Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 September 2023) | Viewed by 19605

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Interests: skull base surgery; endoscopic skull base surgery; open cerebrovascular surgery; cerebral bypass; functional neurosurgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of Brain Sciences.

The discipline of skull base surgery has evolved significantly over the past five decades, with advances in the development of technical tools and improvements in multidisciplinary techniques and surgical approaches that make it possible to manage these challenging pathologies. Nevertheless, despite those diagnostic advances in neuro-imaging, pathology, neuro-oncology, immunotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, etc., the cornerstone of management continues to be the adequate use of microsurgical skills. There is a huge need to maintain and transmit to the new generations of skull base surgeons the art of complex microsurgical and neuro-endoscopy skills, required specifically for the successful management of patients afflicted with these conditions.

In this Special Issue, we aim to integrate the voices of experts in the field, focused on uncovering of surgical pearls. We would like to transmit the advice of the masters of skull base surgery, developed on the basis of invaluable experience, allowing the young skull base surgeon to navigate the complexity of these daunting procedures in order to minimize the potential complications.

Dr. Miguel Lopez-Gonzalez
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • middle cranial fossa
  • posterior cranial fossa
  • micro neurosurgery
  • skull base endoscopy
  • meningiomas (planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae, anterior clinoid, petroclival, posterior petrosal, falcotentorial)
  • pituitary adenomas
  • craniopharyngiomas
  • clivus chordomas
  • skull base metastasis
  • cranial nerve schwannomas
  • paragangliomas
  • sinonasal malignancies
  • cavernous sinus
  • stereotactic radiosurgery
  • skull base reconstruction

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 135 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Brain Sciences Special Issue: “Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls”
by Miguel Angel Lopez-Gonzalez
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14040352 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The field of skull base surgery is unique; it involves the adequate and coordinated multidisciplinary interaction of multiple specialties, such as otorhinolaryngology, maxillofacial surgery, ophthalmology, neuro-anesthesiology, oncology, radiation oncology, neurophysiology, and neurosurgery [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)

