Head and Neck Cancer

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2015) | Viewed by 39209

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Head and Neck Surgery, UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This year, nearly 70,000 new cases of Head and Neck Cancer will be diagnosed. The major causes of head and neck cancer-related deaths are persistent or recurrent disease. Despite focused research, the five-year survival rate for patients with advanced head and neck cancer remains approximately 15-20 percent. Head and Neck cancers are debilitating diseases where patient prognosis depends heavily on complete tumor resection. Recent advances in both the laboratory and the clinic continue to improve the outcome for patients. This Special Issue of Cancers gives an opportunity to describe recent original research in the field of Head & Neck Cancer, the development or application of new platforms or insights, and/or reviews of the field. We are particularly interested in genomics, immunomodulators, novel therapeutics, tumor margin localization, and new biomarker studies. (If you would like to discuss an idea for a paper before committing please contact the Guest Editor or the Editorial Office.)

Dr. Maie A. St. John
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • SCCA
  • HNSCC
  • cancer imaging
  • early cancer detection
  • intraoperative cancer imaging
  • imaging of tumor margins
  • novel therapeutic platforms
  • HPV
  • immune checkpoints
  • biomarkers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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1349 KiB  
Article
Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer
by Mohamad R. Issa, Stuart E. Samuels, Emily Bellile, Firas L. Shalabi, Avraham Eisbruch and Gregory Wolf
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2236-2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7040888 - 10 Nov 2015
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5772
Abstract
Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested [...] Read more.
Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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Article
Cytokine and Adipokine Levels in Patients with Premalignant Oral Lesions or in Patients with Oral Cancer Who Did or Did Not Receive 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Treatment upon Cancer Diagnosis
by M. Rita I. Young, Corinne Levingston and Sara D. Johnson
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1109-1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030827 - 25 Jun 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5140
Abstract
Differences in levels of inflammation-modulating cytokines and adipokines in patients with premalignant oral lesions versus in patients that develop squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) were assessed. Also assessed was the impact of treating HNSCC patients with the immune regulatory [...] Read more.
Differences in levels of inflammation-modulating cytokines and adipokines in patients with premalignant oral lesions versus in patients that develop squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) were assessed. Also assessed was the impact of treating HNSCC patients with the immune regulatory mediator, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], on modulators of inflammation. Compared to healthy controls, patients with premalignant oral lesions had increases in their systemic levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-17, and increases in the adipokine, leptin. However, levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokine were reduced in patients with HNSCC. Treatment of HNSCC patients with 1,25(OH)2D3 increased levels of each of the measured immune mediators. Levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin, were shifted inversely with the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and with leptin. These studies demonstrate heightened immune reactivity in patients with premalignant lesions, which wanes in patients with HNSCC, but which is restored by treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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Review

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1745 KiB  
Review
Targeted Therapy in Locally Advanced and Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (LA-R/M HNSCC)
by María José Echarri, Ana Lopez-Martin and Ricardo Hitt
Cancers 2016, 8(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8030027 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 8070
Abstract
Surgery and radiotherapy are the standard treatment options for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Chemoradiotherapy is an alternative for patients with locally advanced disease. In recurrent/metastatic disease and after progression to platin-based regimens, no standard treatments other [...] Read more.
Surgery and radiotherapy are the standard treatment options for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Chemoradiotherapy is an alternative for patients with locally advanced disease. In recurrent/metastatic disease and after progression to platin-based regimens, no standard treatments other than best supportive care are currently available. Most SCCHN tumours overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This receptor is a tyrosine-kinase membrane receptor that has been implicated in angiogenesis, tumour progression and resistance to different cancer treatments. In this review, we analysed the different drugs and pathways under development to treat SCCHN, especially recurrent/metastatic disease. Until now, the EGFR signalling pathway has been considered the most important target with respect to new drugs; however, new drugs, such as immunotherapies, are currently under study. As new treatments for SCCHN are developed, the influence of therapies with respect to overall survival, progression free survival and quality of life in patients with this disease is changing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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616 KiB  
Review
Anti-Tumor Immunity in Head and Neck Cancer: Understanding the Evidence, How Tumors Escape and Immunotherapeutic Approaches
by Clint T. Allen, Paul E. Clavijo, Carter Van Waes and Zhong Chen
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2397-2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7040900 - 9 Dec 2015
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 6891
Abstract
Many carcinogen- and human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers (HNSCC) display a hematopoietic cell infiltrate indicative of a T-cell inflamed phenotype and an underlying anti-tumor immune response. However, by definition, these tumors have escaped immune elimination and formed a clinically significant [...] Read more.
Many carcinogen- and human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers (HNSCC) display a hematopoietic cell infiltrate indicative of a T-cell inflamed phenotype and an underlying anti-tumor immune response. However, by definition, these tumors have escaped immune elimination and formed a clinically significant malignancy. A number of both genetic and environmental mechanisms may allow such immune escape, including selection of poorly antigenic cancer cell subsets, tumor produced proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines, recruitment of immunosuppressive immune cell subsets into the tumor and expression of checkpoint pathway components that limit T-cell responses. Here, we explore concepts of antigenicity and immunogenicity in solid tumors, summarize the scientific and clinical data that supports the use of immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with head and neck cancer, and discuss immune-based treatment approaches currently in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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921 KiB  
Review
The Tip of the Iceberg: Clinical Implications of Genomic Sequencing Projects in Head and Neck Cancer
by Andrew C. Birkeland, Megan L. Ludwig, Taha S. Meraj, J. Chad Brenner and Mark E. Prince
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2094-2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7040879 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6080
Abstract
Recent genomic sequencing studies have provided valuable insight into genetic aberrations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite these great advances, certain hurdles exist in translating genomic findings to clinical care. Further correlation of genetic findings to clinical outcomes, additional analyses of [...] Read more.
Recent genomic sequencing studies have provided valuable insight into genetic aberrations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite these great advances, certain hurdles exist in translating genomic findings to clinical care. Further correlation of genetic findings to clinical outcomes, additional analyses of subgroups of head and neck cancers and follow-up investigation into genetic heterogeneity are needed. While the development of targeted therapy trials is of key importance, numerous challenges exist in establishing and optimizing such programs. This review discusses potential upcoming steps for further genetic evaluation of head and neck cancers and implementation of genetic findings into precision medicine trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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Review
Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review
by Amy J. C. Dohmen, Justin E. Swartz, Michiel W. M. Van Den Brekel, Stefan M. Willems, René Spijker, Jacques Neefjes and Charlotte L. Zuur
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1716-1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030858 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5843
Abstract
Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated [...] Read more.
Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer)
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