New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical and Photonic Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 27336

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria 29075-910, Brazil
Interests: optical fiber sensors; fiber Bragg gratings; polymer optical fibers; instrumented insoles; interferometers; movement analysis; actuators; robotic systems; IoT; data processing; machine learning algorithms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria 29075-910, Brazil
Interests: fiber bragg gratings; fiber-optic biosensors; fiber-optic chemical sensors; in-fiber interferometers; Instrumentation; optical fiber sensors; POF-based sensors; rehabilitation robotics; structural health monitoring; surface Plasmon resonance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical biosensors are analytical devices consisting of a biorecognition element integrated into an optical transducer system, which generates signals proportional to the concentration of the analyte and provides label-free or label-based and real-time detection. Designing, developing, and improving optical biosensors’ attributes is a challenging and important topic for several applications, such as healthcare and disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring, water and food quality monitoring, and drug delivery.

Optical biosensors integrate a biological element, such as an enzyme, antibody, aptamer, whole cell, and tissue, as a biorecognition element. In response to physical or chemical changes created by the biorecognition elements, the transduction process induces a change in the light beam, such as absorption, transmission, reflection, refraction, phase, amplitude, frequency, and/or light polarization. Depending on the application, the performance of optical biosensors can be optimized in selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, response time, reproducibility, and stability.

In this context, it is a pleasure to announce this Special Issue entitled “New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors”, where original research and reviews of new fabrication processes, materials, transducing devices, and immobilization methods of optical biosensors are cordially invited. We hope that this Special Issue will further encourage and promote scientific contributions by researchers in the biosensors field.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions addressing, but not limited to:

  • Novel interrogation methods for biosensors;
  • Surface plasmon (SPR) and localized resonance (LSPR) for biosensing;
  • Biosensors for healthcare applications;
  • Biosensors for aquaculture and environment monitoring;
  • Wearable sensors, devices, and electronics;
  • Lab-on-a-chip;
  • Sensor devices, technology, and applications;
  • Advanced materials for sensing;
  • Nanophotonics.

