Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrochemical Devices and Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 10654

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Bio-Convergence Materials Research Institute, Graduate School of Management of Technology, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Chungnam, Republic of Korea
Interests: electrochemical measurement; biosensor; nanomaterials; biofuel cell for tissue engineering; physicochemical characterization; lipid technology

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, College of Science & Technology, Dankook University, Dandae-ro, Cheonan-si 31116, Chungnam, Republic of Korea
Interests: electrochemical sensor; immunoassay; biofuel cell; nanomaterials; biosensor; DNA sensor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of electrochemical glucose sensors has greatly evolved from first-generation sensors that measure hydrogen peroxide concentration and second-generation sensors that use mediators, to more recent third-generation sensors that involve directly immobilized enzymes and fourth-generation sensors that do not require enzymes. In addition, with advances in wearable electrode materials and IoT systems, research on monitoring glucose in real time has been a hot topic. The development of microelectrodes and skin-implantable blood glucose sensors and clinical studies on biocompatibility are also key areas of research.

The main objective of this Special Issue entitled “Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors” is to illustrate the development of all generations of electrochemical glucose biosensors. The key areas of the issue include enhanced electrodes, technologies, materials, enzymes, and fundamental science related to clinical, chemical, physical, biological, and IoT engineering-related aspects, as follows:

  • Novel mediators for electrochemical glucose sensors (organic, inorganic, polymer, co-polymer, dual, hybrid, etc.).
  • Modification techniques between enzymes and electrodes for long-term measurement.
  • Latest techniques related to fourth-generation glucose biosensors (materials, engineering, methods, enhanced performance, etc.).
  • Studies on skin-implantable and wearable electrochemical glucose biosensors (materials, engineering, methods, enhanced performance, etc.).
  • Characterization and optimization of materials for electrochemical glucose biosensors.
  • Study on IoT grafting technology for electrochemical glucose biosensors.
  • Electrochemical glucose biosensor trends and commercialization.
  • Original articles and review papers related to other recently developed electrochemical glucose sensors.

Dr. Won-Yong Jeon
Dr. Young-bong Choi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • electrochemical glucose sensors
  • glucose biosensors

