New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Child Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2020)

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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: ADHD; ASD; virtual reality; augmented reality
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by showing a delay or alteration in the acquisition of skills, whether motor, cognitive, linguistic, or social. These disorders are associated with the maturation of the Central Nervous System and brain connectivity and can affect between 5 and 10% of the population. One of the most common is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, although the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and motor coordination disorders has been increasing in recent decades.

In this Special Issue, we would like to invite you to advance on two of the challenges of the H2031 Strategy and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, related to Goal 3 "Good health and well-being" and Goal 10 referring to "reducing inequalities " Firstly, this Special Issue aims to promote the dissemination of research on factors that can provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive, and effective learning environments for all. Secondly, we welcome work focusing on those interventions that reduce inequality to enhance or promote social inclusion and the improvement of the self-regulation processes of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Within these interventions, we especially want to highlight the use of new technologies, such as virtual and/or augmented reality. For all these reasons, professionals specializing in neuropaediatrics, child psychiatry, neuropsychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy, among others, are invited to share the results of their research, tackling the proposed challenges. 

Prof. Dulce María Romero-Ayuso
Guest Editor

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • brain
  • sensory processing
  • executive functions
  • self-regulation
  • neurodevelopmental disorders
  • autism
  • ADHD
  • motor skills disorders
  • ADL
  • play
  • school
  • virtual reality
  • augmented reality

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Future Challenges in Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
by Dulce Romero-Ayuso
Children 2021, 8(5), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050328 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders exceeds 15% worldwide, and often they are associated with other neurological disorders [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)

Research

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19 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Development of a Pathway for Multidisciplinary Neurodevelopmental Assessment and Diagnosis in Children and Young People
by Marion Rutherford, Donald Maciver, Lorna Johnston, Susan Prior and Kirsty Forsyth
Children 2021, 8(11), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8111033 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3743
Abstract
There is a variable standard of access to quality neurodevelopmental assessment and diagnosis. People may have negative experiences, encountering lengthy waiting times, and inconsistent practices. Practitioners need guidance on standards and practices for assessment and diagnosis matched to new ways of working. In [...] Read more.
There is a variable standard of access to quality neurodevelopmental assessment and diagnosis. People may have negative experiences, encountering lengthy waiting times, and inconsistent practices. Practitioners need guidance on standards and practices for assessment and diagnosis matched to new ways of working. In this paper, we present a new pathway and recommendations for multidisciplinary neurodevelopmental assessment and diagnosis for children and young people (<19 years), developed by the Scottish Government funded National Autism Implementation Team (NAIT). Our research used the Medical Research Council guidance for the development of complex interventions and included several iterative stages. Stage 1: n = 44 stakeholders attended an event on developing new practices for diagnosis and assessment. Stage 2: a literature synthesis was completed by the research team of clinical guidelines and diagnosis and assessment tools. Stage 3: an event with n = 127 stakeholders included discussion and debate of the data from stages 1 and 2. Recommendations and a draft pathway were written. Stage 4: successive drafts of recommendations and the pathway documentation were circulated among an advisory group, including multidisciplinary clinical experts and people with lived experience, until the final pathway was agreed upon. The finalised pathway includes guidance on terminology, assessment, diagnosis, triage, time standards and engagement of people with lived experience. The new pathway has been adopted by the Scottish Government. The pathway and associated documentation are freely available online for use by others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
18 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
A Novel Tool to Assess Basic Activities of Daily Living in Spanish Preschoolers
by Sabina Barrios-Fernandez, Margarita Gozalo, Andres Garcia-Gomez, Jorge Carlos-Vivas and Dulce Romero-Ayuso
Children 2021, 8(6), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8060496 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5234
Abstract
Background: Basic activities of daily living (BADLs) are those related to self-care. Their performance depends on the development of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, as well as social and environmental aspects. A good performance in BADLs is required for independence and social participation, so [...] Read more.
