Special Issue "Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14643

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Elena Benito-Peña
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutensian University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: optical (bio)sensing; bioinspired materials; biotechnology; analytical chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemical sensors and biosensors can provide fast, low-cost, in situ analysis with compact devices that facilitate their potential ability to overcome the limitations of many conventional methods.

Extensive research efforts in the field of sensors and biosensors, along with taking advantage of advances in active optical materials and transducers, among others, have enabled the development of sophisticated, miniaturized devices to address the growing need for new analytical tools and detection strategies.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to illustrate, through selected papers, outstanding research in the field of chemical sensors and optical biosensors, reflecting the latest advances in the field. To this end, different test concepts and formats, transducer systems, etc., can be explored. Topics include but are not limited to the following:

Optical sensors

Biosensors

Nanomaterials

Fluorescence

Immunoassay

Microtechnology

Molecularly imprinted polymers

Nobel (bio)recognition elements

Point-of-care testing devices

 

Potential conflict of interest with:

  1. The journal Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (ABC) will be publishing a collection of papers in a topical paper collection of 'Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry' (ABC) focussing on Biomimetic Recognition Elements and I am guest editor. ABC scheduled publication of the paper collection for August 2021.
  2. The journal of Sensors has extended the deadline of the Special Issue “Optical Immunosensors” to 28 February 2022. I am also a guest editor of this.

