Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2023) | Viewed by 13898

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Interests: pediatric cataracts and cataract surgery; pediatric glaucoma, medical and surgical management; amblyopia

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Guest Editor
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Interests: pediatric ophthalmology; amblyopia; strabismus; healthcare disparities; surgical education; surgical assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pathophysiology found in pediatric eye disease is broad, ranging from benign refractive errors to devastating eye deformities, both congenital and acquired.

Treatable causes of vision loss, particularly refractive errors, often go undetected. Those charged with taking care of children should be aware of the importance of vision screening in the early detection of vision threatening conditions. Education and awareness of the types and forms of glasses, including in challenging fit situations, e.g., craniosynostosis, are important for pediatric practitioners. Vision and learning disabilities represent a key intersection of the eye and the brain. Understanding the limits of vision therapy and advocating for limited resources of time and money to be spent in alternative avenues can be at times a contentious, but also important area of advocacy. Genetic conditions that have ocular manifestations are one place that ophthalmologists and pediatricians must practice team-centered care and work together to ensure early detection and treatment. Finally, ophthalmologists and pediatricians alike must recognize and navigate the myriad of barriers to care and healthcare disparities to promote healthy vision for their patients.

We hope this Special Issue introduces numerous topics of interest to anyone taking care of children. We aim to provide an introduction to many eye diseases and conditions that require prompt care, as well as chronic conditions with continuous therapy.

Dr. Courtney L. Kraus
Dr. Susan M. Culican
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vision therapy
  • myopia
  • near-sightedness
  • refractive error
  • conjunctivitis
  • vision screening
  • headaches
  • stye
  • chalazion
  • nasolacrimal duct obstruction
  • prematurity
  • esotropia, strabismus
  • psuedostrabismus
  • pseudoesotropia
  • Down syndrome
  • ocular trauma

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Pediatric and School-Age Vision Screening in the United States: Rationale, Components, and Future Directions
by Christina Ambrosino, Xi Dai, Bani Antonio Aguirre and Megan E. Collins
Children 2023, 10(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030490 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Pediatric vision screening detects children at risk for visual conditions with the goal of connecting those in need with an eye care provider for evaluation and treatment. The primary aim for vision screening in younger children is the detection of those at risk [...] Read more.
Pediatric vision screening detects children at risk for visual conditions with the goal of connecting those in need with an eye care provider for evaluation and treatment. The primary aim for vision screening in younger children is the detection of those at risk for amblyopia, which can result in irreversible vision loss if left untreated. In older children, screening goals broaden to include the detection of risk for uncorrected refractive error. In the United States, professional organization guidelines and state-mandated requirements for vision screening vary widely across both the timing and components of screening. In this article, we describe the goals and components of pediatric vision screenings, current challenges, novel approaches to providing follow-up services through school-based vision programs, and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)
11 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
When Pediatric Headaches Are Not Benign—Eye Findings
by Sam Karimaghaei and Brita S. Rook
Children 2023, 10(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020372 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Headache is the most common neurologic complaint that presents to the pediatrician. While most headaches are benign in nature, patients must be carefully evaluated to rule out life- or vision-threatening causes. Non-benign etiologies of headache may exhibit ophthalmologic signs and symptoms that can [...] Read more.
Headache is the most common neurologic complaint that presents to the pediatrician. While most headaches are benign in nature, patients must be carefully evaluated to rule out life- or vision-threatening causes. Non-benign etiologies of headache may exhibit ophthalmologic signs and symptoms that can help narrow the differential diagnosis. It is also important for physicians to know in what situations appropriate ophthalmologic evaluation is necessary, such as evaluating for papilledema in the setting of elevated intracranial pressure. In this article we discuss life- and/or vision-threatening etiologies of headache, including infection, autoimmune disease, cerebrovascular pathologies, hydrocephalus, intracranial neoplasia, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and their associated ophthalmologic manifestations. Due to less familiarity of the disease amongst primary care providers, we discuss pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension in more comprehensive detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)
5 pages, 217 KiB  
Article
Vision Therapy: A Primer and Caution for Pediatricians
by Bo Wang and Edward Kuwera
Children 2022, 9(12), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121873 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3800
Abstract
Vision therapy, also known as behavioral therapy, is theorized by its practitioners to treat a variety of visual disorders, including learning disability in children. However, the utility of vision therapy to treat various learning disabilities is challenged by the American Academy of Pediatrics, [...] Read more.
Vision therapy, also known as behavioral therapy, is theorized by its practitioners to treat a variety of visual disorders, including learning disability in children. However, the utility of vision therapy to treat various learning disabilities is challenged by the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the American Association of Certified Orthoptists. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide an overview of vision therapy, (2) evaluate the evidence for vision therapy, and (3) give practical recommendations for pediatric primary care providers regarding vision therapy. A review of the literature demonstrates evidence that vision therapy is useful in the management of convergence insufficiency only. There is insufficient evidence to recommend in-office vision therapy for the management of other types of strabismus, amblyopia, or learning disability in the pediatric population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)

