Special Issue "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Applications in Clinical and Basic Neuroscience"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neural Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. George Opie
Website
Guest Editor
Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: transcranial magnetic brain stimulation; electroencephalography; motor control; motor learning; neuroplasticity; intracortical function; ageing; concussion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

TMS represents one of the few techniques able to non-invasively assess and modulate neurophysiological function in human participants. While this technique was established within the motor domain, coregistration with other neuroimaging modalities (e.g., electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, etc.) now means that TMS is utilised within broad, multidisciplinary areas of both basic and clinical neuroscience. Consequently, TMS methodology and technology is continuously evolving, resulting in an ever-growing potential for applications with functional relevance. The aim of this Special Issue is therefore to highlight novel and developing areas of TMS application in both health and disease. Research focused on neuroplasticity and intracortical circuitry are particularly encouraged. Studies aiming to better understand the neurophysiological processes underpinning both conventional and emerging methodologies are also appreciated. We invite contributions in the form of review articles and original research pieces.

Dr. George Opie
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • TMS
  • clinical and basic neuroscience
  • non-invasive
  • motor
  • neuroimaging
  • electroencephalography
  • fMRI
  • neuroplasticity
  • intracortical circuitry

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Voluntary Contraction Level, Test Stimulus Intensity and Normalization Procedures on the Evaluation of Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(7), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070433 - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) represents an inhibitory phenomenon acting at the cortical level. However, SICI estimation is based on the amplitude of a motor-evoked potential (MEP), which depends on the discharge of spinal motoneurones and the generation of compound muscle action potential (M-wave). [...] Read more.
Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) represents an inhibitory phenomenon acting at the cortical level. However, SICI estimation is based on the amplitude of a motor-evoked potential (MEP), which depends on the discharge of spinal motoneurones and the generation of compound muscle action potential (M-wave). In this study, we underpin the importance of taking into account the proportion of spinal motoneurones that are activated or not when investigating the SICI of the right flexor carpi radialis (normalization with maximal M-wave (Mmax) and MEPtest, respectively), in 15 healthy subjects. We probed SICI changes according to various MEPtest amplitudes that were modulated actively (four levels of muscle contraction: rest, 10%, 20% and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and passively (two intensities of test transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): 120 and 130% of motor thresholds). When normalized to MEPtest, SICI remained unchanged by stimulation intensity and only decreased at 30% of MVC when compared with rest. However, when normalized to Mmax, we provided the first evidence of a strong individual relationship between SICI and MEPtest, which was ultimately independent from experimental conditions (muscle states and TMS intensities). Under similar experimental conditions, it is thus possible to predict SICI individually from a specific level of corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Left Posterior Parietal Cortex Contributes to the Selection Process for the Initial Swing Leg in Gait Initiation
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050317 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
The present study examined whether the left posterior parietal cortex contributes to the selection process for the initial swing leg in gait initiation. Healthy humans initiated the gait in response to an auditory start cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was given over P3, [...] Read more.
The present study examined whether the left posterior parietal cortex contributes to the selection process for the initial swing leg in gait initiation. Healthy humans initiated the gait in response to an auditory start cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was given over P3, P4, F3 or F4 simultaneously, with the auditory start cue, in the on-TMS condition. A coil was placed over one of the four TMS sites, but TMS was not given in the off-TMS condition. The probability of right leg selection in the on-TMS condition was significantly lower than in the off-TMS condition when the coil was placed over P3, indicating that the left posterior parietal cortex contributes to the selection process of the initial swing leg of gait initiation. The latency of the anticipatory postural adjustment for gait initiation with the left leg was shortened by TMS over F4 or P4, but with the right leg was shortened by TMS over P3 or P4. Thus, the cortical process affecting the time taken to execute the motor process of gait initiation with the right leg may be related to the selection process of the initial swing leg of gait initiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Site-Specific Effects of Online rTMS during a Working Memory Task in Healthy Older Adults
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050255 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
The process of manipulating information within working memory is central to many cognitive functions, but also declines rapidly in old age. Improving this process could markedly enhance the health-span in older adults. The current pre-registered, randomized and placebo-controlled study tested the potential of [...] Read more.
The process of manipulating information within working memory is central to many cognitive functions, but also declines rapidly in old age. Improving this process could markedly enhance the health-span in older adults. The current pre-registered, randomized and placebo-controlled study tested the potential of online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied at 5 Hz over the left lateral parietal cortex to enhance working memory manipulation in healthy elderly adults. rTMS was applied, while participants performed a delayed-response alphabetization task with two individually titrated levels of difficulty. Coil placement and stimulation amplitude were calculated from fMRI activation maps combined with electric field modeling on an individual-subject basis in order to standardize dosing at the targeted cortical location. Contrary to the a priori hypothesis, active rTMS significantly decreased accuracy relative to sham, and only in the hardest difficulty level. When compared to the results from our previous study, in which rTMS was applied over the left prefrontal cortex, we found equivalent effect sizes but opposite directionality suggesting a site-specific effect of rTMS. These results demonstrate engagement of cortical working memory processing using a novel TMS targeting approach, while also providing prescriptions for future studies seeking to enhance memory through rTMS. Full article
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