Dr. Elena Benito-Peña
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Adamantane Three-Dimensional Porous Organic Framework as a Fluorescence Sensor for Rapid Determination of Tetracycline in Aquatic Products
Chemosensors 2022, 10(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10110457 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
A fluorescence adamantane three-dimensional porous organic framework (AdaPOF) was synthesized via a Suzuki coupling reaction. The AdaPOF showed excellent fluorescence performance with a relative high quantum yield and fluorescence stability. Due to its excellent selectivity to tetracycline (TC), a fluorescence sensor based on [...] Read more.
A fluorescence adamantane three-dimensional porous organic framework (AdaPOF) was synthesized via a Suzuki coupling reaction. The AdaPOF showed excellent fluorescence performance with a relative high quantum yield and fluorescence stability. Due to its excellent selectivity to tetracycline (TC), a fluorescence sensor based on AdaPOF was constructed for TC determination. The selective sensing mechanism of the AdaPOF towards TC was studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculation experiments. An AdaPOF–based fluorescence method for TC determination was established, with the linear range of 0.1–9.0 μmol/L (R2 = 0.9959) and the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 43 nmol/L. Moreover, the fluorescence method was used to the determination of TC in aquatic products and the recoveries were ranged from 94.4% to 103.8%. The results obtained by this fluorescence method were consistent with those of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in the TC determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
Detection of Volatile Alcohol Vapors Using PMMA-Coated Micromechanical Sensors: Experimental and Quantum Chemical DFT Analysis
Chemosensors 2022, 10(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10110452 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Micromechanical sensors, in which the sensor response is created as a result of molecular interactions on the sensors’ surfaces, have been employed as a powerful technique for rapid and sensitive detection of low concentrations of chemical and biological materials. In the study reported [...] Read more.
Micromechanical sensors, in which the sensor response is created as a result of molecular interactions on the sensors’ surfaces, have been employed as a powerful technique for rapid and sensitive detection of low concentrations of chemical and biological materials. In the study reported herein, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-coated microcantilever (MCL) sensors were used to detect the vapors of volatile alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) at three different concentrations. A vapor generator was used to generate and flow the alcohol vapor onto the PMMA coated MCL surface in a closed system chamber. The vapor adsorption onto the MCL surface results in a rapid and measurable deflection of the MCL. No significant deflections of the uncoated MCL occurred when the different vapors were passed through into the microcantilever chamber. Linear concentration–deflection responses were observed, with the highest sensitivity shown with methanol, followed by ethanol and then isopropanol. Density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations were conducted to estimate the electronic interaction energies (ΔIE) between the alcohol molecules and MMA and two different model tetrameric segments of PMMA. The computed ΔIEs were in the same order as the experimentally observed order: methanol > ethanol > isopropanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
An NIR Emissive Donor-π-Acceptor Dicyanomethylene-4H-Pyran Derivative as a Fluorescent Chemosensor System towards Copper (II) Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10080343 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
A novel donor-π-acceptor fluorescent dye as a chemosensor for Cu2+ ions is herein presented. The fluorophoric core consists of a 3,5-diphenyl-dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM), with extended styryl chains on positions 2 and 6, bearing terminal di-(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) groups for metal coordination. Optical [...] Read more.
A novel donor-π-acceptor fluorescent dye as a chemosensor for Cu2+ ions is herein presented. The fluorophoric core consists of a 3,5-diphenyl-dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM), with extended styryl chains on positions 2 and 6, bearing terminal di-(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) groups for metal coordination. Optical characterization of the chemosensor dye reveals an absorption maximum at ca. 500 nm and a strong bathochromic shift in the emission, reaching ca. 750 nm in polar solvents. This solvatochromic behavior, which yields very large Stokes shifts (up to ~6700 cm−1), is characteristic of the strong intramolecular Charge Transfer (CT) nature of this chromophoric system. While the chemosensor has demonstrated no changes in its optical properties over a wide pH range (2–12), a strong quenching effect was observed upon Cu2+ coordination, with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry, indicating that only one DPA unit is capable of effectively chelating Cu2+, rendering the second DPA motif inactive. The binding constant was determined to be 7.5 × 107 M−1, indicating a very high sensitivity, and an LOD of 90.1 nM. Competition assays have demonstrated that the chemosensor is highly selective towards Cu2+, even in the presence of excesses of other mono- and di-valent cations. Co2+ and Ni2+ proved to be the strongest interferents, particularly in the luminescent response. Paper test-strips prepared with the embedded sensor showed a fluorometric response in the presence of different copper (II) concentrations, which attested to the potential of this chemosensor to be used in the determination of Cu2+ content in aqueous media, for in-field applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Communication
Quantification of a COVID-19 Antibody Assay Using a Lateral Flow Test and a Cell Phone
Chemosensors 2022, 10(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070234 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Although several biomedical assays have been developed to screen for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, very few can be completed without drawing blood. We developed a rapid lateral flow screening tool that used saliva samples and yielded rapid results that could be quantified using a [...] Read more.
Although several biomedical assays have been developed to screen for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, very few can be completed without drawing blood. We developed a rapid lateral flow screening tool that used saliva samples and yielded rapid results that could be quantified using a cell phone. This assay provided the sensitive detection of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 within 10 min. We started by synthesising, modifying, and characterising gold nanoparticles. Using these particles as a coloured label, we developed a lateral flow strip made of nitrocellulose, glass fibre, and cellulose material. We quantified our visual results using pictures acquired with a cell phone and calculated a limit of detection of 4 ng/mL of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
Nitrogen Dioxide Optical Sensor Based on Redox-Active Tetrazolium/Pluronic Nanoparticles Embedded in PDMS Membranes
Chemosensors 2022, 10(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10060213 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Anthropogenic toxic vapour and gases are a worldwide threat for human health and to the environment. Therefore, it is crucial to develop highly sensitive devices that guarantee their rapid detection. Here, we prepared redox-switchable colloids by the in-situ reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (TTC) into [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic toxic vapour and gases are a worldwide threat for human health and to the environment. Therefore, it is crucial to develop highly sensitive devices that guarantee their rapid detection. Here, we prepared redox-switchable colloids by the in-situ reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (TTC) into triphenyl formazan (TF) stabilised with Pluronic F127 in aqueous media. The colloids were readily embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to produce a selective colour-switchable membrane for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection. We found that the TTC reduction resulted in the production of red-coloured colloids with zeta potential between −1 to 3 mV and hydrodynamic diameters between 114 to 305 nm as hydrophobic dispersion in aqueous media stabilised by Pluronic at different molar concentrations. Moreover, the embedded colloids rendered highly homogenous red colour gas-permeable PDMS elastomeric membrane. Once exposed to NO2, the membrane began to bleach after 30 s due to the oxidation of the embedded TF and undergo a complete decolouration after 180 s. Such features allowed the membrane integration in a low-cost sensing device that showed a high sensitivity and low detection limit to NO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Communication
