Topical Collection "Feature Papers in the Science and Engineering of Carbons"

A topical collection in C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Editors

Prof. Dr. Craig E. Banks
Website
Guest Editor
Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester, United Kingdom
Interests: electrochemistry; 3D printing; 2D material electrochemistry; sensor design and development; screen-printing and related sensor fabrication; electron transfer; sono-electrochemistry; nanoparticles
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jandro L. Abot
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
Interests: carbon nanotube fibers; composite materials; sensors and structural health monitoring; applied mechanics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topical Collection “Feature Papers in the Science and Engineering of Carbons” will include high-quality research articles, short communications, and review articles about the physics, chemistry, engineering or technological applications of carbon phases and structures including graphite and pyrolytic carbon; diamond; carbon black; glassy carbon; porous carbons; graphene, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes; carbyne, sp2 and non-sp2 hybridized carbons; and carbon-carbon and other carbon composites. Since the aim of this Topical Collection is to illustrate through selected works the frontier research in this field, we encourage the editorial board members and members of the scientific community at-large to submit their works. Special areas of interest to C-Journal of Carbon Research include but are not limited to the following:

  • Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes 
  • CO2 Utilization and Conversion 
  • Carbon Cycle, Capture and Storage
  • Carbon Skeleton
  • Combustion Emissions

Prof. Dr. Craig E. Banks
Prof. Dr. Jandro Abot
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