Background: Basic activities of daily living (BADLs) are those related to self-care. Their performance depends on the development of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, as well as social and environmental aspects. A good performance in BADLs is required for independence and social participation, so they play an important role in early education and early care. We aim to create a tool for BADLs assessment for Spanish preschoolers. Methods: The tool was administered to 303 participants (48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) between three and six years of age. Analyses to find out the factorial structure and internal consistency was carried out. Results: The instrument was composed of 84 items in four scales (eating, personal hygiene, dressing, and daily functioning) with nine factors (oral sensitivity, good manners, manual dexterity, brushing teeth, toilet management, hygiene and grooming, dressing, higher-order and core executive function). Reliability values were from acceptable to preferred (0.74–0.94). Conclusions: The instrument could be useful and shows preliminary good indicators in construct validity and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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18 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Using Stakeholder Involvement, Expert Knowledge and Naturalistic Implementation to Co-Design a Complex Intervention to Support Children’s Inclusion and Participation in Schools: The CIRCLE Framework
by Donald Maciver, Cathleen Hunter, Lorna Johnston and Kirsty Forsyth
Children 2021, 8(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030217 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5070
Abstract
Whist inclusion is recommended for most children most of the time it remains difficult to implement. In this paper, we present the process undertaken to review and redesign a pre-existing complex intervention (The CIRCLE Framework) which was designed to enhance teachers confidence and [...] Read more.
Whist inclusion is recommended for most children most of the time it remains difficult to implement. In this paper, we present the process undertaken to review and redesign a pre-existing complex intervention (The CIRCLE Framework) which was designed to enhance teachers confidence and competence in provision of universal first level supports for 5–12 year old children with additional support needs. The approach presented draws on the Medical Research Council guidance for the development of complex interventions. A series of ten co-design workshops with 70 stakeholders was completed, applying interactive and participatory methods. Analysing outputs of each workshop revealed recurring design ideas that became the main aspects of the new framework and associated manuals. Intervention content, theoretical frameworks, manuals to support use in practice and implementation strategies were developed. On completion, the updated intervention was extended up to 18 years of age and redistributed to all teachers in the participating local authority. We present the main conclusions and interpretations around the design and naturalistic implementation of the framework, and reflections on use in practice, including a detailed list of recommendations for implementation across schools and staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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13 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
A New Instrument to Assess Children’s Understanding of Death: Psychometrical Properties of the EsCoMu Scale in a Sample of Spanish Children
by Manuel Fernández-Alcántara, Macarena de los Santos-Roig, María Nieves Pérez-Marfil, Francisco Cruz-Quintana, Juan Manuel Vázquez-Sánchez and Rafael Montoya-Juárez
Children 2021, 8(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020125 - 9 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
The acquisition of the death concept in children may influence how these children cope with the losses that they will confront throughout their lives. At the present time, there is a lack of psychometric instruments in Spanish-speaking countries in order to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The acquisition of the death concept in children may influence how these children cope with the losses that they will confront throughout their lives. At the present time, there is a lack of psychometric instruments in Spanish-speaking countries in order to evaluate the components of the death concept in children. The aim of this study was to create and validate a scale (EsCoMu-Escala sobre el Concepto de Muerte) in order to provide insight about the concept of death in children. The sample was formed by 358 children from ages 6 to 13 years. The final EsCoMu version has 27 items which serve to evaluate universality, irreversibility, non-functionality and causality. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis show an adequate fit index for the four dimensions model, reliability (α = 83) and validity evidence, specifically based on the children’s age. In conclusion, EsCoMu is an instrument that shows adequate reliability and validity indices in order to assess the concept of death and its four components among children. Due to its simplicity, this instrument can be very useful if applied to the field of neurodevelopmental disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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10 pages, 640 KiB  
Article
