Special Issue "Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).
Interests: hepatocellular carcinoma; diagnosis; cancer treatment; molecular carcinogenesis; genetics; epigenetics; tumor suppressor gene; data base; artificial intelligence; bioinformatics
Interests: nodule-in-nodule HCC; Coded phase inversion harmonic; Pure arterial phase imaging; dysplastic nodule; nodule-in-nodule; Sonazoid
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a high recurrence rate and mortality, especially for patients with advanced stages of the disease. Recent advancements of molecular targeted therapy—such as targeting VEGFR, FGFR, PDGFR, RAF, and MET—have led to improvements in the survival of such patients. However, a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes emerging in HCC cells should result in the acquisition of resistance to molecular targeted therapies.
On the other hand, restoring acquired immunity to HCC should suppress the progression of this type of tumor even in patients who progress on molecular targeted therapies. For example, recent clinical trials showed that immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective regardless of the response to prior therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and a durable response was also observed. More importantly, a combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors with molecular targeted therapy, reportedly cause a strong anti-tumor response in HCC. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted a breakthrough therapy designation to the atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody)/bevacizumab (anti-VEGF-A antibody) combination as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced HCC. Although many HCC patients still remain refractory to the monotherapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors, several other trials that target immune suppressive cells and molecules—including stromal cells, humoral mediators, and suppressive checkpoint molecules—are ongoing, suggesting the rapid advancement of immunotherapy in the field of HCC treatment in the near future.
Based on this evidence, a deep understanding of the immunological status and biological targets modulating immunological microenvironments should be quite informative for the development of future immunotherapy in HCC. From this point of view, this Special Issue will highlight the current state of the art in the immunotherapy of HCC from both the basic and clinical perspectives, and outline future perspectives for improving therapies.
Dr. Naoshi Nishida
Prof. Dr. Masatoshi Kudo
Manuscript Submission Information
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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- immune checkpoint inhibitors
- clinical trial