function test (timed up and go test (TUG) and 10-m walk test). The dorsiflexion ROM, TUG, and 10-m walk test significantly increased in the mobilization group compared to the control group. Ankle joint mobilization can be regarded as a promising method to increase dorsiflexion and improve gait in CP-suffering children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Functional Progressive Resistance Exercise on Lower Extremity Structure, Muscle Tone, Dynamic Balance and Functional Ability in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Children 2020, 7(8), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7080085 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance exercise (FPRE) on muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-five subjects were randomized into two groups: the FPRE group (n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance exercise (FPRE) on muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-five subjects were randomized into two groups: the FPRE group (n = 13) and the control group (n = 12). The experimental group participated in an FPRE program for 30 min per day, three times per week for six weeks. Knee extensor strength, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), muscle tone, dynamic balance, and functional ability was evaluated. The results showed statistically significant time × group interaction effects on the dominant side for knee extensor strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) in RUSI (p < 0.05). On both sides for thickness of the quadriceps (TQ) in RUSI, muscle tone and dynamic balance were statistically significant time × group interaction effects (p < 0.05). Additionally, knee extensor strength, CSA, TQ in RUS, muscle tone, dynamic balance and gross motor function measure (GMFM) in functional ability were significantly increased between pre- and post-intervention within the FPRE group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that FPRE is both feasible and beneficial for improving muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Action Observation Training on Spasticity, Gross Motor Function, and Balance in Children with Diplegia Cerebral Palsy
Children 2020, 7(6), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060064 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of action observation training on spasticity, gross motor function, and balance in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Eighteen children with cerebral palsy participated in this study. The participants were randomized into the action observation training group ( [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of action observation training on spasticity, gross motor function, and balance in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Eighteen children with cerebral palsy participated in this study. The participants were randomized into the action observation training group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). The action observation training group repeatedly practiced the action with their motor skills, while the control group practiced conventional physical therapy. Both groups received 30 min sessions, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. To confirm the effects of intervention, the spasticity, gross motor function measurement (GMFM), and pediatric reaching test (PRT) were evaluated. The results showed that in the plantar flexor contracture test of both sides, the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) of the right side of knee joints, GMFM-B, C, and D were significantly increased between pre- and post-intervention within both groups (p < 0.05). PRT was significantly increased between pre- and post-intervention within the both groups (p < 0.05), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that action observation training is both feasible and beneficial for improving spasticity, gross motor function, and balance in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Full article
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