Pain and Communication in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Influence on Parents’ Perception of Family Impact and Healthcare Satisfaction
by Inmaculada Riquelme, Álvaro Sabater-Gárriz and Pedro Montoya
Children 2021, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020087 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3678
Abstract
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an impacting chronic condition. Concomitant comorbidities such as pain and speech inability may further affect parents’ perception of the pathology impact in the family quality of life and the provided care. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive correlational study [...] Read more.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an impacting chronic condition. Concomitant comorbidities such as pain and speech inability may further affect parents’ perception of the pathology impact in the family quality of life and the provided care. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was to compare parental reports on family impact and healthcare satisfaction in children with CP with and without chronic pain and with and without speech ability. Parents of 59 children with CP (age range = 4–18 years) completed several questions about pain and speech ability and two modules of the Pediatric Quality of Life Measurement Model: The PedsQLTM 2.0 Family Impact Module and the PedsQLTM Healthcare Satisfaction Generic Module. Our findings revealed that children’s pain slightly impacted family physical health, social health and worry. In children without pain, speech inability increased the perceived health impact. Parents’ healthcare satisfaction was barely affected by pain or speech inability, both increasing parents’ satisfaction in the professional technical skills and inclusion of family domains on the care plan. In conclusion, pain and speech inability in children with CP can impact family health but not healthcare satisfaction. Regular assessment and intervention in family health is essential for the design of family-centred programs for children with CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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14 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
Play in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Psychometric Properties of a Parent Report Measure ‘My Child’s Play’
by Dulce Romero-Ayuso, María Ruiz-Salcedo, Sabina Barrios-Fernández, José Matías Triviño-Juárez, Donald Maciver, Janet Richmond and Miguel A. Muñoz
Children 2021, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010025 - 6 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5947
Abstract
Play is essential in childhood, allowing for a positive trend in development and learning. Health professionals need useful tools to assess it, especially in the case of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to validate and cross-culturally adapt the [...] Read more.
Play is essential in childhood, allowing for a positive trend in development and learning. Health professionals need useful tools to assess it, especially in the case of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to validate and cross-culturally adapt the My Child’s Play questionnaire and to find out if this instrument allows us to differentiate the play of children with neurodevelopmental disorders from the play of children with neurotypical development. A total of 594 parents completed the questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, which showed a similar structure to the English version: (1) executive functions; (2) environmental context; (3) play characteristics; and (4) play preferences and interpersonal interactions. The reliability of the analysis was high, both for the whole questionnaire and for the factors it comprises. The results provide evidence of the potential usefulness of the My Child’s Play questionnaire for determining play needs and difficulties of children; moreover, this tool can also be used to plan intervention programs according to the needs of each child and family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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14 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
A Complementary Sensory Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
by Sabina Barrios-Fernández, Margarita Gozalo, Beatriz Díaz-González and Andrés García-Gómez
Children 2020, 7(11), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7110244 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6814
Abstract
Background: Sensory integration (SI) issues are widely described in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), impacting in their daily life and occupations. To improve their quality of life and occupational performance, we need to improve clinical and educational evaluation and intervention processes. We [...] Read more.
