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Screen-Printed Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2023) | Viewed by 15203

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Interests: electrochemistry; additive manufacturing; 2D material electrochemistry; sensor design and development; screen-printing and related sensor fabrication; electron transfer; sono-electrochemistry; nanoparticles
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Interests: screen-printed electrodes; 2D nanomaterials; fundamental electrochemistry; graphene; environmental monitoring; in-situ sensors

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Interests: additive manufacturing; electroanalysis; fundamental electrochemistry; molecularly imprinted polymers; thermal sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Screen-printed sensors based upon screen-printing technology are ubiquitous within the field of electrochemistry and analytical chemistry, allowing one to transfer technology developed in the laboratory into the field. Screen-printed sensors provide high reproducibility and if carefully designed can provide improved selectivities and sensitivities towards target analytes and are cost effective due to their scales of economy.

Screen-printed sensors are highly versatile with the ability to readily engineer the electrode composition and geometry for the desired application. Examples include modification with novel nanomaterials or biomolecules for sensing applications, development of new inks comprising nanomaterials for sensing (healthcare, environmental monitoring etc) and energy applications (e.g., water splitting), and new designs to produce electrode geometry that result in an increase in mass transport properties—realising improvements in electroanalytical sensing.

The versatility of screen-printed electrodes, along with their miniaturized size (low volumes of analyte need microlitres) and the possibility to be connected to portable instrumentation, make them highly appropriate for the on-site determination of target analytes in the field for environmental monitoring and food, agricultural, and biomedical analysis. We thus invite you to submit your work to our Specaial Issue devoted to screen-printed sensors.

