Topical Collection "Matrix Effectors and Cancer"

A topical collection in Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This collection belongs to the section "Tumor Microenvironment".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Nikos Karamanos
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis and Matrix Pathobiochemistry Research Group, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
Interests: matrix biology; molecular mechanisms in breast cancer progression; proteoglycans; glycosaminoglycans; metalloproteinases
Dr. Zoi Piperigkou
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis & Matrix Pathobiology Research Group, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Greece
Interests: extracellular matrix; cell signaling; estrogen receptors; proteoglycans; breast cancer biomarkers; molecular targeting
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are highly dynamic three-dimensional structural meshworks composed of macromolecules, such as proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans (PGs/GAGs), collagens, laminins, elastin, glycoproteins and proteinases. Matrix macromolecules are characterized by high structural complexity and heterogeneity. They form complex networks through which they dynamically communicate with cells, thus serving as critical regulators of several homeostatic and pathological processes, such as cancer. ECM molecular composition varies among the tissue of origin and it undergoes significant remodeling during cancer progression. The elucidation of the mechanistic aspects governing matrix assembly and cell–matrix interactions is of critical importance to discover matrix-mediated cancer pathobiology and novel therapeutic approaches. The aim of this Collection of Cancers is to highlight the emerging roles of effective matrix macromolecules, including matrix metalloproteinases, proteoglycans, specific types of collagens and matrix (glyco)proteins that play key roles in cancer development and aggressiveness.

Prof. Dr. Nikos Karamanos
Dr. Zoi Piperigkou
Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • extracellular matrix
  • cancer pathobiology
  • metalloproteinases
  • matrix remodeling
  • proteoglycans
  • collagen
  • matrix (glyco)proteins
  • molecular targeting

Published Papers (19 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Review
The Role of IGF/IGF-IR-Signaling and Extracellular Matrix Effectors in Bone Sarcoma Pathogenesis
Cancers 2021, 13(10), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102478 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Bone sarcomas, mesenchymal origin tumors, represent a substantial group of varying neoplasms of a distinct entity. Bone sarcoma patients show a limited response or do not respond to chemotherapy. Notably, developing efficient chemotherapy approaches, dealing with chemoresistance, and preventing metastasis pose unmet challenges [...] Read more.
Bone sarcomas, mesenchymal origin tumors, represent a substantial group of varying neoplasms of a distinct entity. Bone sarcoma patients show a limited response or do not respond to chemotherapy. Notably, developing efficient chemotherapy approaches, dealing with chemoresistance, and preventing metastasis pose unmet challenges in sarcoma therapy. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and -2) and their respective receptors are a multifactorial system that significantly contributes to bone sarcoma pathogenesis. Whereas failures have been registered in creating novel targeted therapeutics aiming at the IGF pathway, new agent development should continue, evaluating combinatorial strategies for enhancing antitumor responses and better classifying the patients that could best benefit from these therapies. A plausible approach for developing a combinatorial strategy is to focus on the tumor microenvironment (TME) and processes executed therein. Herewith, we will discuss how the interplay between IGF-signaling and the TME constituents affects sarcomas’ basal functions and their response to therapy. This review highlights key studies focusing on IGF signaling in bone sarcomas, specifically studies underscoring novel properties that make this system an attractive therapeutic target and identifies new relationships that may be exploited. Potential direct and adjunct therapeutical implications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) effectors will also be summarized. Full article
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Article
Syndecan-1 Promotes Angiogenesis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer through the Prognostically Relevant Tissue Factor Pathway and Additional Angiogenic Routes
Cancers 2021, 13(10), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102318 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by increased angiogenesis, metastasis, and poor survival. Dysregulation of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan and signaling co-receptor Syndecan-1 is linked to poor prognosis. To study its role in angiogenesis, we silenced Syndecan-1 in TNBC cell lines [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by increased angiogenesis, metastasis, and poor survival. Dysregulation of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan and signaling co-receptor Syndecan-1 is linked to poor prognosis. To study its role in angiogenesis, we silenced Syndecan-1 in TNBC cell lines using a 3D human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture system. Syndecan-1 siRNA depletion in