Background: Sensory integration (SI) issues are widely described in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), impacting in their daily life and occupations. To improve their quality of life and occupational performance, we need to improve clinical and educational evaluation and intervention processes. We aim to develop a tool for measuring SI issues for Spanish children and adolescents with ASD diagnosis, to be used as a complementary tool to complete the Rivière’s Autism Spectrum Inventory, a widely used instrument in Spanish speaking places to describe the severity of ASD symptoms, recently updated with a new sensory scale with three dimensions. Methods: 458 Spanish participants complemented the new questionnaire, initially formed by 73 items with a 1–5 Likert scale. Results: The instrument finally was composed of 41 items grouped in three factors: modulation disorders (13 items), discrimination disorders (13 items), and sensory-based motor disorders (15 items). The goodness-of-fit indices from factor analyses, reliability, and the analysis of the questionnaire’s classification capability offered good values. Conclusions: The new questionnaire shows good psychometric properties and seems to be a good complementary tool to complete new the sensory scale in the Rivière’s Autism Spectrum Inventory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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18 pages, 8189 KiB  
Article
An Autoencoder-Based Deep Learning Classifier for Efficient Diagnosis of Autism
by Harshini Sewani and Rasha Kashef
Children 2020, 7(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7100182 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6072
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a lack of social communication and social interaction. Autism is a mental disorder investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning models to enhance clinicians’ ability to [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a lack of social communication and social interaction. Autism is a mental disorder investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning models to enhance clinicians’ ability to provide robust diagnosis and prognosis of autism. However, with dynamic changes in autism behaviour patterns, these models’ quality and accuracy have become a great challenge for clinical practitioners. We applied a deep neural network learning on a large brain image dataset obtained from ABIDE (autism brain imaging data exchange) to provide an efficient diagnosis of ASD, especially for children. Our deep learning model combines unsupervised neural network learning, an autoencoder, and supervised deep learning using convolutional neural networks. Our proposed algorithm outperforms individual-based classifiers measured by various validations and assessment measures. Experimental results indicate that the autoencoder combined with the convolution neural networks provides the best performance by achieving 84.05% accuracy and Area under the Curve (AUC) value of 0.78. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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20 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Preschool Teachers’ Beliefs towards Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Yemen
by Sahar Mohammed Taresh, Nor Aniza Ahmad, Samsilah Roslan and Aini Marina Ma’rof
Children 2020, 7(10), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7100170 - 6 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4843
Abstract
It is perplexing that some preschool teachers not only advise parents who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to go to religious healers, but also attribute such neurological disorders to the curse of the “evil eye” or vaccines. Although it is now [...] Read more.
It is perplexing that some preschool teachers not only advise parents who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to go to religious healers, but also attribute such neurological disorders to the curse of the “evil eye” or vaccines. Although it is now the twentieth century, this behavior simply reflects the concerns of over-protective teachers and the cultural misperceptions about the actual definition of ASD. In Yemen, the term “ASD”, with its wide range of symptoms, is still ambiguous among preschool teachers. Thus, in a rather insightful piece for the education community, this study has attempted to look beneath the surface of the beliefs (religious belief–social belief–personal belief) of Yemeni preschool teachers regarding ASD. Based on the data collected from 213 teachers (20–30\31–40-~≥40 age) in the Taiz district, this study found that misconceptions specific to autism spectrum disorder were strongly evidenced among teachers who taught preschoolers. Due to personal ignorance and growing superstitions, these teachers tend to believe the society’s perceptions of ASD, thus resulting in the ignorance of scientific views. However, the mass media can increase this group’s awareness of ASD by continually assessing the inaccurate views on ASD, and correcting them. And by influencing the teachers to take a more conceptual scientific approach in serving their special needs students, furthermore, by informing preschool teachers of children’s rights in normal life in the future through providing children with an optimal chance of development by early intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Participation in Everyday Activities of Children with and without Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spain
by Nerea Blanco-Martínez, Laura Delgado-Lobete, Rebeca Montes-Montes, Nuria Ruiz-Pérez, Marcos Ruiz-Pérez and Sergio Santos-del-Riego
Children 2020, 7(10), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7100157 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4798
Abstract
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) often report significant difficulties performing activities of daily living (ADLs), which may restrict their daily participation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in ADLs participation between children with NDDs and typically developing (TD) children, [...] Read more.