Research

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11 pages, 3048 KiB  
Article
Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Skull Base Paragangliomas
by Steven D. Curry, Armine Kocharyan and Gregory P. Lekovic
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(11), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13111533 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The treatment of skull base paragangliomas has moved towards the use of cranial nerve preservation strategies, using radiation therapy and subtotal resection in instances when aiming for gross total resection would be expected to cause increased morbidity compared to the natural history of [...] Read more.
The treatment of skull base paragangliomas has moved towards the use of cranial nerve preservation strategies, using radiation therapy and subtotal resection in instances when aiming for gross total resection would be expected to cause increased morbidity compared to the natural history of the tumor itself. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of surgery in patients with skull base paragangliomas treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for definitive tumor control. A retrospective review identified 22 patients (median age 65.5 years, 50% female) treated with SRS from 2010–2022. Fourteen patients (63.6%) underwent microsurgical resection. Gross total resection was performed in four patients for tympanic paraganglioma (n = 2), contralateral paraganglioma (n = 1), and intracranial tumor with multiple cranial neuropathies (n = 1). Partial/subtotal resection was performed for the treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and conductive hearing loss (n = 6), chronic otitis and otorrhea (n = 2), intracranial extension (n = 1), or episodic vertigo due to perilymphatic fistula (n = 1). Eighteen patients had clinical and imaging follow-up for a mean (SD) of 4.5 (3.4) years after SRS, with all patients having clinical and radiological tumor control and no mortalities. Surgery remains an important component in the multidisciplinary treatment of skull base paraganglioma when considering other outcomes besides local tumor control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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8 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Surgeons’ Assessment of the Extent of Vestibular Schwannoma Resection with Immediate Post Operative and Follow-Up Volumetric MRI Analysis
by Hossein Mahboubi, William H. Slattery III, Mia E. Miller and Gregory P. Lekovic
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13101490 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
(1) Background: Incomplete excision of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is sometimes preferable for facial nerve preservation. On the other hand, subtotal resection may be associated with higher tumor recurrence. We evaluated the correlation between intra-operative assessment of residual tumor and early and follow-up imaging. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Incomplete excision of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is sometimes preferable for facial nerve preservation. On the other hand, subtotal resection may be associated with higher tumor recurrence. We evaluated the correlation between intra-operative assessment of residual tumor and early and follow-up imaging. (2) Methods: The charts of all patients undergoing primary surgery for sporadic vestibular schwannoma during the study period were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding surgeons’ assessments of the extent of resection, and the residual size of the tumor on post-operative day (POD) one and follow-up MRI were extracted. (3) Results: Of 109 vestibular schwannomas meeting inclusion criteria, gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in eighty-four, near-total (NTR) and sub-total resection (STR) in twenty-two and three patients, respectively. On follow up imaging, volumetric analysis revealed that of twenty-two NTRs, eight were radiographic GTR and nine were radiographic STR (mean volume ratio 11.9%), while five remained NTR (mean volume ratio 1.8%). Of the three STRs, two were radiographic GTR while one remained STR. Therefore, of eighteen patients with available later follow up MRIs, radiographic classification of the degree of resection changed in six. (4) Conclusions: An early MRI (POD#1) establishes a baseline for the residual tumor that may be more accurate than the surgeon’s intraoperative assessment and may provide a beneficial point of comparison for long-term surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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9 pages, 5223 KiB  
Article
A New Finding on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis of Hemifacial Spasm with High Accuracy and Interobserver Correlation
by Guilherme Finger, Kyle C. Wu, Joshua Vignolles-Jeong, Saniya S. Godil, Ben G. McGahan, Daniel Kreatsoulas, Mohammad T. Shujaat, Luciano M. Prevedello and Daniel M. Prevedello
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13101434 - 9 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Among patients with clinical hemifacial spasm (HFS), imaging exams aim to identify the neurovascular conflict (NVC) location. It has been proven that the identification in the preoperative exam increases the rate of surgical success. Despite the description of specific magnetic resonance image (MRI) [...] Read more.
Among patients with clinical hemifacial spasm (HFS), imaging exams aim to identify the neurovascular conflict (NVC) location. It has been proven that the identification in the preoperative exam increases the rate of surgical success. Despite the description of specific magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquisitions, the site of neurovascular compression is not always visualized. The authors describe a new MRI finding that helps in the diagnosis of HFS, and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver correlation of the described sign. A cross-sectional study including cases of hemifacial spasm treated surgically from 1 August 2011 to 31 July 2021 was performed. The MRIs of the cases were independently evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists, who were blinded regarding the side of the symptom. The neuroradiologists were assigned to evaluate the MRIs in two separate moments. Primarily, they evaluated whether there was a neurovascular conflict based on the standard technique. Following this initial analysis, the neuroradiologists received a file with the description of the novel sign, named Prevedello Sign (PS). In a second moment, the same neuroradiologists were asked to identify the presence of the PS and, if it was present, to report on which side. A total of 35 patients were included, mostly females (65.7%) with a mean age of 59.02 (+0.48). Since the 35 cases were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists, a total of 70 reports were included in the analysis. The PS was present in 66 patients (sensitivity of 94.2%, specificity of 91.4% and positive predictive value of 90.9%). When both analyses were performed in parallel (standard plus PS), the sensitivity increased to 99.2%. Based on the findings of this study, the authors conclude that PS is helpful in determining the neurovascular conflict location in patients with HFS. Its presence, combined with the standard evaluation, increases the sensitivity of the MRI to over 99%, without increasing risks of harm to patients or resulting in additional costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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16 pages, 7122 KiB  
Article
A New Perspective on the Cavernous Sinus as Seen through Multiple Surgical Corridors: Anatomical Study Comparing the Transorbital, Endonasal, and Transcranial Routes and the Relative Coterminous Spatial Regions
by Sergio Corvino, Pedro L. Villanueva-Solórzano, Martina Offi, Daniele Armocida, Motonobu Nonaka, Giorgio Iaconetta, Felice Esposito, Luigi Maria Cavallo and Matteo de Notaris
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(8), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13081215 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Background: The cavernous sinus (CS) is a highly vulnerable anatomical space, mainly due to the neurovascular structures that it contains; therefore, a detailed knowledge of its anatomy is mandatory for surgical unlocking. In this study, we compared the anatomy of this region [...] Read more.
Background: The cavernous sinus (CS) is a highly vulnerable anatomical space, mainly due to the neurovascular structures that it contains; therefore, a detailed knowledge of its anatomy is mandatory for surgical unlocking. In this study, we compared the anatomy of this region from different endoscopic and microsurgical operative corridors, further focusing on the corresponding anatomic landmarks encountered along these routes. Furthermore, we tried to define the safe entry zones to this venous space from these three different operative corridors, and to provide indications regarding the optimal approach according to the lesion’s location. Methods: Five embalmed and injected adult cadaveric specimens (10 sides) separately underwent dissection and exposure of the CS via superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital (SETOA), extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal-transethmoidal (EEEA), and microsurgical transcranial fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic (FTOZ) approaches. The anatomical landmarks and the content of this venous space were described and compared from these surgical perspectives. Results: The oculomotor triangle can be clearly exposed only by the FTOZ approach. Unlike EEEA, for the exposure of the clinoid triangle content, the anterior clinoid process removal is required for FTOZ and SETOA. The supra- and infratrochlear as well as the anteromedial and anterolateral triangles can be exposed by all three corridors. The most recently introduced SETOA allowed for the exposure