Review

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9 pages, 250 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Conjunctivitis: A Review of Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Management
by Matthew J. Mahoney, Ruegba Bekibele, Sydney L. Notermann, Thomas G. Reuter and Emily C. Borman-Shoap
Children 2023, 10(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10050808 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7128
Abstract
Conjunctivitis is a common pediatric problem and is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Bacterial conjunctivitis makes up the majority of cases in children and often presents with purulent discharge and mattering of the eyelids. Treatment is supportive with an individual approach [...] Read more.
Conjunctivitis is a common pediatric problem and is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Bacterial conjunctivitis makes up the majority of cases in children and often presents with purulent discharge and mattering of the eyelids. Treatment is supportive with an individual approach to antibiotic use in uncomplicated cases since it may shorten symptom duration, but is not without risks. Viral conjunctivitis is the other infectious cause and is primarily caused by adenovirus, with a burning, gritty feeling and watery discharge. Treatment is supportive. Allergic conjunctivitis is largely seasonal and presents with bilateral itching and watery discharge. Treatment can include topical lubricants, topical antihistamine agents, or systemic antihistamines. Other causes of conjunctivitis include foreign bodies and non-allergic environmental causes. Contact lens wearers should always be treated for bacterial conjunctivitis and referred to evaluate for corneal ulcers. Neonatal conjunctivitis requires special care with unique pathogens and considerations. This review covers essential information for the primary care pediatric provider as they assess cases of conjunctivitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)
8 pages, 216 KiB  
Review
Strabismus and Pediatric Psychiatric Illness: A Literature Review
by Tiffany L. Huang and Stacy L. Pineles
Children 2023, 10(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040607 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Purpose: This literature review aims to investigate the potential association between strabismus and mental illness among children. Materials: The search was conducted in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using a wide range of search terms related to strabismus, mental disorders, psychiatric illness, [...] Read more.
Purpose: This literature review aims to investigate the potential association between strabismus and mental illness among children. Materials: The search was conducted in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using a wide range of search terms related to strabismus, mental disorders, psychiatric illness, childhood, and adolescence. Results: Eleven published studies were included in this review. The findings from this review suggest an association between strabismus and mental illness. Negative attitudes and social bias against children with strabismus were also noted. Conclusions: These findings should alert healthcare providers to counsel children and their caregivers regarding the risk for mood disorders in children with strabismus and to consider mental health screening and referral as needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)
9 pages, 2917 KiB  
Review
The Ophthalmic Manifestations of Down Syndrome
by Emily Sun and Courtney L. Kraus
Children 2023, 10(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020341 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
Down Syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal conditions in the world, affecting an estimated 1:400–1:500 births. It is a multisystem genetic disorder but has a wide range of ophthalmic findings. These include strabismus, amblyopia, accommodation defects, refractive error, eyelid abnormalities, nasolacrimal [...] Read more.
Down Syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal conditions in the world, affecting an estimated 1:400–1:500 births. It is a multisystem genetic disorder but has a wide range of ophthalmic findings. These include strabismus, amblyopia, accommodation defects, refractive error, eyelid abnormalities, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, nystagmus, keratoconus, cataracts, retinal abnormalities, optic nerve abnormalities, and glaucoma. These ophthalmic conditions are more prevalent in children with Down Syndrome than the general pediatric population, and without exception, early identification with thoughtful screening in this patient population can drastically improve prognosis and/or quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Ophthalmology)
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