2020

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Activity of Fe/C/N ORR Electrocatalyst Using Double Ammonia Promoted CO2 Laser Pyrolysis
C 2020, 6(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6040063 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Recently, we reported the use of CO2 laser pyrolysis for the synthesis of promising Fe/C/N electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. The set-up used single laser pyrolysis of an aerosolized solution of iron acetylacetonate in toluene with ammonia, both [...] Read more.
Recently, we reported the use of CO2 laser pyrolysis for the synthesis of promising Fe/C/N electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. The set-up used single laser pyrolysis of an aerosolized solution of iron acetylacetonate in toluene with ammonia, both as laser energy transfer agent and nitrogen source. In the present paper, we investigate the effect of a second ammonia promoted CO2 laser pyrolysis on the feature and ORR activity of Fe/C/N electrocatalysts. Indeed, compared to single pyrolysis, the second ammonia promoted CO2 laser pyrolysis could be an interesting way to synthesize in one-step performing ORR electrocatalysts on a large scale. For this comparison, a two-stage reactor was built, allowing both single ammonia-induced CO2 laser pyrolysis as reported previously or double ammonia-induced CO2 laser pyrolysis. In the latter configuration, the catalyst nanopowder flow is formed at the first stage of the reactor, then mixed with a second ammonia flow and allowed to cross a second CO2 laser beam, thus undergoing a second ammonia-induced CO2 laser pyrolysis before being collected on filters. It is found that the second ammonia-induced CO2 laser pyrolysis significantly improves the ORR performances of the materials prepared by single CO2 laser pyrolysis. The effect is demonstrated for three different catalysts for which the onset potentials for the ORR from single-stage to double-stage configuration increase from 625 mV to 845 mV, 790 mV to 860 mV, and 800 mV to 885 mV, respectively. The selectivity of the ORR was determined at 600 mV/SHE and lie between 3.41 and 3.72. These promising performances suggesting potentialities for the one-step formation of highly active Fe/C/N ORR electrocatalysts are discussed, based on results of surface analysis by XPS, specific surface area measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Method to Prepare pH-Sensitive PEI-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Rationally Designed Vehicles for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Delivery
C 2020, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6040062 - 07 Oct 2020
Abstract
A new pH-sensitive system designed for drug-delivery purposes and based on functionalized multiwall magnetic carbon nanotubes (Mag-CNTs) was synthesized for the effective incorporation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aiming at drug release in characteristic acidic conditions close to the actual conditions of inflamed [...] Read more.
A new pH-sensitive system designed for drug-delivery purposes and based on functionalized multiwall magnetic carbon nanotubes (Mag-CNTs) was synthesized for the effective incorporation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aiming at drug release in characteristic acidic conditions close to the actual conditions of inflamed tissues. Cationic hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) was immobilized on the surface of Mag-CNTs via electrostatic interactions between the positively charged protonated amines within the polymer and the carboxyl groups on the chemically oxidized Mag-CNT surface. The addition of the NSAID with a carboxylate donor, Naproxen (NAP), was achieved by indirect coupling through the amino groups of the intermediate linker PEI. FT-IR, Raman, and UV–vis spectroscopy were employed to fully characterize the synthesized nanocarrier and its functionalization procedure. The interaction of the designed nanocarrier with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied in vitro by fluorescence emission spectroscopy while its in vitro interaction with calf-thymus (CT) DNA was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements and via competitive studies with ethidium bromide. The calculated binding constants were compared to those of free NAP revealing a higher binding affinity for BSA and CT DNA. Finally, drug-release studies were performed, revealing that the electrostatic linkage ensures an effective release of the drug in the acidic pH typical of inflamed cells, while maintaining the multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs)–drug conjugates stable at the typical bloodstream. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hypergolic Materials Synthesis through Reaction of Fuming Nitric Acid with Certain Cyclopentadienyl Compounds
C 2020, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6040061 - 05 Oct 2020
Abstract
Recently we have shown the importance of hypergolic reactions in carbon materials synthesis. However, hypergolic reactions could be certainly expanded beyond carbon synthesis, offering a general preparative pathway towards a larger variety of materials. Cyclopentadienyls are one of the most common ligands in [...] Read more.
Recently we have shown the importance of hypergolic reactions in carbon materials synthesis. However, hypergolic reactions could be certainly expanded beyond carbon synthesis, offering a general preparative pathway towards a larger variety of materials. Cyclopentadienyls are one of the most common ligands in organometallic chemistry that react hypergolicly on contact with strong oxidizers. By also considering the plethora of cyclopentadienyl compounds existing today, herein we demonstrate the potential of such compounds in hypergolic materials synthesis in general (carbon or inorganic). In a first example, we show that cyclopentadienyllithium reacts hypergolicly with fuming nitric acid to produce carbon. In a second one, we show that ferrocene and cobaltocene also react hypergolicly with the concentrated acid to afford magnetic inorganic materials, such as γ-Fe2O3 and metallic Co, respectively. The present results further emphasize the importance and universal character of hypergolic reactions in materials science synthesis, as an interesting new alternative to other existing and well-established preparative methods. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tetrel Bonding Interactions Involving Carbon at Work: Recent Advances in Crystal Engineering and Catalysis
C 2020, 6(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6040060 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
The σ- and π-hole interactions are used to define attractive forces involving elements of groups 12–18 of the periodic table acting as Lewis acids and any electron rich site (Lewis base, anion, and π-system). When the electrophilic atom belongs to group 14, the [...] Read more.
The σ- and π-hole interactions are used to define attractive forces involving elements of groups 12–18 of the periodic table acting as Lewis acids and any electron rich site (Lewis base, anion, and π-system). When the electrophilic atom belongs to group 14, the resulting interaction is termed a tetrel bond. In the first part of this feature paper, tetrel bonds formed in crystalline solids involving sp3-hybridized carbon atom are described and discussed by using selected structures retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database. The interaction is characterized by a strong directionality (close to linearity) due to the small size of the σ-hole in the C-atom opposite the covalently bonded electron withdrawing group. The second part describes the utilization of two allotropic forms of carbon (C60 and carbon nanotubes) as supramolecular catalysts based on anion–π interactions (π-hole tetrel bonding). This part emphasizes that the π-hole, which is considerably more accessible by nucleophiles than the σ-hole, can be conveniently used in supramolecular catalysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneous Organo- and Metal Catalysis Using Phosphine Oxide Derivatives Anchored on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
C 2020, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6030057 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were modified anchoring phosphine oxides and used as heterogeneous catalysts. A proper substitution of the phosphine oxides allowed the use of the Tour reaction and the nitrene cycloaddition to obtain functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) with a loading up to [...] Read more.
Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were modified anchoring phosphine oxides and used as heterogeneous catalysts. A proper substitution of the phosphine oxides allowed the use of the Tour reaction and the nitrene cycloaddition to obtain functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) with a loading up to 0.73 mmol/g of material. The catalysts proved efficient in Wittig reactions, Mitsunobu reactions, and Staudinger ligations. Furthermore, the phosphorus decorated CNT were used to produce nanocomposite with Pd nanoparticles able to catalyze Heck reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrogen Doped Superactivated Carbons Prepared at Mild Conditions as Electrodes for Supercapacitors in Organic Electrolyte
C 2020, 6(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6030056 - 20 Sep 2020
Abstract
Nitrogen functionalization of a highly microporous activated carbon (SBET > 3000 m2/g), to be used as electrode of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), was carried out by different methods based on organic chemistry protocols at low temperature and selective thermal [...] Read more.
Nitrogen functionalization of a highly microporous activated carbon (SBET > 3000 m2/g), to be used as electrode of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), was carried out by different methods based on organic chemistry protocols at low temperature and selective thermal post-treatments under inert atmosphere. The combination of both methods allowed the production of carbon materials with very similar surface area (2400–3000 m2/g) and different surface chemistry. The nitrogen functionalization by chemical methods produce the attachment of 4 at. % N (XPS) by consumption of oxygen functional groups. The thermal treatments rearrange the surface chemistry by decreasing and converting both nitrogen and oxygen moieties. The effect of surface chemistry on the performance of these materials as electrodes for symmetric supercapacitors was analyzed in organic electrolyte (1M TEMABF4/propylene carbonate). The devices showed high gravimetric capacitance (37–40 F/g) and gravimetric energy density (31–37 Wh/kg). The electrochemical stability of the EDLC was evaluated by a floating test under severe conditions of voltage and temperature. The results evidence an improvement of the durability of nitrogen-doped activated carbons modified by chemical treatments due to the decrease of detrimental oxygen functionalities and the generation of nitrogen groups with higher electrochemical stability. Full article
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