Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanostructured Catalysts".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2023) | Viewed by 8577

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Guest Editor
Department of Bionanotechnology and Bioconvergence Engineering, Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
Interests: plasmonic nanophotonics; heterogeneous catalysis; artificial photosynthesis; renewable energy; biofuels; biomaterials
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Dear Colleagues,

Catalytic studies have been significantly advanced with the emergence of nanotechnology as a key technology of modern times. Nanotechnology has progressed the synthetic techniques to control and maintain uniformity in shape, size, morphology, and composition, which has improved catalytic performances. Nanostructured catalysts of metals, oxides, semiconductors, and other compounds transpired at the interface between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic processes and offer high efficiency, better selectivity, great stability, easier recovery, and recycling. The nanostructured catalysts are the focus of this Special Issue, which aims to cover the synthesis of numerous nanostructured catalysts, such as metal oxides (alkali, alkaline, transition metal oxides), photocatalytic nanomaterials, nanofibrous materials, and for application in CO2 conversion, hydrogen production, fuel cells, composite solid rocket propellants, energy storage, medicines, dye, bio-fuel production, water purification, and many other chemical reactions such as electrocatalytic processes, photocatalytic reactions, coupling reactions, hydrogenation, reduction reactions, oxidation reactions, and others.

Dr. Dinesh Kumar
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plasmonic nanomaterials
  • metal nano-oxides
  • metal organic frameworks
  • semiconductor nanostructures
  • surface engineered catalysts
  • defect engineering

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1637 KiB  
Article
Influence of Nanoscale Intimacy in Bi-Functional Catalysts for CO2-Assisted Dehydrogenation of C5-Paraffins
by Muhammad Numan, Gayoung Lee, Eunji Eom, Jae Won Shin, Dae-Heung Choi and Changbum Jo
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060933 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
In this study, Pt1Sn1 intermetallic nanoparticles (NPs) on SiO2/CeO2@SiO2 composites were located either on SiO2 or on CeO2@SiO2, thereby varying the average distance (intimacy) between metal sites and CeOx [...] Read more.
In this study, Pt1Sn1 intermetallic nanoparticles (NPs) on SiO2/CeO2@SiO2 composites were located either on SiO2 or on CeO2@SiO2, thereby varying the average distance (intimacy) between metal sites and CeOx sites from “closest” to “nanoscale”. The catalytic performance of these catalysts was compared to dual-bed mixtures of Pt1Sn1@SiO2 and CeO2@SiO2 powders, which provided a “milliscale” distance between sites. Several beneficial effects on the catalytic performance of CO2-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of C5-paraffins were observed when Pt1Sn1 nanoparticles were located on SiO2 in nanoscale proximity to the CeO2 sites, as opposed to Pt and Sn species located on CeO2@SiO2 with the closest proximity and milliscale intimacy between Pt1Sn1 and CeO2. The former catalysts exhibited the highest C5-paraffin conversion of 32.8%, with a C5 total olefin selectivity of 68.7%, while the closest-proximity sample had a lower conversion of 17.4%, with a C5 total olefin selectivity of 20.9%. The FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectroscopic study of the CO adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that the closest proximity between Pt and Ce inhibited PtSn alloy formation due to their strong interaction. However, for the nanoscale-proximity sample, neighboring CeO2@SiO2 did not disturb Pt1Sn1 intermetallic formation. This strategy can be applied to other CO2 activation catalysts, instead of CeO2@SiO2. This paper aims to provide insights into the influence of metal–CeOx intimacy in bi-functional catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts)
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13 pages, 4375 KiB  
Article
Al2O3 Nanorod with Rich Pentacoordinate Al3+ Sites Stabilizing Co2+ for Propane Dehydrogenation
by Zhiping Zhao, Zhixia Wang, Yanbing Tong, Jinru Sun, Ming Ke and Weiyu Song
Catalysts 2023, 13(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13050807 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The search for inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and highly effective catalysts to activate C-H bonds in propane dehydrogenation (PDH) reactions is still a major challenge. Co-based catalysts have gained significant attention in recent years due to their excellent ability to activate C-H bonds and [...] Read more.
The search for inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and highly effective catalysts to activate C-H bonds in propane dehydrogenation (PDH) reactions is still a major challenge. Co-based catalysts have gained significant attention in recent years due to their excellent ability to activate C-H bonds and their high selectivity towards olefins, despite being a non-noble and environmentally unfriendly metal. However, further improvements are necessary for practical utilization, particularly in terms of activity and anti-carbon deposition capacity. In this study, we synthesized Al2O3 nanorods with abundant pentacoordinated Al3+ (Al3+penta) sites. The supported Co on the Al2O3 nanorod (Co/Al2O3-NR) exhibited higher selectivity (>96% propylene selectivity) and stability (deactivation rate 0.15 h−1) compared to Co supported on an Al2O3 nanosheet with fewer pentacoordinated Al3+ sites. Various characterizations confirmed that Co(II) mainly exists as CoAl2O4 rather than Co3O4 in the form of Co/Al2O3-NR, which inhibits the reduction of Co(II) to Co0 and accordingly improves catalyst stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts)
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15 pages, 4251 KiB  
Article
Solvent-Free Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol Derivatives by In Situ Generated Redox Couple Pd(0)/PdOx Supported on Ceria Nanorods
by Seyed Sepehr Moeini, Simonetta Tuti, Chiara Battocchio, Igor Luisetto and Daniela Tofani
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010005 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) oxidation to benzaldehyde (PhCHO) is a pivotal industrial reaction. The aerobic oxidation of BnOH in solvent-free conditions is highly compatible with the necessity of low environmental impact. In this research work, palladium oxide (PdOx) supported on ceria nanorods [...] Read more.
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) oxidation to benzaldehyde (PhCHO) is a pivotal industrial reaction. The aerobic oxidation of BnOH in solvent-free conditions is highly compatible with the necessity of low environmental impact. In this research work, palladium oxide (PdOx) supported on ceria nanorods (CeO2-NR), was synthesized, and utilized for aerobic solvent-free oxidation of BnOH derivatives to the corresponding aldehydes. The catalyst, PdOx/CeO2-NR, was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), proving that the PdOx (x > 1) particles were highly dispersed on CeO2-NR and have a strong interaction with the support. The PdOx/CeO2-NR catalyst permitted the aerobic oxidation of various benzyl alcohol derivatives with good conversion, and high selectivity towards the corresponding aldehydes. The presence of electron donating groups (EDG) on the benzylic ring enhanced the reactivity as opposed to the electron withdrawing groups (EWG) which were detrimental for the catalytic activity. During the reaction a partial reduction of the metal produced a Pd(0)/PdOx/CeO2-NR redox couple stable in the reaction condition, more reactive and recyclable. Some mechanistic hypotheses are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts)
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23 pages, 9996 KiB  
Article
Effect of B4C/Gr on Hardness and Wear Behavior of Al2618 Based Hybrid Composites through Taguchi and Artificial Neural Network Analysis
by Sharath Ballupete Nagaraju, Madhu Kodigarahalli Somashekara, Madhu Puttegowda, Hareesha Manjulaiah, Chandrakant R. Kini and Venkatesh Channarayapattana Venkataramaiah
Catalysts 2022, 12(12), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121654 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have recently gained popularity as useful models for grouping, clustering, and analysis in a wide range of fields. An ANN is a kind of machine learning (ML) model that has become competitive with traditional regression and statistical models in [...] Read more.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have recently gained popularity as useful models for grouping, clustering, and analysis in a wide range of fields. An ANN is a kind of machine learning (ML) model that has become competitive with traditional regression and statistical models in terms of useability. Lightweight composite materials have been acknowledged to be the suitable materials, and they have been widely implemented in various industrial settings due to their adaptability. In this research exploration, hybrid composite materials using Al2618 reinforced with B4C and Gr were prepared and then evaluated for hardness and wear behavior. Reinforced alloys have a higher (approximately 36%) amount of ceramic phases than unreinforced metals. With each B4C and Gr increase, the wear resistance continued to improve. It was found that microscopic structures and an appearance of homogenous particle distribution were observed with an electron microscope, and they revealed a B4C and Gr mixed insulation surface formed as a mechanically mixed layer, and this served as an effective insulation surface that protected the test sample surface from the steel disc. The ANN and Taguchi results confirm that load contributed more to the wear rate of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts)
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Review