SUM-149, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 cells decreased HUVEC tubule network formation. Angiogenesis array revealed reduced VEGF-A and tissue factor (TF) in the Syndecan-1-silenced secretome. qPCR independently confirmed altered expression of F3, F7, F2R/PAR1, F2RL1/PAR2, VEGF-A, EDN1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP2 in SUM-149, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468 cells. ELISA revealed reduced secreted endothelin-1 (SUM-149, MDA-MB-468) and TF (all cell lines) upon Syndecan-1 depletion, while TF pathway inhibitor treatment impaired angiogenesis. Survival analysis of 3951 patients demonstrated that high expression of F3 and F7 are associated with better relapse-free survival, whereas poor survival was observed in TNBC and p53 mutant basal breast cancer (F3) and in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer (F2R, F2RL1). STRING protein network analysis revealed associations of Syndecan-1 with VEGF-A and IGFBP1, further associated with the TF and ET-1 pathways. Our study suggests that TNBC Syndecan-1 regulates angiogenesis via the TF and additional angiogenic pathways and marks its constituents as novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Full article
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Article
Down-Regulation of the Proteoglycan Decorin Fills in the Tumor-Promoting Phenotype of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescent Human Breast Stromal Fibroblasts
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081987 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Down-regulation of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin in the stroma is considered a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer progression. Ionizing radiation, an established treatment for breast cancer, provokes the premature senescence of the adjacent to the tumor stromal fibroblasts. Here, we showed [...] Read more.
Down-regulation of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin in the stroma is considered a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer progression. Ionizing radiation, an established treatment for breast cancer, provokes the premature senescence of the adjacent to the tumor stromal fibroblasts. Here, we showed that senescent human breast stromal fibroblasts are characterized by the down-regulation of decorin at the mRNA and protein level, as well as by its decreased deposition in the pericellular extracellular matrix in vitro. Senescence-associated decorin down-regulation is a long-lasting process rather than an immediate response to γ-irradiation. Growth factors were demonstrated to participate in an autocrine manner in decorin down-regulation, with bFGF and VEGF being the critical mediators of the phenomenon. Autophagy inhibition by chloroquine reduced decorin mRNA levels, while autophagy activation using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin enhanced decorin transcription. Interestingly, the secretome from a series of both untreated and irradiated human breast cancer cell lines with different molecular profiles inhibited decorin expression in young and senescent stromal fibroblasts, which was annulled by SU5402, a bFGF and VEGF inhibitor. The novel phenotypic trait of senescent human breast stromal fibroblasts revealed here is added to their already described cancer-promoting role via the formation of a tumor-permissive environment. Full article
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Review
The Yin and Yang of Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDRs): Implications in Tumor Growth and Metastasis Development
Cancers 2021, 13(7), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071725 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The tumor microenvironment is a complex structure composed of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and nontumoral cells (notably cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune cells). Collagens are the main components of the ECM and they are extensively remodeled during tumor progression. Some collagens are ligands [...] Read more.
The tumor microenvironment is a complex structure composed of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and nontumoral cells (notably cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune cells). Collagens are the main components of the ECM and they are extensively remodeled during tumor progression. Some collagens are ligands for the discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinases, DDR1 and DDR2. DDRs are involved in different stages of tumor development and metastasis formation. In this review, we present the different roles of DDRs in these processes and discuss controversial findings. We conclude by describing emerging DDR inhibitory strategies, which could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of patients. Full article
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Article
Overexpression of Human Syndecan-1 Protects against the Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Mice
Cancers 2021, 13(7), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071548 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Although syndecan-1 (SDC1) is known to be dysregulated in various cancer types, its implication in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Its effect may be detrimental or protective depending on the type of cancer. Our previous data suggest that SDC1 is protective against hepatocarcinogenesis. To [...] Read more.