Prof. Dr. Craig E. Banks
Dr. Alejandro Garcia-Miranda Ferrari
Dr. Robert D. Crapnell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • screen-printing
  • electrochemical sensors
  • screen-printed sensors
  • chemical sensors
  • biosensors
  • multi-sensor arrays
  • voltammetric sensors
  • amperometric sensors
  • electroanalysis, electrochemical detection, environmental monitoring
  • agri-food analysis
  • water sensors
  • biomedical applications
  • sustainability
  • on-site analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
A Simple Reversed Iontophoresis-Based Sensor to Enable In Vivo Multiplexed Measurement of Plant Biomarkers Using Screen-Printed Electrodes
by Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Harriet Kempson and Jim Haseloff
Sensors 2023, 23(2), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23020780 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
The direct quantification of plant biomarkers in sap is crucial to enhancing crop production. However, current approaches are inaccurate, involving the measurement of non-specific parameters such as colour intensity of leaves, or requiring highly invasive processes for the extraction of sap. In addition, [...] Read more.
The direct quantification of plant biomarkers in sap is crucial to enhancing crop production. However, current approaches are inaccurate, involving the measurement of non-specific parameters such as colour intensity of leaves, or requiring highly invasive processes for the extraction of sap. In addition, these methods rely on bulky and expensive equipment, and they are time-consuming. The present work reports for the first time a low-cost sensing device that can be used for the simultaneous determination of sap K+ and pH in living plants by means of reverse iontophoresis. A screen-printed electrode was modified by deposition of a K+-selective membrane, achieving a super-Nernstian sensitivity of 70 mV Log[K+]−1 and a limit of detection within the micromolar level. In addition, the cathode material of the reverse iontophoresis device was modified by electrodeposition of RuOx particles. This electrode could be used for the direct extraction of ions from plant leaves and the amperometric determination of pH within the physiological range (pH 3–8), triggered by the selective reaction of RuOx with H+. A portable and low-cost (<£60) microcontroller-based device was additionally designed to enable its use in low-resource settings. The applicability of this system was demonstrated by measuring the changes in concentration of K+ and pH in tomato plants before and after watering with deionised water. These results represent a step forward in the design of affordable and non-invasive devices for the monitoring of key biomarkers in plants, with a plethora of applications in smart farming and precision agriculture among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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32 pages, 14434 KiB  
Article
Influence of Polymer Processing on the Double Electrical Percolation Threshold in PLA/PCL/GNP Nanocomposites
by Nour-Alhoda Masarra, Jean-Christophe Quantin, Marcos Batistella, Roland El Hage, Monica Francesca Pucci and José-Marie Lopez-Cuesta
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9231; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239231 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
For the first time, the double electrical percolation threshold was obtained in polylactide (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite systems, prepared by compression moulding and fused filament fabrication (FFF). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the localisation of the GNP, [...] Read more.
For the first time, the double electrical percolation threshold was obtained in polylactide (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite systems, prepared by compression moulding and fused filament fabrication (FFF). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the localisation of the GNP, as well as the morphology of PLA and PCL phases, were evaluated and correlated with the electrical conductivity results estimated by the four-point probe method electrical measurements. The solvent extraction method was used to confirm and quantify the co-continuity in these samples. At 10 wt.% of the GNP, compression-moulded samples possessed a wide co-continuity range, varying from PLA55/PCL45 to PLA70/PCL30. The best electrical conductivity results were found for compression-moulded and 3D-printed PLA65/PCL35/GNP that have the fully co-continuous structure, based on the experimental and theoretical findings. This composite owns the highest storage modulus and complex viscosity at low angular frequency range, according to the melt shear rheology. Moreover, it exhibited the highest char formation and polymers degrees of crystallinity after the thermal investigation by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The effect of the GNP content, compression moulding time, and multiple twin-screw extrusion blending steps on the co-continuity were also evaluated. The results showed that increasing the GNP content decreased the continuity of the polymer phases. Therefore, this work concluded that polymer processing methods impact the electrical percolation threshold and that the 3D printing of polymer composites entails higher electrical resistance as compared to compression moulding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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12 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Methylthiouracil in Meat Samples
by Andrea Marco, Antonio Canals, Emilia Morallón and Miguel Ángel Aguirre
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8842; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228842 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Two analytical methods based on miniaturized electrochemical sensors, voltammetric and amperometric sensors, have been developed for the determination of 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) in meat consumption samples (beef liver and foie). A multivariate approach has been considered to optimize the experimental procedure including extraction and [...] Read more.
Two analytical methods based on miniaturized electrochemical sensors, voltammetric and amperometric sensors, have been developed for the determination of 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) in meat consumption samples (beef liver and foie). A multivariate approach has been considered to optimize the experimental procedure including extraction and electrochemical detection. Under optimal conditions and at a typical working potential of 1.55 V (vs Ag pseudo-reference electrode), response is linear in the range 0 to 20 µg L−1 MTU concentration range. The empirical limit of detection is 0.13 µg L−1, lower than the maximum concentration established by legislation. The electrochemical methods have been used to analyze MTU-spiked meat samples, and recovery values varying between 85 and 95% with coefficients of variation <30%. The analytical methods developed with the miniaturized electrochemical sensors can successfully determine the concentration of MTU in real meat samples with high accuracy, being the results obtained similar to those provided by other methods such as UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Finally, the degree of sustainability of the electrochemical sensors-based developed method has been quantified by means of the Analytical Eco-Scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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18 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of Caffeic Acid and Ferulic Acid Using a Carbon Nanofiber-Based Screen-Printed Sensor
by Alexandra Virginia Bounegru and Constantin Apetrei
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4689; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134689 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