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24 pages, 5617 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Transition Metal Phosphide Nanocatalysts for H2 Evolution and CO2 Reduction
by Saman Shaheen, Syed Asim Ali, Umar Farooq Mir, Iqra Sadiq and Tokeer Ahmad
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071046 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Green hydrogen energy has captivated researchers and is regarded as a feasible option for future energy-related aspirations. The emerging awareness of renewable energy-driven hydrogen generation and carbon dioxide reduction calls for the use of unconventional schematic tools in the fabrication of nanocatalyst systems. [...] Read more.
Green hydrogen energy has captivated researchers and is regarded as a feasible option for future energy-related aspirations. The emerging awareness of renewable energy-driven hydrogen generation and carbon dioxide reduction calls for the use of unconventional schematic tools in the fabrication of nanocatalyst systems. Transition metal phosphides are state-of-art, cost-effective, noble-metal-free materials that have been comprehensively examined for sustainable energy-driven applications. Recent reports on these advanced functional materials have cemented their candidature as high-performance catalytic systems for hydrogen production and for carbon dioxide conversion into value-added chemical feedstock. Bimetallic NiCoP (238.2 mmol g−1 h−1) exhibits top-notch catalytic competence toward photocatalytic HER that reveals the energy-driven application of a pristine class of TMPs, whereas heterostructured Ni2P/CdS was found to be fit for photochemical CO2 reduction, as well as for HER. On the other hand, pristine Ni2P was recently ascertained as an efficient electrocatalytic system for HER and CO2RR applications. A wide array of physicochemical modulations, such as compositional and structural engineering, defect generation, and facet control, have been used for improving the catalytic efficiency of transition metal phosphide nanostructures. In this review, we succinctly discuss the proficiency of transition metal phosphides in green hydrogen production and carbon dioxide conversion via photochemical and electrochemical pathways. We detail the significance of their structural properties and brief the readers about the synthetic advancements without deviating from our goal of summarizing the recent achievements in energy-driven applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalysts)
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