of the entire lateral wall of the CS without entering its neurovascular structures and part of the posterior wall; furthermore, thanks to its anteroposterior trajectory, it allowed for the disclosure of the posterior ascending segment of the cavernous ICA with the related sympathetic plexus through the Mullan’s triangle, in a minimally invasive fashion. Through the anterolateral triangle, the transorbital corridor allowed us to expose the lateral 180 degrees of the Vidian nerve and artery in the homonymous canal, the anterolateral aspect of the lacerum segment of the ICA at the transition zone from the petrous horizontal to the ascending posterior cavernous segment, surrounded by the carotid sympathetic plexus, and the medial Meckel’s cave. Conclusions: Different regions of the cavernous sinus are better exposed by different surgical corridors. The relationship of the tumor with cranial nerves in the lateral wall guides the selection of the approach to cavernous sinus lesions. The transorbital endoscopic approach can be considered to be a safe and minimally invasive complementary surgical corridor to the well-established transcranial and endoscopic endonasal routes for the exposure of selected lesions of the cavernous sinus. Nevertheless, peer knowledge of the anatomy and a surgical learning curve are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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18 pages, 2520 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Endonasal Transplanum–Transtuberculum Approach for Pituitary Adenomas/PitNET: 25 Years of Experience
by Alessandro Carretta, Matteo Zoli, Federica Guaraldi, Giacomo Sollini, Arianna Rustici, Sofia Asioli, Marco Faustini-Fustini, Ernesto Pasquini and Diego Mazzatenta
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(7), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13071121 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
The role of the endoscopic transplanum–transtuberculum approach (ETTA) in the treatment of pituitary adenomas/PitNETs (PAs) is sparsely analyzed in the literature, and its use is still debated in the current practice. The aim of this study was to report our experience with this [...] Read more.
The role of the endoscopic transplanum–transtuberculum approach (ETTA) in the treatment of pituitary adenomas/PitNETs (PAs) is sparsely analyzed in the literature, and its use is still debated in the current practice. The aim of this study was to report our experience with this approach. Our institutional registry was retrospectively reviewed, and patients who underwent ETTA for a PA from 1998 to 2022 were included. Fifty-seven cases were enrolled over a time span of 25 years, corresponding to 2.4% of our entire PA caseload. Radical resection was achieved in 57.9% of cases, with re-do surgery (p = 0.033) and vessel encasement/engulfment (p < 0.001) as predictors of partial resection. CSF leak incidence stood at 8.8%, with higher BMI (p = 0.038) as its only significant predictor. Partial or full improvement of the visual field deficits was achieved in 73.5% of cases. No surgical mortality was observed. According to our results, ETTA for the treatment of PAs is characterized by a satisfactory surgical outcome but with greater morbidity than the conventional endoscopic approach. Therefore, it should be reserved for the few selected cases otherwise unsuitable for the endoscopic trans-sphenoidal route, representing a valid alternative and an effective complementary route for the transcranial approach for these challenging PAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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12 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Postoperative Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Following a Retrosigmoid Craniotomy—A Clinical and Radiological Analysis
by Lukasz Przepiorka, Katarzyna Wójtowicz, Katarzyna Camlet, Jan Jankowski, Sławomir Kujawski, Laretta Grabowska-Derlatka, Andrzej Marchel and Przemysław Kunert
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(7), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13071039 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Postoperative cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare complication of the retrosigmoid approach. To address the lack of literature, we performed a retrospective analysis. The thromboses were divided into those demonstrating radiological (rCVST) and clinical (cCVST) features, the latter diagnosed during hospitalization. [...] Read more.
Postoperative cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare complication of the retrosigmoid approach. To address the lack of literature, we performed a retrospective analysis. The thromboses were divided into those demonstrating radiological (rCVST) and clinical (cCVST) features, the latter diagnosed during hospitalization. We identified the former by a lack of contrast in the sigmoid (SS) or transverse sinuses (TS), and evaluated the closest distance from the craniotomy to quantify sinus exposure. We included 130 patients (males: 52, females: 78) with a median age of 46.0. They had rCVST in 46.9% of cases, most often in the TS (65.6%), and cCVST in 3.1% of cases. Distances to the sinuses were not different regarding the presence of cCVST (p = 0.32 and p = 0.72). The distance to the SS was not different regarding rCVST (p = 0.13). However, lower exposure of the TS correlated with a lower incidence of rCVST (p = 0.009). When surgery was performed on the side of the dominant sinuses, rCVSTs were more frequent (p = 0.042). None of the other examined factors were related to rCVST or cCVST. Surgery on the side of the dominant sinus, and the exposing of them, seems to be related with rCVST. Further prospective studies are needed to identify the risk factors and determine the best management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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9 pages, 7750 KiB  
Communication
The Extended-Sphenoid Ridge Approach: A New Technique for the Surgical Treatment of Skull Base Tumors in Pediatric Patients
by Roberto Garcia-Navarrete, Alfonso Marhx-Bracho, Javier Terrazo-Lluch and José Luis Pérez-Gómez
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13060888 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 3064
Abstract
The sphenoid ridge approach (SRA) was initially described as a surgical technique for treating vascular pathologies near the Sylvian fissure. However, limited studies have systematically explored the use of skull base techniques in pediatric patients. This study investigated an extended variation in the [...] Read more.
The sphenoid ridge approach (SRA) was initially described as a surgical technique for treating vascular pathologies near the Sylvian fissure. However, limited studies have systematically explored the use of skull base techniques in pediatric patients. This study investigated an extended variation in the sphenoid ridge approach (E-SRA), which systematically removed the pterion, orbital walls (roof and lateral wall), greater sphenoid wing, and anterior clinoid process to access the base of the skull. Objective: This report aimed to evaluate the advantages of the extradural removal of the orbital roof, pterion, sphenoid wing, and anterior clinoid process as a complement to the sphenoid ridge approach in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 36 patients with suspected neoplastic diseases in different regions. The E-SRA was performed to treat the patients. Patients were included based on the a priori objective of a biopsy or a total gross resection. The surgical time required to complete the approach, associated bleeding, and any complications were documented. Results: Our results demonstrated that the proposed a priori surgical goal, biopsy, or resection were successfully achieved in all cases. In addition, using the E-SRA technique was associated with a shorter operative time, minimal bleeding, and a lower incidence of complications. The most frequently encountered complications were related to dural closure. Conclusions: The extended sphenoid ridge approach represents a safe and effective option for managing intracranial tumors in pediatrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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12 pages, 2588 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Endonasal Approach in Craniopharyngiomas: Representative Cases and Technical Nuances for the Young Neurosurgeon
by Jorge F. Aragón-Arreola, Ricardo Marian-Magaña, Rodolfo Villalobos-Diaz, Germán López-Valencia, Tania M. Jimenez-Molina, J. Tomás Moncada-Habib, Marcos V. Sangrador-Deitos and Juan L. Gómez-Amador
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13050735 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are Rathke’s cleft-derived benign tumors originating most commonly in the dorsum sellae and representing 2% of intracranial neoplasms. CPs represent one of the more complex intracranial tumors due to their invasive nature, encasing neurovascular structures of the sellar and parasellar regions, [...] Read more.
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are Rathke’s cleft-derived benign tumors originating most commonly in the dorsum sellae and representing 2% of intracranial neoplasms. CPs represent one of the more complex intracranial tumors due to their invasive nature, encasing neurovascular structures of the sellar and parasellar regions, making its resection a major challenge for the neurosurgeon with important postoperative morbidity. Nowadays, an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) provides an “easier” way for CPs resection allowing a direct route to the tumor with direct visualization of the surrounding structures, diminishing inadvertent injuries, and providing a better outcome for the patient. In this article, we include a comprehensive description of the EEA technique and nuances in CPs resection, including three illustrated clinical cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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Review

