Special Issue "Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2023 | Viewed by 16744

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Flavio Stochino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
Interests: concrete; fire; blast; impact; structures; recycled concrete; masonry; structural dynamics; computational mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mislav Stepinac
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: structural assessment; historic structures; timber structures; masonry structures; scan to fem; seismic risk; drones
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuous development of materials, design concepts, and tools for numerical analysis offers new challenges and scenarios to the research community and designers. The use of materials, innovative or not, and load-bearing components that are particularly sensitive to environmental conditions or severe operational conditions can require dedicated methods and performance indicators for their structural verification. However, especially in recent years, the building and infrastructure fields have been able to take advantage of increasing innovation that takes the form of novel analysis techniques and tools.

In this Special Issue, we invite contributions that are focused on the latest developments in innovative techniques and solutions for structural analysis applied to constructions. The collection will be of interest to academics and structural and construction engineers but also architects and other professionals involved in the building and construction field.

The submission of original research studies, review papers, and experimental and/or numerical investigations that are focused on the structural performance of building and infrastructure materials, components, and systems is warmly encouraged. Both new projects/applications and interventions on existing structural systems will be of interest for the Special Issue.

Contributions in the following topics are welcome. However, they need not be limited to this list:

  • Structural dynamic approaches and numerical applications;
  • Linear and nonlinear structural analyses;
  • Characterization of structural materials;
  • Analysis of constructional materials under dynamic loads;
  • Structural health monitoring;
  • Vibration analysis and dynamic characterization;
  • Assessment and retrofit of existing civil structures and infrastructures;
  • Structural performance assessment under natural hazards;
  • Risk and mitigation analysis;
  • Experimental methods and results;
  • Numerical modeling.