Although syndecan-1 (SDC1) is known to be dysregulated in various cancer types, its implication in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Its effect may be detrimental or protective depending on the type of cancer. Our previous data suggest that SDC1 is protective against hepatocarcinogenesis. To further verify this notion, human SDC1 transgenic (hSDC1+/+) mice were generated that expressed hSDC1 specifically in the liver under the control of the albumin promoter. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at an age of 15 days after birth, which resulted in tumors without cirrhosis in wild-type and hSDC1+/+ mice. At the experimental endpoint, livers were examined macroscopically and histologically, as well as by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, receptor tyrosine kinase array, phosphoprotein array, and proteomic analysis. Liver-specific overexpression of hSDC1 resulted in an approximately six month delay in tumor formation via the promotion of SDC1 shedding, downregulation of lipid metabolism, inhibition of the mTOR and the β-catenin pathways, and activation of the Foxo1 and p53 transcription factors that lead to the upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. Furthermore, both of them are implicated in the regulation of intermediary metabolism. Proteomic analysis showed enhanced lipid metabolism, activation of motor proteins, and loss of mitochondrial electron transport proteins as promoters of cancer in wild-type tumors, inhibited in the hSDC1+/+ livers. These complex mechanisms mimic the characteristics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced human liver cancer successfully delayed by syndecan-1. Full article
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Review
Key Matrix Remodeling Enzymes: Functions and Targeting in Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(6), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061441 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Tissue functionality and integrity demand continuous changes in distribution of major components in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) under normal conditions aiming tissue homeostasis. Major matrix degrading proteolytic enzymes are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), plasminogen activators, atypical proteases such as intracellular cathepsins and glycolytic enzymes [...] Read more.
Tissue functionality and integrity demand continuous changes in distribution of major components in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) under normal conditions aiming tissue homeostasis. Major matrix degrading proteolytic enzymes are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), plasminogen activators, atypical proteases such as intracellular cathepsins and glycolytic enzymes including heparanase and hyaluronidases. Matrix proteases evoke epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulate ECM turnover under normal procedures as well as cancer cell phenotype, motility, invasion, autophagy, angiogenesis and exosome formation through vital signaling cascades. ECM remodeling is also achieved by glycolytic enzymes that are essential for cancer cell survival, proliferation and tumor progression. In this article, the types of major matrix remodeling enzymes, their effects in cancer initiation, propagation and progression as well as their pharmacological targeting and ongoing clinical trials are presented and critically discussed. Full article
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Article
The Extracellular Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglycan Biglycan Is a Key Player in Gastric Cancer Aggressiveness
Cancers 2021, 13(6), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061330 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Biglycan (BGN gene), an extracellular proteoglycan, has been described to be associated with cancer aggressiveness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical value of biglycan as a biomarker in multiple independent GC cohorts and determine the in vitro and [...] Read more.
Biglycan (BGN gene), an extracellular proteoglycan, has been described to be associated with cancer aggressiveness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical value of biglycan as a biomarker in multiple independent GC cohorts and determine the in vitro and in vivo role of biglycan in GC malignant features. We found that BGN is commonly over-expressed in all analyzed cohorts, being associated with disease relapse and poor prognosis in patients with advanced stages of disease. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that biglycan knock-out GC cells display major phenotypic changes with a lower cell survival, migration, and angiogenic potential when compared with biglycan expressing cells. Biglycan KO GC cells present increased levels of PARP1 and caspase-3 cleavage and a decreased expression of mesenchymal markers. Importantly, biglycan deficient GC cells that were supplemented with exogenous biglycan were able to restore biological features, such as survival, clonogenic and migratory capacities. Our in vitro and in vivo findings were validated in human GC samples, where BGN expression was associated with several oncogenic gene signatures that were associated with apoptosis, cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. This study provided new insights on biglycan role in GC that should be taken in consideration as a key cellular regulator with major impact in tumor progression and patients’ clinical outcome. Full article
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Article
The Secreted Protein C10orf118 Is a New Regulator of Hyaluronan Synthesis Involved in Tumour-Stroma Cross-Talk
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051105 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is central in defining the fate of cancer development. Tumour cells secrete signals (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors) that modify the surrounding area, while the niche supplies structures and activities necessary for tumour maintenance and growth. Hyaluronan [...] Read more.
Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is central in defining the fate of cancer development. Tumour cells secrete signals (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors) that modify the surrounding area, while the niche supplies structures and activities necessary for tumour maintenance and growth. Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that constitute cancer cell niche and is known to influence tumour functions such as proliferation, migration and neoangiogenesis. The knowledge of the factors regulating HA synthesis and size is crucial in understanding the mechanisms sustaining tumour development. Here we show that a yet uncharacterized protein secreted by breast tumour cell lines, named c10orf118 (accession number NM_018017 in NCBI/BLAST, and Q7z3E2 according to the Uniprot identifier), with a predicted length of 898 amino acids, can induce the secretion of HA by stromal fibroblasts through the up-regulation of the hyaluronan synthase 2 gene (HAS2). Intracellularly, this protein is localized in the Golgi apparatus with a possible role in vesicle maturation and transport. The expression of c10orf118 was verified in breast cancer patient specimens and was found to be associated with the presence of estrogen receptor that characterizes a good patient survival. We suggest c10orf118 as a new player that influences the HA amount in breast cancer microenvironment and is associated with low aggressiveness of cancer. Full article
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Article
The Burden of Post-Translational Modification (PTM)—Disrupting Mutations in the Tumor Matrisome
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051081 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the occurrence of mutations affecting post-translational modification (PTM) sites in matrisome genes across different tumor types, in light of their genomic and functional contexts and in comparison with the rest of the genome. Methods: This study spans 9075 tumor samples [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the occurrence of mutations affecting post-translational modification (PTM) sites in matrisome genes across different tumor types, in light of their genomic and functional contexts and in comparison with the rest of the genome. Methods: This study spans 9075 tumor samples and 32 tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-Cancer cohort and identifies 151,088 non-silent mutations in the coding regions of the matrisome, of which 1811 affecting known sites of hydroxylation, phosphorylation, N- and O-glycosylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation and methylation PTM. Results: PTM-disruptive mutations (PTMmut) in the matrisome are less frequent than in the rest of the genome, seem independent of cell-of-origin patterns but show dependence on the nature of the matrisome protein affected and the background PTM types it generally harbors. Also, matrisome PTMmut are often found among structural and functional protein regions and in proteins involved in homo- and heterotypic interactions, suggesting potential disruption of matrisome functions. Conclusions: Though quantitatively minoritarian in the spectrum of matrisome mutations, PTMmut show distinctive features and damaging potential which might concur to deregulated structural, functional, and signaling networks in the tumor microenvironment. Full article
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Article
TRAF4/6 Is Needed for CD44 Cleavage and Migration via RAC1 Activation
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051021 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The hyaluronan receptor CD44 can undergo proteolytic cleavage in two steps, leading to the release of its intracellular domain; this domain is translocated to the nucleus, where it affects the transcription of target genes. We report that CD44 cleavage in A549 lung cancer [...] Read more.