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17 pages, 71445 KiB  
Review
Operative Corridors in Endoscopic Skull Base Tumor Surgery
by A. Karim Ahmed, Nicholas R. Rowan and Debraj Mukherjee
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14030207 - 23 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Advances in technology, instrumentation, and reconstruction have paved the way for extended endoscopic approaches to skull base tumors. In the sagittal plane, the endonasal approach may safely access pathologies from the frontal sinus to the craniocervical junction in the sagittal plane, the petrous [...] Read more.
Advances in technology, instrumentation, and reconstruction have paved the way for extended endoscopic approaches to skull base tumors. In the sagittal plane, the endonasal approach may safely access pathologies from the frontal sinus to the craniocervical junction in the sagittal plane, the petrous apex in the coronal plane, and extend posteriorly to the clivus and posterior cranial fossa. This review article describes these modular extended endoscopic approaches, along with crucial anatomic considerations, illustrative cases, and practical operative pearls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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14 pages, 3368 KiB  
Review
Jugular Foramen Tumors: Surgical Strategies and Representative Cases
by Andrea L. Castillo, Ali Tayebi Meybodi and James K. Liu
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14020182 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
(1) Background: Jugular foramen tumors are complex lesions due to their relationship with critical neurovascular structures within the skull base. It is necessary to have a deep knowledge of the anatomy of the jugular foramen and its surroundings to understand each type of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Jugular foramen tumors are complex lesions due to their relationship with critical neurovascular structures within the skull base. It is necessary to have a deep knowledge of the anatomy of the jugular foramen and its surroundings to understand each type of tumor growth pattern and how it is related to the surrounding neurovascular structures. This scope aims to provide a guide with the primary surgical approaches to the jugular foramen and familiarize the neurosurgeons with the anatomy of the region. (2) Methods and (3) Results: A comprehensive description of the surgical approaches to jugular foramen tumors is summarized and representative cases for each tumor type is showcased. (4) Conclusions: Each case should be carefully assessed to find the most suitable approach for the patient, allowing the surgeon to remove the tumor with minimal neurovascular damage. The combined transmastoid retro- and infralabyrinthine transjugular transcondylar transtubercular high cervical approach can be performed in a stepwise fashion for the resection of complex jugular foramen tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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Other