Dielectrophoresis-Based Biosensor for Detection of the Cancer Biomarkers CEA and CA 242 in Serum
Chemosensors 2022, 10(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030104 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
We show that dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectroscopy is an effective transduction mechanism for detection of the concentration levels of the pancreatic cancer biomarkers cancer antigen (CA) 242 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum. We noticed a frequency dependence of the negative DEP force applied [...] Read more.
We show that dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectroscopy is an effective transduction mechanism for detection of the concentration levels of the pancreatic cancer biomarkers cancer antigen (CA) 242 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum. We noticed a frequency dependence of the negative DEP force applied by interdigitated electrodes on functionalized polystyrene microspheres (PM) with respect to changes in the number of these cancer antigens bound to the PM. An electrode array with a well-defined gradient of the electric field was designed and used, which enabled the automation of the signal processing and reproducibility of the signal acquired by the biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
Development of Cyanine [email protected] Doped Supported Devices for Divalent Metal Ions Detection
Chemosensors 2022, 10(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10020080 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
A NIR [email protected] derivative Cy1 was synthesized and evaluated as a metal ion sensor in solution. Cy1 was shown to be very sensitive to all metal ions tested, presenting a blue shift in the absorption from 668 nm to 633 nm, followed by [...] Read more.
A NIR [email protected] derivative Cy1 was synthesized and evaluated as a metal ion sensor in solution. Cy1 was shown to be very sensitive to all metal ions tested, presenting a blue shift in the absorption from 668 nm to 633 nm, followed by a change in colour from pale green to blue with Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+ ions. Despite the blue shift in the absorption, a decrease at 633 nm (with a colour change from pale green to colourless), as well as a quenching in the emission intensity at 785 nm were observed for Cu2+ ions. The results show the formation of sandwich complexes of two ligands per metal ion with the highest association constant observed for Cu2+ (Log Kass.abs = 14.76 ± 0.09; Log Kass.emis. = 14.79 ± 0.06). The minimal detectable amounts were found to be 31 nM and 37 nM, with a naked eye detection of 2.9 ppm and 2.1 ppm for Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions, respectively. These results prompted us to explore the applicability of Cy1 by its combination with nanomaterials. Thus, Cy1@ doped MNs and Cy1@ doped PMMA nanoparticles were synthesized. Both nanosystems were shown to be very sensitive to Cu2+ ions in water, allowing a naked-eye detection of at least 1 ppm for Cy1@ doped MNs and 7 ppm for Cy1@ doped PMMA. This colourimetric response is an easy and inexpensive way to assess the presence of metals in aqueous media with no need for further instrumentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
Ruthenium(II) Complexes with (3-Polyamino)phenanthrolines: Synthesis and Application in Sensing of Cu(II) Ions
Chemosensors 2022, 10(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10020079 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
This work deals with the development of water-soluble optical sensors based on ruthenium(II) tris(diimine) complexes that exhibit high molar absorptivity and are emissive in aqueous media. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of polyamines with 3-bromo-1,10-phenanthroline (Brphen) and [Ru(bpy)2(Brphen)](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine) [...] Read more.
This work deals with the development of water-soluble optical sensors based on ruthenium(II) tris(diimine) complexes that exhibit high molar absorptivity and are emissive in aqueous media. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of polyamines with 3-bromo-1,10-phenanthroline (Brphen) and [Ru(bpy)2(Brphen)](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine) was explored to prepare Ru2+ complexes with 1,10-phenanthrolines (phen) substituted by linear polyamines (PAs) at position 3 of the heterocycle ([Ru(bpy)2(phen–PA)](PF6)2). The most convenient synthetic pathway leading to the target molecular probes includes the preparation of phen–PA ligands, followed by ruthenium complexation using cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl2. Complexes bearing a polyamine chain directly linked to phenanthroline core are emissive in aqueous media and their quantum yields are comparable to that of parent [Ru(bpy)3](PF6)2. Their structure can be easily adapted for detection of various analytes by modification of amine groups. As an example, we prepared the emissive complex Ru(N2P2phen) which is suitable for the dual channel (spectrophotometry and luminescence (ON–OFF probe)) selective detection of Cu2+ ions at the physiological pH levels with limits of detection (LOD) by spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy equal to 9 and 6 μM, respectively, that is lower than the action level in drinking water for copper as prescribed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
A Practical Hydrazine-Carbothioamide-Based Fluorescent Probe for the Detection of Zn2+: Applications to Paper Strip, Zebrafish and Water Samples
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010032 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
A practical hydrazine-carbothioamide-based fluorescent chemosensor TCC (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) was applied for Zn2+ detection. TCC exhibited selective fluorescence emission for Zn2+ and did not show any interference with other metal ions. In particular, TCC was utilized for the detection of Zn2+ in [...] Read more.
A practical hydrazine-carbothioamide-based fluorescent chemosensor TCC (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) was applied for Zn2+ detection. TCC exhibited selective fluorescence emission for Zn2+ and did not show any interference with other metal ions. In particular, TCC was utilized for the detection of Zn2+ in paper strips, zebrafish and real water samples. TCC could detect Zn2+ down to 0.39 μM in the solution phase and 51.13 μM in zebrafish. The association ratio between TCC and Zn2+ was determined to be 2:1 by ESI-mass and Job plot. The sensing mechanism of TCC for Zn2+ was illustrated to be a chelation-enhanced fluorescence process through spectroscopic experiments and theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Article
VinegarScan: A Computer Tool Based on Ultraviolet Spectroscopy for a Rapid Authentication of Wine Vinegars
Chemosensors 2021, 9(11), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110296 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy has shown successful results in the last few years to characterize and classify wine vinegar according to its quality, particularly those with a protected designation of origin (PDO). Due to these promising results, together with the simplicity, price, speed, portability [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy has shown successful results in the last few years to characterize and classify wine vinegar according to its quality, particularly those with a protected designation of origin (PDO). Due to these promising results, together with the simplicity, price, speed, portability of this technique and its ability to create robust hierarchical classification models, the objective of this work was the development of a computer tool or software, named VinegarScan, which uses the UV-vis spectra to be able to perform quality control and authentication of wine vinegar in a quick and user-friendly way. This software was based on the open-source GUI created in C++ using several data mining algorithms (e.g., decision trees, classification algorithms) on UV-vis spectra. This software achieved satisfactory prediction results with the available analytical UV-vis data. The future idea of utility is to combine the VinegarScan tool with a portable UV-vis device that could be used by control bodies of the wine vinegar industry to achieve a clear differentiation from their competitors to avoid fraud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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Review