The hyaluronan receptor CD44 can undergo proteolytic cleavage in two steps, leading to the release of its intracellular domain; this domain is translocated to the nucleus, where it affects the transcription of target genes. We report that CD44 cleavage in A549 lung cancer cells and other cells is promoted by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) in a manner that is dependent on ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 4 or 6 (TRAF4 or TRAF6, respectively). Stem-like A549 cells grown in spheres displayed increased TRAF4-dependent expression of CD44 variant isoforms, CD44 cleavage, and hyaluronan synthesis. Mechanistically, TRAF4 activated the small GTPase RAC1. CD44-dependent migration of A549 cells was inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRAF4, which was rescued by the transfection of a constitutively active RAC1 mutant. Our findings support the notion that TRAF4/6 mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of CD44, and suggests that inhibitors of CD44 signaling via TRAF4/6 and RAC1 may be beneficial in the treatment of tumor patients. Full article
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Review
Nephronectin as a Matrix Effector in Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050959 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The extracellular matrix protein nephronectin plays an important regulatory role during embryonic development, controlling renal organogenesis through integrin α8β1 association. Nephronectin has three main domains: five N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains, a linker region harbouring two integrin-binding motifs (RGD and LFEIFEIER), and a [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix protein nephronectin plays an important regulatory role during embryonic development, controlling renal organogenesis through integrin α8β1 association. Nephronectin has three main domains: five N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains, a linker region harbouring two integrin-binding motifs (RGD and LFEIFEIER), and a C-terminal MAM domain. In this review, we look into the domain-related functions of nephronectin, and tissue distribution and expression. During the last two decades it has become evident that nephronectin also plays a role during cancer progression and in particular metastasis. Nephronectin is overexpressed in both human and mouse breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue where the protein is absent. Cancer cells expressing elevated levels of nephronectin acquire increased ability to colonise distant organs. In particular, the enhancer-motif (LFEIFEIER) which is specific to the integrin α8β1 association induces viability via p38 MAPK and plays a role in colonization. Integrins have long been desired as therapeutic targets, where low efficiency and receptor redundancy have been major issues. Based on the summarised publications, the enhancer-motif of nephronectin could present a novel therapeutic target. Full article
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Review
Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11A1): A Novel Biomarker and a Key Player in Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050935 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), one of the three alpha chains of type XI collagen, is crucial for bone development and collagen fiber assembly. Interestingly, COL11A1 expression is increased in several cancers and high levels of COL11A1 are often associated with poor [...] Read more.
Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), one of the three alpha chains of type XI collagen, is crucial for bone development and collagen fiber assembly. Interestingly, COL11A1 expression is increased in several cancers and high levels of COL11A1 are often associated with poor survival, chemoresistance, and recurrence. This review will discuss the recent discoveries in the biological functions of COL11A1 in cancer. COL11A1 is predominantly expressed and secreted by a subset of cancer-associated fibroblasts, modulating tumor-stroma interaction and mechanical properties of extracellular matrix. COL11A1 also promotes cancer cell migration, metastasis, and therapy resistance by activating pro-survival pathways and modulating tumor metabolic phenotype. Several inhibitors that are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer or used in clinic for other diseases, can be potentially used to target COL11A1 signaling. Collectively, this review underscores the role of COL11A1 as a promising biomarker and a key player in cancer. Full article
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Review
Epigenetic Alterations in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer—The Critical Role of Extracellular Matrix
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040713 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer characterized by genomic complexity and therapeutic options limited to only standard chemotherapy. Although it has been suggested that stratifying TNBC patients by pathway-specific molecular alterations may predict benefit from specific therapeutic agents, [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer characterized by genomic complexity and therapeutic options limited to only standard chemotherapy. Although it has been suggested that stratifying TNBC patients by pathway-specific molecular alterations may predict benefit from specific therapeutic agents, application in routine clinical practice has not yet been established. There is a growing body of the literature supporting that epigenetic modifications comprised by DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs play a fundamental role in TNBC pathogenesis. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic 3D network of macromolecules with structural and cellular regulatory roles. Alterations in the expression of ECM components result in uncontrolled matrix remodeling, thus affecting its ability to regulate vital functions of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, adhesion, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recent molecular data highlight the major role of tumor microenvironment and ECM alterations in TNBC and approaches for targeting tumor microenvironment have recently been recognized as potential therapeutic strategies. Notably, many of the ECM/EMT modifications in cancer are largely driven by epigenetic events, highlighting the pleiotropic effects of the epigenetic network in TNBC. This article presents and critically discusses the current knowledge on the epigenetic alterations correlated with TNBC pathogenesis, with emphasis on those associated with ECM/EMT modifications, their prognostic and predictive value and their use as therapeutic targets. Full article
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Article
Syndecan-1 Overexpressing Mesothelioma Cells Inhibit Proliferation, Wound Healing, and Tube Formation of Endothelial Cells
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040655 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of the serosal cavities. Angiogenesis is important for mesothelioma progression, but so far, anti-angiogenic agents have not improved patient survival. Our hypothesis is that better understanding of the regulation of angiogenesis in this tumor would largely [...] Read more.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of the serosal cavities. Angiogenesis is important for mesothelioma progression, but so far, anti-angiogenic agents have not improved patient survival. Our hypothesis is that better understanding of the regulation of angiogenesis in this tumor would largely improve the success of such a therapy. Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that acts as a co-receptor in various cellular processes including angiogenesis. In MM, the expression of SDC-1 is generally low but when present, SDC-1 associates to epithelioid differentiation, inhibition of tumor cell migration and favorable prognosis, meanwhile SDC-1 decrease deteriorates the prognosis. In the present study, we studied the effect of SDC-1 overexpression and silencing on MM cells ability to secrete angiogenic factors and monitored the downstream effect of SDC-1 modulation on endothelial cells proliferation, wound healing, and tube formation. This was done by adding conditioned medium from SDC-1 transfected and SDC-1 silenced mesothelioma cells to endothelial cells. Moreover, we investigated the interplay and molecular functional changes in angiogenesis in a co-culture system and characterized the soluble angiogenesis-related factors secreted to the conditioned media. We demonstrated that SDC-1 over-expression inhibited the proliferation, wound healing, and tube formation of endothelial cells. This effect was mediated by a multitude of angiogenic factors comprising angiopoietin-1 (Fold change ± SD: 0.65 ± 0.07), FGF-4 (1.45 ± 0.04), HGF (1.33 ± 0.07), NRG1-β1 (1.35 ± 0.08), TSP-1 (0.8 ± 0.02), TIMP-1 (0.89 ± 0.01) and TGF-β1 (1.35 ± 0.01). SDC-1 silencing increased IL8 (1.33 ± 0.06), promoted wound closure, but did not influence the tube formation of endothelial cells. Pleural effusions from mesothelioma patients showed that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels correlate to soluble SDC-1 levels and have prognostic value. In conclusion, SDC-1 over-expression affects the angiogenic factor secretion of mesothelioma cells and thereby inhibits endothelial cells proliferation, tube formation, and wound healing. VEGF could be used in prognostic evaluation of mesothelioma patients together with SDC-1. Full article
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Review
The Adhesome Network: Key Components Shaping the Tumour Stroma
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030525 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Beyond the conventional perception of solid tumours as mere masses of cancer cells, advanced cancer research focuses on the complex contributions of tumour-associated host cells that are known as “tumour microenvironment” (TME). It has been long appreciated that the tumour stroma, composed mainly [...] Read more.
Beyond the conventional perception of solid tumours as mere masses of cancer cells, advanced cancer research focuses on the complex contributions of tumour-associated host cells that are known as “tumour microenvironment” (TME). It has been long appreciated that the tumour stroma, composed mainly of blood vessels, cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells, together with the extracellular matrix (ECM), define the tumour architecture and influence cancer cell properties. Besides soluble cues, that mediate the crosstalk between tumour and stroma cells, cell adhesion to ECM arises as a crucial determinant in cancer progression. In this review, we discuss how adhesome, the intracellular protein network formed at cell adhesions, regulate the TME and control malignancy. The role of adhesome extends beyond the physical attachment of cells to ECM and the regulation of cytoskeletal remodelling and acts as a signalling and mechanosensing hub, orchestrating cellular responses that shape the tumour milieu. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
The Interactome of Cancer-Related Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Proteins
Cancers 2021, 13(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010071 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
The members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family are amine oxidases, which initiate the covalent cross-linking of the extracellular matrix (ECM), regulate ECM stiffness, and contribute to cancer progression. The aim of this study was to build the first draft of the interactome [...] Read more.