10 pages, 2237 KiB  
Case Report
Two-Stage Surgical Management for Acutely Presented Large Vestibular Schwannomas: Report of Two Cases
by Abdullah Keles, Burak Ozaydin, Ufuk Erginoglu and Mustafa K. Baskaya
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(11), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13111548 - 4 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The surgical management of vestibular schwannomas should be based on their presentation, neuro-imaging findings, surgeons’ expertise, and logistics. Multi-stage surgery can be beneficial for large-sized lesions with acute presentations. Herein, we highlighted the indications for two cases managed initially through the retrosigmoid and, [...] Read more.
The surgical management of vestibular schwannomas should be based on their presentation, neuro-imaging findings, surgeons’ expertise, and logistics. Multi-stage surgery can be beneficial for large-sized lesions with acute presentations. Herein, we highlighted the indications for two cases managed initially through the retrosigmoid and, subsequently, translabyrinthine approaches. The first case presented with acute balance and gait issues and a long history of hearing loss and blurred vision. Neuroimaging findings revealed a cerebellopontine angle lesion, resembling a vestibular schwannoma, with significant brainstem compression and hydrocephalus. Due to the rapidly deteriorating clinical status and large-sized tumor, we first proceeded with urgent decompression via a retrosigmoid approach, followed by gross total resection via a translabyrinthine approach two weeks later. The second case presented with gradually worsening dizziness and hemifacial numbness accompanied by acute onset severe headaches and hearing loss. Neuroimaging findings showed a large cerebellopontine angle lesion suggestive of a vestibular schwannoma with acute intratumoral hemorrhage. Given the acute clinical deterioration and large size of the tumor, we performed urgent decompression with a retrosigmoid approach followed by gross total resection through a translabyrinthine approach a week later. Post-surgery, both patients showed excellent recovery. When managing acutely presented large-sized vestibular schwannomas, immediate surgical decompression is vital to avoid permanent neurological deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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14 pages, 10021 KiB  
Case Report
Staged Strategies to Deal with Complex, Giant, Multi-Fossa Skull Base Tumors
by Brandon Edelbach and Miguel Angel Lopez-Gonzalez
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(6), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13060916 - 6 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Given the complex and multifaceted nature of resecting giant tumors in the anterior, middle, and, to a lesser extent, the posterior fossa, we present two example strategies for navigating the intricacies of such tumors. The foundational premise of these two approaches is based [...] Read more.
Given the complex and multifaceted nature of resecting giant tumors in the anterior, middle, and, to a lesser extent, the posterior fossa, we present two example strategies for navigating the intricacies of such tumors. The foundational premise of these two approaches is based on a two-stage method that aims to improve the visualization and excision of the tumor. In the first case, we utilized a combined endoscopic endonasal approach and a staged modified pterional, pretemporal, with extradural clinoidectomy, and transcavernous approach to successfully remove a giant pituitary adenoma. In the second case, we performed a modified right-sided pterional approach with pretemporal access and extradural clinoidectomy. This was followed by a transcortical, transventricular approach to excise a giant anterior clinoid meningioma. These cases demonstrate the importance of performing staged operations to address the challenges posed by these giant tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skull Base Tumor Surgery: The Practical Pearls)
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