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Review
Inkjet Printing: A Viable Technology for Biosensor Fabrication
Chemosensors 2022, 10(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030103 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Printing technology promises a viable solution for the low-cost, rapid, flexible, and mass fabrication of biosensors. Among the vast number of printing techniques, screen printing and inkjet printing have been widely adopted for the fabrication of biosensors. Screen printing provides ease of operation [...] Read more.
Printing technology promises a viable solution for the low-cost, rapid, flexible, and mass fabrication of biosensors. Among the vast number of printing techniques, screen printing and inkjet printing have been widely adopted for the fabrication of biosensors. Screen printing provides ease of operation and rapid processing; however, it is bound by the effects of viscous inks, high material waste, and the requirement for masks, to name a few. Inkjet printing, on the other hand, is well suited for mass fabrication that takes advantage of computer-aided design software for pattern modifications. Furthermore, being drop-on-demand, it prevents precious material waste and offers high-resolution patterning. To exploit the features of inkjet printing technology, scientists have been keen to use it for the development of biosensors since 1988. A vast number of fully and partially inkjet-printed biosensors have been developed ever since. This study presents a short introduction on the printing technology used for biosensor fabrication in general, and a brief review of the recent reports related to virus, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic biosensor fabrication, via inkjet printing technology in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors)
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