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) often report significant difficulties performing activities of daily living (ADLs), which may restrict their daily participation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in ADLs participation between children with NDDs and typically developing (TD) children, and to explore the associations between different daily participation contexts. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included twenty children with a medical diagnosis of an NDD and 26 sex- and age-matched TD controls. The daily participation across home, community, school, and instrumental living activities was measured using the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). The results show that children with NDDs engaged in lower participation in all CASP contexts (Δ = 1.7–5.5, p < 0.001) and had a significantly higher prevalence of moderate or severe restricted participation than their TD peers (OR = 23.4, 95% CI = 3.6–154.2, p < 0.001). Additionally, a strong association was found between the different contexts of participation (r = 0.642–0.856). Overall, the children with NDDs experienced significant participation restrictions on their daily activities. This study adds to the growing evidence showing that intervention strategies in this population should adopt a participation-oriented approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
20 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Application of Low-Intensity Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy to Improve the Affected Upper Limb Functionality in Infantile Hemiplegia with Moderate Manual Ability: Case Series
by Rocío Palomo-Carrión, Rita-Pilar Romero-Galisteo, Elena Pinero-Pinto, Purificación López-Muñoz, Helena Romay-Barrero and Francisco García-Muro San José
Children 2020, 7(9), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090127 - 4 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4549
Abstract
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with two hours of containment per day. The study variables were quality of movement of the upper limb, spontaneous use, participation of the affected upper limb in activities of daily living, dynamic joint position, grasp–release action, grasp strength, supination and extension elbow movements. Four measurements were performed, using the quality of upper extremity test (QUEST) scale, the Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE) Evaluation, a hand dynamometer and a goniometer. Results: The sample was composed of eight children with moderate manual ability. Statistically significant differences were detected in all the studied variables (p < 0.05) between the pre-treatment and post–treatment results (Week 0–Week 5), except for upper limb dressing, putting on splints and buttoning up. In the first week, the changes were statistically significant, except for protective extension, grasp strength, grasp–release and all functional variables (level of functionality and participation of the patient’s upper limbs) in the SHUEE Evaluation (p > 0.05). The greatest increase occurred in spontaneous use from Assessment 1 to Assessment 4 (p = 0.01), reaching 88.87% active participation in bimanual tasks. The quality of movement of the upper limb exhibited a significant value due to the increase in dissociated movements and grasp (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A low dose (50 h) of mCIMT increased the functionality of children diagnosed with congenital hemiplegia between 4 and 8 years of age with moderate manual ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Review

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19 pages, 5253 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Virtual Reality-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Dulce Romero-Ayuso, Abel Toledano-González, María del Carmen Rodríguez-Martínez, Palma Arroyo-Castillo, José Matías Triviño-Juárez, Pascual González, Patrocinio Ariza-Vega, Antonio Del Pino González and Antonio Segura-Fragoso
Children 2021, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020070 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 9800
Abstract
This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality-based interventions (VR-based interventions) on cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement and the Cochrane Handbook guidelines for conducting [...] Read more.
This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality-based interventions (VR-based interventions) on cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement and the Cochrane Handbook guidelines for conducting meta-analyses. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Clinical trials published up to 29 October 2020, were included. The meta-analysis included four studies, with a population of 125 participants with ADHD. The magnitude of the effect was large for omissions (SMD = −1.38; p = 0.009), correct hits (SMD = −1.50; p = 0.004), and perceptual sensitivity (SMD = −1.07; p = 0.01); and moderate for commissions (SMD = −0.62; p = 0.002) and reaction time (SMD = −0.67; p = 0.03). The use of VR-based interventions for cognitive rehabilitation in children with ADHD is limited. The results showed that VR-based interventions are more effective in improving sustained attention. Improvements were observed in attentional vigilance measures, increasing the number of correct responses and decreasing the number of errors of omission. No improvements were observed in impulsivity responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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14 pages, 2673 KiB  
Review
The Effectiveness of Hippotherapy to Recover Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Laura De Guindos-Sanchez, David Lucena-Anton, Jose A. Moral-Munoz, Alejandro Salazar and Ines Carmona-Barrientos
Children 2020, 7(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090106 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 9928
Abstract
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a permanent disorder of the posture and movement, which can result in impairments of gross motor function, among others. Hippotherapy (HPT) is an emerging intervention to promote motor recovery in patients with neurological disorders, providing a smooth, precise, rhythmic, [...] Read more.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a permanent disorder of the posture and movement, which can result in impairments of gross motor function, among others. Hippotherapy (HPT) is an emerging intervention to promote motor recovery in patients with neurological disorders, providing a smooth, precise, rhythmic, and repetitive pattern of movement to the patient. The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials was to analyze the effectiveness of HPT interventions on gross motor function in subjects with CP. The following databases were searched in May 2019: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. The methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 10 studies were analyzed in this review, involving 452 participants. Favorable effects were obtained on the gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure-66, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47–1.15, Gross Motor Function Measure-88 dimension A SMD = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.30–0.97, dimension B SMD = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.09–0.75, and dimension E SMD = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.06–0.73). The results obtained in the present review show the potential benefit of HPT intervention in improving gross motor function in children with CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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