Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Cardiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2024) | Viewed by 8010

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: neonatology; pediatric cardiology; cardiac arrhythmias

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Klinik für Angeborene Herzfehler – Kinderkardiologie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: neonatology; pediatric cardiology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: cardiology; electrophysiology; arrhythmias

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pediatric patients suffering from heart rhythm disorders are in need of expert care in the field of arrhythmias. Especially in children, the management of arrhythmias can be challenging, as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches may not be interpolated from adult patient care. Expanding our knowledge on the cardiac conduction system and arrhythmogenesis has led to focused diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The field of invasive cardiac electrophysiology in particular has evolved quickly over the past decade and continues to grow at a fast pace. The latest inventions, such as pulsed field ablation, may guide future therapy.

This Special Issue will discuss diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in certain arrhythmias for the pediatric cohort. Special emphasis will be given to elements such as invasive electrophysiology and ablation, electrocardiography, imaging, and antiarrhythmic drugs.

Articles for this Special Issue should include possible impact on the daily clinical practice in pediatric electrophysiology and arrhythmias.

Dr. Stefan Kurath-Koller
Dr. Hannes Sallmon
Dr. Martin Manninger
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • arrhythmia
  • cardiac electrophysiology
  • antiarrhythmic drugs
  • ablation therapy
  • electrocardiography

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

15 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Zero-Fluoroscopy Catheter Ablation of Supraventricular Tachycardias in the Pediatric Population
by Mirko Topalović, Matevž Jan, Tine Prolič Kalinšek, David Žižek, Jernej Štublar, Rina Rus and Dimitrij Kuhelj
Children 2023, 10(9), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10091513 - 6 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Catheter ablation (CA) of supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) is conventionally performed with the aid of X-ray fluoroscopy. Usage of a three-dimensional (3D) electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) system and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) enables zero-fluoroscopy ablation, eliminating the harmful effects of radiation. We retrospectively analyzed the feasibility, [...] Read more.
Catheter ablation (CA) of supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) is conventionally performed with the aid of X-ray fluoroscopy. Usage of a three-dimensional (3D) electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) system and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) enables zero-fluoroscopy ablation, eliminating the harmful effects of radiation. We retrospectively analyzed the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of zero-fluoroscopy radiofrequency and cryoablation of various types of SVTs in pediatric patients. Overall, in 171 consecutive patients (12.5 ± 3.9 years), 175 SVTs were diagnosed and 201 procedures were performed. The procedural success rate was 98% (193/197), or more precisely, 100% (86/86) for AVNRT, 95.8% (91/95) for AVRT, 94.1% (16/17) for AT and 100% (2/2) for AFL. No complications were recorded. Follow-up was complete in 100% (171/171) of patients. During the mean follow-up period of 488.4 ± 409.5 days, 98.2% of patients were arrhythmia-free with long-term success rates of 98.7% (78/79), 97.5% (78/80), 100% (13/13) and 100% (2/2) for AVNRT, AVRT, AT and AFL, respectively. Zero-fluoroscopy CA of various types of SVTs in the pediatric population is a feasible, effective and safe treatment option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Algorithms Predicting Accessory Pathway Localization in Pediatric Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
by Stefan Kurath-Koller, Martin Manninger, Nathalie Öffl, Martin Köstenberger, Hannes Sallmon, Joachim Will and Daniel Scherr
Children 2022, 9(12), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121962 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
We aimed to assess the accuracy of determining accessory pathway (AP) localization from 12 lead ECG tracings by applying 12 different algorithms in pediatric patients diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We compared algorithm accuracy in electrophysiologic study ECG tracings with full preexcitation and resting [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the accuracy of determining accessory pathway (AP) localization from 12 lead ECG tracings by applying 12 different algorithms in pediatric patients diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We compared algorithm accuracy in electrophysiologic study ECG tracings with full preexcitation and resting ECG tracings. The assessing pediatric cardiologists were blinded regarding EP study results on AP localization. For exact AP location, the algorithms published by D’Avila et al. and Boersma et al. yielded the highest accuracy (58%). Distinguishing laterality, the median accuracy for predicting left or right-sided APs was 74%, while for septal APs it was 68%. We conclude that algorithms predicting AP location in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome show low accuracy for exact AP localization. For laterality, however, accuracy was significantly higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

14 pages, 2483 KiB  
Review
Congenital Long QT Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: A General Overview
by Elia Balestra, Marco Bobbo, Marco Cittar, Daniela Chicco, Biancamaria D’Agata Mottolese, Egidio Barbi and Thomas Caiffa
Children 2024, 11(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050582 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 871
Abstract
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) represents a disorder of myocardial repolarization characterized by a prolongation of QTc interval on ECG, which can degenerate into fast polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. The typical symptoms of LQTS are syncope and palpitations, mainly triggered by adrenergic stimuli, but [...] Read more.
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) represents a disorder of myocardial repolarization characterized by a prolongation of QTc interval on ECG, which can degenerate into fast polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. The typical symptoms of LQTS are syncope and palpitations, mainly triggered by adrenergic stimuli, but it can also manifest with cardiac arrest. At least 17 genotypes have been associated with LQTS, with a specific genotype–phenotype relationship described for the three most common subtypes (LQTS1, -2, and -3). β-Blockers are the first-line therapy for LQTS, even if the choice of the appropriate patients needing to be treated may be challenging. In specific cases, interventional measures, such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD), are useful. The aim of this review is to highlight the current state-of-the-art knowledge on LQTS, providing an updated picture of possible diagnostic algorithms and therapeutic management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
QTc Interval Reference Values and Their (Non)-Maturational Factors in Neonates and Infants: A Systematic Review
by Lisa De Smet, Nathalie Devolder, Thomas Salaets, Anne Smits and Karel Allegaert
Children 2022, 9(11), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111771 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, the interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. [...] Read more.
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, the interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. To describe trends in QTc values throughout infancy (1 year of life), and to explore the impact of (non)-maturational changes and medicines exposure, a structured systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42022302296) was performed. In term neonates, a decrease was observed over the first week of life, whereafter values increased until two months of age, followed by a progressive decrease until six months. A similar pattern with longer QTc values was observed in preterms. QTc is influenced by cord clamping, hemodynamic changes, therapeutic hypothermia, illnesses and sleep, not by sex. Cisapride, domperidone and doxapram result in QTc prolongation in neonates. Further research in this age category is needed to improve primary screening practices and QTcthresholds, earlier detection of risk factors and precision pharmacovigilance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 223 KiB  
Case Report
Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation—A Chance for Survival after Sudden Cardiac Arrest
by Maria Damps, Michał Buczyński and Łukasz Wiktor
Children 2023, 10(2), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020378 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an increasingly popular method for the treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions. The case we have described is characterized by the effectiveness of therapy despite resuscitation lasting more than one hour. A 3.5-year-old girl with a negative medical [...] Read more.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an increasingly popular method for the treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions. The case we have described is characterized by the effectiveness of therapy despite resuscitation lasting more than one hour. A 3.5-year-old girl with a negative medical history was admitted to the Department of Cardiology due to ectopic atrial tachycardia. It was decided to perform electrical cardioversion under intravenous anaesthesia. During the induction of anaesthesia, cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) occurred. Despite resuscitation, a permanent hemodynamically effective heart rhythm was not achieved. Due to prolonged resuscitation (over one hour) and persistent PEA, it was decided to use veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After three days of intensive ECMO therapy, hemodynamic stabilization was achieved. The time of implementing ECMO therapy and assessment of the initial clinical status of the patient should be emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
Back to TopTop