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 7524 KiB  
Communication
Tuning Co/Ni Ratio in Co–Ni Bimetallic Hybrid for Electrochemical Detection of Glucose
by Junyi Zeng, Yanting Yang, Xiaoyu Lei, Jinan Deng, Ning Hu and Jun Yang
Chemosensors 2024, 12(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12030038 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Transition metallic binary alloys have attracted enormous attention in regard to the non-enzymatic detection of glucose due to their high electrocatalytic activities induced by the synergistic effect between the individual metallic species. However, the easy aggregation of the bimetallic particles has limited their [...] Read more.
Transition metallic binary alloys have attracted enormous attention in regard to the non-enzymatic detection of glucose due to their high electrocatalytic activities induced by the synergistic effect between the individual metallic species. However, the easy aggregation of the bimetallic particles has limited their performance. Herein, a facile metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived strategy is developed to synthesize a hybrid containing binary Co–Ni nanoparticles decorated on an N-doped porous carbon matrix (CoxNiy/N-C) for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. The Co/Ni ratio in the hybrid is investigated to regulate its electrocatalytic behaviors for glucose sensing. A hybrid with the optimal Co/Ni ratio of 1:1 displays two linear detection ranges (0.5 µM to 1 mM and 1 mM to 10 mM) with a detection limit of 0.11 µM for glucose. The feasibility of using this hybrid-modified SPE for glucose detection in real serum samples has also been validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors)
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15 pages, 3314 KiB  
Article
Novel Approach for the Immobilization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase in PEDOT:PSS Conductive Layer on Planar Gold Electrodes
by Esra Cihan, Eva Melnik, Steffen Kurzhals, Paulina Plata, Giorgio C. Mutinati, Rainer Hainberger, Alfons K.G. Felice, Christopher Schulz and Peter Lieberzeit
Chemosensors 2024, 12(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12030036 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 4349
Abstract
Third-generation biosensors use enzymes capable of direct electron transfer (DET) to the sensor surface. They are of interest for continuous glucose monitoring in blood or interstitial fluid, but they are rarely investigated. One reason is the hindered DET of the enzymes to the [...] Read more.
Third-generation biosensors use enzymes capable of direct electron transfer (DET) to the sensor surface. They are of interest for continuous glucose monitoring in blood or interstitial fluid, but they are rarely investigated. One reason is the hindered DET of the enzymes to the metallic electrodes. In this publication, a novel method for the immobilization of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) DET enzymes employing conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) inks and a protective polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) hydrogel layer on gold electrodes is reported. This layer stack showed a glucose-specific current response for voltages between −0.2 and 0.4 V in physiological PBS buffer, and enabled interference-less sensing in a solution of acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid at 0 V. A Michaelis–Menten fit led to a maximum current density (Imax) of 257 ± 7.9 nA/mm2 and a Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 28.4 ± 2.2 mM, with a dynamic range of 0.1–20 mM glucose and a limit of detection of 0.1 mM. After 16 h of continuous measurement of 20 mM glucose, the signal decreased to 60% of its initial value. Storage stability was successfully verified until up to 10 days. In summary, this paper shows a simplified approach for the fabrication of third-generation biosensors using CDH-PEDOT:PSS and PEG-DMA hydrogel inks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors)
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13 pages, 4608 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Quaternary (Ni, Co, Cu)Se2 Nanosheet Arrays on Carbon Cloth for Non-Enzymatic Glucose Determination
by Yuanyuan Chen, Huan Wang, Huinan Chen, Jingyao Song, Dongmei Deng and Liqiang Luo
Chemosensors 2023, 11(10), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11100530 - 9 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Unlike transition metal oxides and sulfides, transition metal-based selenides display higher electrical conductivity, more electroactive unsaturated edge sites, and better chemical stability, which have found extensive usage in electrocatalysis. In this work, simple hydrothermal and solvothermal procedures were employed to synthesize quaternary (Ni, [...] Read more.
Unlike transition metal oxides and sulfides, transition metal-based selenides display higher electrical conductivity, more electroactive unsaturated edge sites, and better chemical stability, which have found extensive usage in electrocatalysis. In this work, simple hydrothermal and solvothermal procedures were employed to synthesize quaternary (Ni, Co, Cu)Se2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (CC) to measure glucose. The conductivity of the material can be effectively elevated by adding Se element to form selenides, and the synergistic effect between the three selenides can improve the electrocatalytic performance. Consequently, in the ranges of 0.01–600 μM and 600–9000 μM, respectively, the current response of the synthesized material to glucose concentration exhibited linear relationships. The sensor demonstrated excellent sensitivity and a low detection limit of 5.82 nM. Furthermore, the practical applicability of the constructed biosensor was proved by using it to quantify the amount of glucose in human serum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors)
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14 pages, 3658 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Modification between Glucose Dehydrogenase and Mediator Using Epoxy Silane Assembly for Monitoring Glucose
by Tae-Won Seo, Won-Yong Jeon and Young-Bong Choi
Chemosensors 2023, 11(9), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11090485 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Blood glucose monitoring (BGM) using disposable electrodes is commonly used in healthcare diagnosis. The BGM method is not suitable for people with diabetes requiring real-time monitoring who might experience sudden hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia owing to a single measurement at a specific moment. This [...] Read more.
Blood glucose monitoring (BGM) using disposable electrodes is commonly used in healthcare diagnosis. The BGM method is not suitable for people with diabetes requiring real-time monitoring who might experience sudden hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia owing to a single measurement at a specific moment. This study aimed to achieve an enhanced stability of glucose diagnosis for continuous glucose measurement systems (CGMs). A representative mediator of a second-generation glucose sensor was synthesized and coordinated with a polymer for immobilization on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. For electrode immobilization, an electrode for enhanced stability was fabricated using the silanization method. The morphological properties of the electrodes were confirmed via cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy, and SEM. The loss rate of the current density was only 10.11% of the initial current after 8 d. The electrode exhibited a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.9924, sensitivity of 1.5454 μA/cm2·mM, limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 7.604 μM, and limit of detection (LOD) of 2.509 μM for glucose concentrations between 0.1 and 20.0 mM. The electrode system developed in this study is applicable to the CGM healthcare industry and is expected to be applicable to biofuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors)
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Review

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21 pages, 5290 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Perovskite-Based Sensors for the Detection of Relevant Biomarkers for Human Kidney Health
by Claudia Ivone Piñón-Balderrama, César Leyva-Porras, Alain Salvador Conejo-Dávila, Anayansi Estrada-Monje, María Cristina Maldonado-Orozco, Simón Yobanny Reyes-López and Erasto Armando Zaragoza-Contreras
Chemosensors 2023, 11(9), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11090507 - 17 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The importance of biomarker quantification in technology cannot be overstated. It has numerous applications in medical diagnostics, drug delivery, and the timely implementation of prevention and control strategies for highly prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the discovery of new tools for detection has become [...] Read more.
The importance of biomarker quantification in technology cannot be overstated. It has numerous applications in medical diagnostics, drug delivery, and the timely implementation of prevention and control strategies for highly prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the discovery of new tools for detection has become increasingly necessary. One promising avenue is the use of perovskite-based materials, which exhibit excellent catalytic activity and redox properties. These make them ideal candidates for the development of electrochemical sensors. In this review, the advances of purely non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of bio-analytes, with ABO3 perovskite form, are presented. The work allows the visualization of some of the modifications in the composition and crystal lattice of the perovskites and some variations in the assembly of the electrodes, which can result in systems with a better response to the detection of analytes of interest. These findings have significant implications for improving the accuracy and speed of biomarker detection, ultimately benefiting patients and healthcare professionals alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Development on Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors)
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