Dr. Chiara Bedon
Dr. Flavio Stochino
Dr. Mislav Stepinac
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Assessment of Web Panel Zone in Built-up Box Columns Subjected to Bidirectional Cyclic Loads
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010071 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The behavior of the web panel zone has a direct effect on the cyclic performance of steel moment connections. While the mechanisms of web panel zone failure are known under cyclic load, little is known about the behavior of the web panel zone [...] Read more.
The behavior of the web panel zone has a direct effect on the cyclic performance of steel moment connections. While the mechanisms of web panel zone failure are known under cyclic load, little is known about the behavior of the web panel zone under bidirectional loads in bolted connections. Using experimental tests and calibrated numerical models, this research evaluated the web panel zone behavior under unidirectional and bidirectional cyclic loads. The results showed that bidirectional load can modify the stress and strain distribution in the web panel zone. Moreover, the increasing of the width-to-thickness ratio of the column influences the failure mechanism of the joint configuration and increases the plastic incursion in the column. These data demonstrate that bidirectional effects improve the web panel zone performance under cyclic loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Effect of Interlayer and Inclined Screw Arrangements on the Load-Bearing Capacity of Timber-Concrete Composite Connections
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122076 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The solution of timber-to-concrete composite (TCC) floors represents a well-established construction technique, which is consistently used for both the retrofitting of existing timber floors and the realization of new diaphragms. The success of TCC floors relies on the intrinsic effectiveness in increasing both [...] Read more.
The solution of timber-to-concrete composite (TCC) floors represents a well-established construction technique, which is consistently used for both the retrofitting of existing timber floors and the realization of new diaphragms. The success of TCC floors relies on the intrinsic effectiveness in increasing both the in-plane (for lateral loads) and the out-of-plane (for gravity loads) performance of existing timber floors. As a widespread retrofit intervention, it is common to use existing floorboards as a permanent formwork for the concrete pouring. Rather few research studies of literature, in this regard, highlighted an overall reduction of load capacity and slip modulus due to the presence of such an interposed interlayer. In this regard, the present paper focuses on the use of screws as efficient mechanical connectors and analyses different configurations and inclination angles for their arrangement. This main goal is achieved by performing parametric Finite Element (FE) numerical analyses, validated on previous experimental tests, in order to specifically investigate the influence of the in-between interlayer, as well as the role of friction phenomena and the influence of the test setup and experimental protocol to achieve the basic mechanical performance indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Simplified Models to Capture the Effects of Restraints in Glass Balustrades under Quasi-Static Lateral Load or Soft-Body Impact
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101664 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Structural glass balustrades are usually composed of simple glass panels which are designed under various restraint solutions to minimize large out-of-plane deflections and prematurely high tensile/compressive stress peaks under lateral loads due to crowd. Linear supports, point-fixing systems, and others can be used [...] Read more.
Structural glass balustrades are usually composed of simple glass panels which are designed under various restraint solutions to minimize large out-of-plane deflections and prematurely high tensile/compressive stress peaks under lateral loads due to crowd. Linear supports, point-fixing systems, and others can be used to create geometrical schemes based on the repetition of simple modular units. Among others, linear restraints that are introduced at the base of glass panels are mechanically described in the form of ideal linear clamps for glass, in which the actual geometrical and mechanical details of real fixing components are reduced to rigid nodal boundaries. This means that, from a modelling point of view, strong simplifications are introduced for design. In real systems, however, these multiple components are used to ensure appropriate local flexibility and adequately minimize the risk of premature stress peaks in glass. The present study draws attention to one of these linear restraint solutions working as a clamp at the base of glass panels in bending. The accuracy and potential of simplified mechanical models in characterizing the effective translational and rotational stiffness contributions of its components are addressed, with the support of efficient and accurate Finite Element (FE) numerical models and experimental data from the literature for balustrades under double twin-tyre impact. Intrinsic limits are also emphasized based on parametric calculations in quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Body CoM Acceleration for Rapid Analysis of Gait Variability and Pedestrian Effects on Structures
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020251 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set [...] Read more.
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set of constructional solutions and typologies. A basic assumption consists in the description of walking humans’ effects on structures through equivalent deterministic loads, in which the ground vertical reaction force due to pedestrians depends on their mass and motion frequency. However, a multitude of additional parameters should be taken into account and properly confirmed by dedicated laboratory studies. In this paper, the focus is on the assessment of a rapid analysis protocol in which attention is given to pedestrian input, based on a minimized sensor setup. The study of gait variability and related effects for structural purposes is based on the elaboration of single Wi-Fi sensor, body centre of mass (CoM) accelerations. A total of 50 walking configurations was experimentally investigated in laboratory or in field conditions (for more than 500 recorded gaits), with the support of an adult volunteer. Parametric gait analysis is presented considering different substructure conditions and motion configurations. Body CoM acceleration records are then used for the analysis of a concrete slab, where the attention is focused on the effects of (i) rough experimental body CoM input, or (ii) experimentally derived synthetized gait input. The effects on the structural side of rough experimental walk time histories or synthetized experimental stride signals are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Lightweight Composite Floor System—Cold-Formed Steel and Concrete—LWT-FLOOR Project
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020209 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
In the last few decades, the application of lightweight cold-formed composite steel–concrete structural systems has constantly been increasing within the field of structural engineering. This can be explained by efficient material usage, particularly noticeable when using cold-formed built-up sections and the innovative types [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the application of lightweight cold-formed composite steel–concrete structural systems has constantly been increasing within the field of structural engineering. This can be explained by efficient material usage, particularly noticeable when using cold-formed built-up sections and the innovative types of shear connections. This paper summarises an overview of the development of the cold-formed composite steel–concrete floor systems. Additionally, it provides the background, planned activities, and preliminary results of the current LWT-FLOOR project, which is ongoing at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Croatia. The proposed structural system is formed of built-up cold-formed steel beams and cast-in-place concrete slabs that are interconnected using an innovative type of shear connection. Preliminary analytical and numerical results on the system bending capacity are presented. Obtained results are mutually comparable. The resistance of the fixed beam solution is governed by the resistance of the steel beam, while pinned beam solution is governed by the degree of shear connection without the influence of the increased number of spot welds in the steel beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
An Efficient Reliability-Based Approach for Evaluating Safe Scaled Distance of Steel Columns under Dynamic Blast Loads
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120606 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Damage to building load-bearing members (especially columns) under explosions and impact are critical issues for structures, given that they may cause a progressive collapse and remarkably increase the number of potential victims. One of the best ways to deal with this issue is [...] Read more.
Damage to building load-bearing members (especially columns) under explosions and impact are critical issues for structures, given that they may cause a progressive collapse and remarkably increase the number of potential victims. One of the best ways to deal with this issue is to provide values of safe protective distance (SPD) for the structural members to verify, so that the amount of damage (probability of exceedance low damage) cannot exceed a specified target. Such an approach takes the form of the so-called safe scaled distance (SSD), which can be calculated for general structural members but requires dedicated and expensive studies. This paper presents an improved calculation method, based on structural reliability analysis, to evaluate the minimum SSD for steel columns under dynamic blast loads. An explicit finite element (FE) approach is used with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method to obtain the SSD, as a result of damage probability. The uncertainties associated with blast and material properties are considered using statistical distributions. A parametric study is thus carried out to obtain curves of probability of low damage for a range of H-shaped steel columns with different size and boundaries. Finally, SSD values are detected and used as an extensive databank to propose a practical empirical formulation for evaluating the SSD of blast loaded steel columns with good level of accuracy and high calculation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
FRP Pedestrian Bridges—Analysis of Different Infill Configurations
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110564 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to analyze fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge decks according to their material, cross-section, and shape geometry. Infill cell configurations of the decks (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and honeycomb) were tested based on the FRP cell units available in [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to analyze fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge decks according to their material, cross-section, and shape geometry. Infill cell configurations of the decks (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and honeycomb) were tested based on the FRP cell units available in the market. A comparison was made for each cell configuration in flat and curved bridge shapes. Another comparison was made between the material properties. Each model was computed for a composite layup material and a quasi-isotropic material. The quasi-isotropic material represents chopped fibers within a matrix. FE (finite element) analysis was performed on a total of 24 models using Abaqus software. The results show that the bridge shape geometry and infill configuration play an important role in increasing the stiffness, more so than improving the material properties. The arch shape of the bridge deck with quasi-isotropic material and chopped fibers was compared to the cross-ply laminate material in a flat bridge deck. The results show that the arch shape of the bridge deck contributed to the overall stiffness by reducing the deformation by an average of 30–40%. The results of this preliminary study will provide a basis for future research into form finding and laboratory testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Facial Expression-Based Experimental Analysis of Human Reactions and Psychological Comfort on Glass Structures in Buildings
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050204 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a [...] Read more.
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a multitude of aspects that can be associated with design concepts of the so-called “emotional architecture”, through which subjective feelings, nervous states and emotions of end-users are evoked by constructional details. The interactions of several objective and subjective parameters can make the “optimal” building design challenging, and this is especially the case for new technical concepts, constructional materials and techniques. In this paper, a remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments. Major advantages were taken from the use of virtual visual stimuli and facial expression automatic recognition analysis, and from the active support of 30 volunteers. As shown, while glass is often used in constructions, several intrinsic features (transparency, brittleness, etc.) are responsible for subjective feelings that can affect the overall psychological comfort of users. In this regard, the use of virtual built environments and facial expression analysis to quantify human reactions can represent an efficient system to support the building design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Calibrated Numerical Approach for the Dynamic Analysis of Glass Curtain Walls under Spheroconical Bag Impact
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040154 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
The structural design of glass curtain walls and facades is a challenging issue, considering that building envelopes can be subjected extreme design loads. Among others, the soft body impact (SBI) test protocol represents a key design step to protect the occupants. While in [...] Read more.
The structural design of glass curtain walls and facades is a challenging issue, considering that building envelopes can be subjected extreme design loads. Among others, the soft body impact (SBI) test protocol represents a key design step to protect the occupants. While in Europe the standardized protocol based on the pneumatic twin-tire (TT) impactor can be nowadays supported by Finite Element (FE) numerical simulations, cost-time consuming experimental procedures with the spheroconical bag (SB) impactor are still required for facade producers and manufacturers by several technical committees, for the impact assessment of novel systems. At the same time, validated numerical calibrations for SB are still missing in support of designers and manufacturers. In this paper, an enhanced numerical approach is proposed for curtain walls under SB, based on a coupled methodology inclusive of a computationally efficient two Degree of Freedom (2-DOF) and a more geometrically accurate Finite Element (FE) model. As shown, the SB impactor is characterized by stiffness and dissipation properties that hardly match with ideal rigid elastic assumptions, nor with the TT features. Based on a reliable set of experimental investigations and records, the proposed methodology acts on the time history of the imposed load, which is implicitly calibrated to account for the SB impactor features, once the facade features (flexibility and damping parameters) are known. The resulting calibration of the 2-DOF modelling parameters for the derivation of time histories of impact force is achieved with the support of experimental measurements and FE model of the examined facade. The potential and accuracy of the method is emphasized by the collected experimental and numerical comparisons. Successively, the same numerical approach is used to derive a series of iso-damage curves that could support practical design calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Review