This work aims to achieve the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of two hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid and caffeic acid) from standard solutions and from a phyto-homeopathic product using a carbon nanofiber-based screen-printed sensor (CNF/SPE). The two compounds are mentioned in the manufacturer’s [...] Read more.
This work aims to achieve the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of two hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid and caffeic acid) from standard solutions and from a phyto-homeopathic product using a carbon nanofiber-based screen-printed sensor (CNF/SPE). The two compounds are mentioned in the manufacturer’s specifications but without indicating their concentrations. The stability and reproducibility of the CNF/SPE were found to be effective and the sensitivity was high for both caffeic acid—CA (limit of detection 2.39 × 10−7 M) and ferrulic acid—FA (limit of detection 2.33 × 10−7 M). The antioxidant capacity of the compounds in the analyzed product was also determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. The electrochemical method was efficient and less expensive than other analytical methods; therefore, its use can be extended for the detection of these phenolic compounds in various dietary supplements or pharmaceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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17 pages, 3651 KiB  
Article
Voltammetric Behaviour of Rhodamine B at a Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode and Its Trace Determination in Environmental Water Samples
by Kevin C. Honeychurch
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4631; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124631 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The voltammetric behaviour of Rhodamine B was studied at a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammograms exhibited two reduction peaks (designated R1 and R2) generated from the reduction of the parent compound through, first, one electron reduction [...] Read more.
The voltammetric behaviour of Rhodamine B was studied at a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammograms exhibited two reduction peaks (designated R1 and R2) generated from the reduction of the parent compound through, first, one electron reduction (R1) to give a radical species, and then a further one-electron, one-proton reduction to give a neutral molecule (R2). On the reverse positive-going scan, two oxidation peaks were observed. The first, O1, resulted from the oxidation of the species generated at R2, and the second, O2, through the one-electron oxidation of the amine group. The nature of the redox reactions was further investigated by observing the effect of scan rate and pH on the voltammetric behaviour. The developed SPCE method was evaluated by carrying out Rhodamine B determinations on a spiked and unspiked environmental water sample. A mean recovery of 94.3% with an associated coefficient of variation of 2.9% was obtained. The performance characteristics indicated that reliable data may be obtained for Rhodamine B measurements in environmental water samples using this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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12 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
2D-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Screen-Printed Bulk-Modified Electrochemical Platforms Explored towards Oxygen Reduction Reactions
by Aamar F. Khan, Alejandro Garcia-Miranda Ferrari, Jack P. Hughes, Graham C. Smith, Craig E. Banks and Samuel J. Rowley-Neale
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093330 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
A low-cost, scalable and reproducible approach for the mass production of screen-printed electrode (SPE) platforms that have varying percentage mass incorporations of 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) (2D-hBN/SPEs) is demonstrated herein. These novel 2D-hBN/SPEs are explored as a potential metal-free electrocatalysts towards oxygen [...] Read more.
A low-cost, scalable and reproducible approach for the mass production of screen-printed electrode (SPE) platforms that have varying percentage mass incorporations of 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) (2D-hBN/SPEs) is demonstrated herein. These novel 2D-hBN/SPEs are explored as a potential metal-free electrocatalysts towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) within acidic media where their performance is evaluated. A 5% mass incorporation of 2D-hBN into the SPEs resulted in the most beneficial ORR catalysis, reducing the ORR onset potential by ca. 200 mV in comparison to bare/unmodified SPEs. Furthermore, an increase in the achievable current of 83% is also exhibited upon the utilisation of a 2D-hBN/SPE in comparison to its unmodified equivalent. The screen-printed fabrication approach replaces the less-reproducible and time-consuming drop-casting technique of 2D-hBN and provides an alternative approach for the large-scale manufacture of novel electrode platforms that can be utilised in a variety of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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16 pages, 2939 KiB  
Article
Diamine Oxidase-Conjugated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes to Facilitate Electrode Surface Homogeneity
by M. Amin, B. M. Abdullah, S. J. Rowley-Neale, S. Wylie, A. J. Slate, C. E. Banks and K. A. Whitehead
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020675 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Carbon nanomaterials have gained significant interest over recent years in the field of electrochemistry, and they may be limited in their use due to issues with their difficulty in dispersion. Enzymes are prime components for detecting biological molecules and enabling electrochemical interactions, but [...] Read more.
Carbon nanomaterials have gained significant interest over recent years in the field of electrochemistry, and they may be limited in their use due to issues with their difficulty in dispersion. Enzymes are prime components for detecting biological molecules and enabling electrochemical interactions, but they may also enhance multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersion. This study evaluated a MWCNT and diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO)-functionalised screen-printed electrode (SPE) to demonstrate improved methods of MWCNT functionalisation and dispersion. MWCNT morphology and dispersion was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Carboxyl groups were introduced onto the MWCNT surfaces using acid etching. MWCNT functionalisation was carried out using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by DAO conjugation and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. Modified C-MWNCT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA was drop cast onto SPEs. Modified and unmodified electrodes after MWCNT functionalisation were characterised using optical profilometry (roughness), water contact angle measurements (wettability), Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) (vibrational modes and elemental composition, respectively). The results demonstrated that the addition of the DAO improved MWCNT homogenous dispersion and the solution demonstrated enhanced stability which remained over two days. Drop casting of C-MWCNT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA onto carbon screen-printed electrodes increased the surface roughness and wettability. UV-Vis, SEM, Raman and EDX analysis determined the presence of carboxylated MWCNT variants from their non-carboxylated counterparts. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated an efficient electron transfer rate process and a diffusion-controlled redox process. The modification of such electrodes may be utilised for the development of biosensors which could be utilised to support a range of healthcare related fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Sensors)
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