The members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family are amine oxidases, which initiate the covalent cross-linking of the extracellular matrix (ECM), regulate ECM stiffness, and contribute to cancer progression. The aim of this study was to build the first draft of the interactome of the five members of the LOX family in order to determine its molecular functions, the biological and signaling pathways mediating these functions, the biological processes it is involved in, and if and how it is rewired in cancer. In vitro binding assays, based on surface plasmon resonance and bio-layer interferometry, combined with queries of interaction databases and interaction datasets, were used to retrieve interaction data. The interactome was then analyzed using computational tools. We identified 31 new interactions and 14 new partners of LOXL2, including the α5β1 integrin, and built an interactome comprising 320 proteins, 5 glycosaminoglycans, and 399 interactions. This network participates in ECM organization, degradation and cross-linking, cell-ECM interactions mediated by non-integrin and integrin receptors, protein folding and chaperone activity, organ and blood vessel development, cellular response to stress, and signal transduction. We showed that this network is rewired in colorectal carcinoma, leading to a switch from ECM organization to protein folding and chaperone activity. Full article
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Article
Pan-Cancer Analysis of the Genomic Alterations and Mutations of the Matrisome
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082046 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of all cellular functions and a major component of the tumor microenvironment. We previously defined the “matrisome” as the ensemble of genes encoding ECM proteins and proteins modulating ECM structure or function. While compositional and [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of all cellular functions and a major component of the tumor microenvironment. We previously defined the “matrisome” as the ensemble of genes encoding ECM proteins and proteins modulating ECM structure or function. While compositional and biomechanical changes in the ECM regulate cancer progression, no study has investigated the genomic alterations of matrisome genes in cancers and their consequences. Here, mining The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, we found that copy number alterations and mutations are frequent in matrisome genes, even more so than in the rest of the genome. We also found that these alterations are predicted to significantly impact gene expression and protein function. Moreover, we identified matrisome genes whose mutational burden is an independent predictor of survival. We propose that studying genomic alterations of matrisome genes will further our understanding of the roles of this compartment in cancer progression and will lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies targeting the ECM. Full article
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Article
The Density and Length of Filopodia Associate with the Activity of Hyaluronan Synthesis in Tumor Cells
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071908 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Filopodia are multifunctional finger-like plasma membrane protrusions with bundles of actin filaments that exist in virtually all cell types. It has been known for some time that hyaluronan synthesis activity induces filopodial growth. However, because of technical challenges in the studies of these [...] Read more.
Filopodia are multifunctional finger-like plasma membrane protrusions with bundles of actin filaments that exist in virtually all cell types. It has been known for some time that hyaluronan synthesis activity induces filopodial growth. However, because of technical challenges in the studies of these slender and fragile structures, no quantitative analyses have been performed so far to indicate their association with hyaluronan synthesis. In this work we comprehensively address the direct quantification of filopodial traits, covering for the first time length and density measurements in a series of human cancer cell lines with variable levels of hyaluronan synthesis. The synthesis and plasma membrane binding of hyaluronan were manipulated with hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and hyaluronan receptor CD44 overexpression, and treatments with mannose, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), and glucosamine. The results of this work show that the growth of filopodia was associated with the levels of hyaluronan synthesis but was not dependent on CD44 expression. The results confirm the hypothesis that abundance and length of filopodia in cancer cells is associated with the activity of hyaluronan synthesis. Full article
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Article
Non-Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate from the Ascidian Phallusia nigra Prevents Colon Carcinoma Metastasis in Mice by Disrupting Platelet-Tumor Cell Interaction
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061353 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Although metastasis is the primary cause of death in patients with malignant solid tumors, efficient anti-metastatic therapies are not clinically available currently. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans from marine sources have shown promising pharmacological effects, acting on different steps of the metastatic process. Oversulfated dermatan sulfates [...] Read more.
Although metastasis is the primary cause of death in patients with malignant solid tumors, efficient anti-metastatic therapies are not clinically available currently. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans from marine sources have shown promising pharmacological effects, acting on different steps of the metastatic process. Oversulfated dermatan sulfates from ascidians are effective in preventing metastasis by inhibition of P-selectin, a platelet surface protein involved in the platelet-tumor cell emboli formation. We report in this work that the heparan sulfate isolated from the viscera of the ascidian Phallusia nigra drastically attenuates metastases of colon carcinoma cells in mice. Our in vitro and in vivo assessments demonstrate that the P. nigra glycan has very low anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities and a reduced hypotension potential, although it efficiently prevented metastasis. Therefore, it may be a promising candidate for the development of a novel anti-metastatic drug. Full article
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