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Review
An Abridged Review of Buckling Analysis of Compression Members in Construction
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050211 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis [...] Read more.
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis has become a critical aspect, especially in the safety engineering design since, at the time of failure, the actual stress at the point of failure is significantly lower than the material capability to withstand the imposed loads. With the recent advancement in materials and composites, the load-carrying capacity of columns has been remarkably increased, without any significant increase in their size, thus resulting in even more slender compressive members that can be susceptible to buckling collapse. Thus, nonuniformity in columns can be achieved in two ways—either by varying the material properties or by varying the cross section (i.e., shape and size). Both these methods are preferred because they actually inherited the advantage of the reduction in the dead load of the column. Hence, an attempt is made herein to present an abridged review on the buckling analysis of the columns with major emphasis on the buckling of nonuniform and functionally graded columns. Moreover, the paper provides a concise discussion on references that could be helpful for researchers and designers to understand and address the relevant buckling parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Other

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Perspective
Smart Textiles in Building and Living Applications: WG4 CONTEXT Insight on Elderly and Healthcare Environments
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122156 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Over the past 30 years, the development of new technologies and especially of smart textiles has unavoidably led to new applications of traditional textiles in the built environment. Depending on special constructional needs (i.e., acoustic insulation, thermal insulation, shading system, etc.) or health [...] Read more.
Over the past 30 years, the development of new technologies and especially of smart textiles has unavoidably led to new applications of traditional textiles in the built environment. Depending on special constructional needs (i.e., acoustic insulation, thermal insulation, shading system, etc.) or health monitoring and supporting needs (i.e., for patients with chronical disease, etc.), an increasing number of possible applications has been proposed to improve human well-being. This is especially the case for healthcare environments (like elderly or nursing homes, etc.), but also educational environments (like schools, etc.) where young or old customers can benefit from technological innovation in several ways. As an ongoing activity of WG4 members for the CA17107 “CONTEXT” European research network, this study presents a review on selected applications for building and living solutions, with special attention to healthcare environments, giving evidence of major outcomes and potentials for smart textiles-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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