Dr. Arnaldo Leal-Junior
Dr. Camilo A.R. Díaz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • optical fiber biosensors
  • surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)
  • evanescent field
  • grating-based sensors
  • interferometer-based sensors
  • point-of-care sensors
  • nanophotonics
  • surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4328 KiB  
Article
Collision Enhanced Raman Scattering (CERS): An Ultra-High Efficient Raman Enhancement Technique for Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Raman Spectroscopy Gas Analyzer
by Maryam Shirmohammad, Michael A. Short and Haishan Zeng
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110979 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Raman enhancement techniques are essential for gas analysis to increase the detection sensitivity of a Raman spectroscopy system. We have developed an efficient Raman enhancement technique called the collision-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS), where the active Raman gas as the analyte is mixed with [...] Read more.
Raman enhancement techniques are essential for gas analysis to increase the detection sensitivity of a Raman spectroscopy system. We have developed an efficient Raman enhancement technique called the collision-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS), where the active Raman gas as the analyte is mixed with a buffer gas inside the hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HCPCF) of a fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) system. This results in an enhanced Raman signal from the analyte gas. In this study, we first showed that the intensity of the 587 cm−1 stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) peak of H2 confined in an HCPCF is enhanced by as much as five orders of magnitude by mixing with a buffer gas such as helium or N2. Secondly, we showed that the magnitudes of Raman enhancement depend on the type of buffer gas, with helium being more efficient compared to N2. This makes helium a favorable buffer gas for CERS. Thirdly, we applied CERS for Raman measurements of propene, a metabolically interesting volatile organic compound (VOC) with an association to lung cancer. CERS resulted in a substantial enhancement of propene Raman peaks. In conclusion, the CERS we developed is a simple and efficient Raman-enhancing mechanism for improving gas analysis. It has great potential for application in breath analysis for lung cancer detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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12 pages, 3826 KiB  
Communication
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Nanosensor for Rapid Detection of Glyphosate in Food Samples
by Ariany Soares Côco, Fabiana Vasconcelos Campos, Camilo Arturo Rodríguez Díaz, Marco César Cunegundes Guimarães, Adilson Ribeiro Prado and Jairo Pinto de Oliveira
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050512 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
In this study, we developed a biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to detect the widely used herbicide glyphosate in food samples. To do so, either cysteamine or a specific antibody for glyphosate were conjugated [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to detect the widely used herbicide glyphosate in food samples. To do so, either cysteamine or a specific antibody for glyphosate were conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles. AuNPs were synthesized using the sodium citrate reduction method and had their concentration determined via inductively plasma coupled mass spectrometry. Their optical properties were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Functionalized AuNPs were further characterized via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering, Zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. Both conjugates succeeded in detecting the presence of glyphosate in the colloid, although nanoparticles functionalized with cysteamine tended to aggregate at high concentrations of the herbicide. On the other hand, AuNPs functionalized with anti-glyphosate functioned at a broad concentration range and successfully identified the presence of the herbicide in non-organic coffee samples and when it was added to an organic coffee sample. This study demonstrates the potential of AuNP-based biosensors to detect glyphosate in food samples. The low-cost and specificity of these biosensors make them a viable alternative to current methods for detecting glyphosate in foodstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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12 pages, 3465 KiB  
Communication
Estradiol Detection for Aquaculture Exploiting Plasmonic Spoon-Shaped Biosensors
by Francesco Arcadio, Mimimorena Seggio, Luigi Zeni, Alessandra Maria Bossi and Nunzio Cennamo
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040432 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on a spoon-shaped waveguide combined with an estrogen receptor (ERα) was developed and characterized for the detection and the quantification of estradiol in real water samples. The fabrication process for realizing the SPR [...] Read more.
In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on a spoon-shaped waveguide combined with an estrogen receptor (ERα) was developed and characterized for the detection and the quantification of estradiol in real water samples. The fabrication process for realizing the SPR platform required a single step consisting of metal deposition on the surface of a polystyrene spoon-shaped waveguide featuring a built-in measuring cell. The biosensor was achieved by functionalizing the bowl sensitive surface with a specific estrogen receptor (ERα) that was able to bind the estradiol. In a first phase, the biosensor tests were performed in a phosphate buffer solution obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) equal to 0.1 pM. Then, in order to evaluate the biosensor’s response in different real matrices related to aquaculture, its performances were examined in seawater and freshwater. The experimental results support the possibility of using the ERα-based biosensor for the screening of estradiol in both matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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14 pages, 4054 KiB  
Article
Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing Network for Thermal Mapping in Radiofrequency Ablation Neighboring a Blood Vessel
by Akbota Sametova, Sabit Kurmashev, Zhannat Ashikbayeva, Wilfried Blanc and Daniele Tosi
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121150 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive form of thermotherapy with great potential in cancer care, having the capability of selectively ablating tumoral masses with a surface area of several cm2. When performing RFA in the proximity of a blood vessel, [...] Read more.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive form of thermotherapy with great potential in cancer care, having the capability of selectively ablating tumoral masses with a surface area of several cm2. When performing RFA in the proximity of a blood vessel, the heating profile changes due to heat dissipation, perfusion, and impedance changes. In this work, we provide an experimental framework for the real-time evaluation of 2D thermal maps in RFA neighboring a blood vessel; the experimental setup is based on simultaneous scanning of multiple fibers in a distributed sensing network, achieving a spatial resolution of 2.5 × 4 mm2 in situ. We also demonstrate an increase of ablating potential when injecting an agarose gel in the tissue. Experimental results show that the heat-sink effect contributes to a reduction of the ablated region around 30–60% on average; however, the use of agarose significantly mitigates this effect, enlarging the ablated area by a significant amount, and ablating an even larger surface (+15%) in the absence of blood vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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10 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneous Optical Fiber Sensor System for Temperature and Turbidity Assessment in Wide Range
by Arnaldo Leal-Junior, Guilherme Lopes, Leandro C. Macedo, Welton Duque, Anselmo Frizera and Carlos Marques
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12111041 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
This paper presents the development of an optical fiber sensor system for multiparametric assessment of temperature and turbidity in liquid samples. The sensors are based on the combination between fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), intensity variation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. In this [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of an optical fiber sensor system for multiparametric assessment of temperature and turbidity in liquid samples. The sensors are based on the combination between fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), intensity variation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. In this case, the intensity variation sensors are capable of detecting turbidity with a resolution of about 0.5 NTU in a limited range between 0.02 NTU and 100 NTU. As the turbidity increases, a saturation trend in the sensor is observed. In contrast, the SPR-based sensor is capable of detecting refractive index (RI) variation. However, RI measurements in the turbidity calibrated samples indicate a significant variation on the RI only when the turbidity is higher than 100 NTU. Thus, the SPR-based sensor is used as a complementary approach for the dynamic range increase of the turbidity assessment, where a linearity and sensitivity of 98.6% and 313.5 nm/RIU, respectively, are obtained. Finally, the FBG sensor is used in the temperature assessment, an assessment which is not only used for water quality assessment, but also in temperature cross-sensitivity mitigation of the SPR sensor. Furthermore, this approach also leads to the possibility of indirect assessment of turbidity through the differences in the heat transfer rates due to the turbidity increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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19 pages, 4198 KiB  
Article
Spatial-Division Multiplexing Approach for Simultaneous Detection of Fiber-Optic Ball Resonator Sensors: Applications for Refractometers and Biosensors
by Madina Shaimerdenova, Takhmina Ayupova, Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Marzhan Sypabekova, Zhannat Ashikbayeva and Daniele Tosi
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12111007 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Fiber-optic ball resonators are an attractive technology for refractive index (RI) sensing and optical biosensing, as they have good sensitivity and allow for a rapid and repeatable manufacturing process. An important feature for modern biosensing devices is the multiplexing capacity, which allows for [...] Read more.
Fiber-optic ball resonators are an attractive technology for refractive index (RI) sensing and optical biosensing, as they have good sensitivity and allow for a rapid and repeatable manufacturing process. An important feature for modern biosensing devices is the multiplexing capacity, which allows for interrogating multiple sensors (potentially, with different functionalization methods) simultaneously, by a single analyzer. In this work, we report a multiplexing method for ball resonators, which is based on a spatial-division multiplexing approach. The method is validated on four ball resonator devices, experimentally evaluating both the cross-talk and the spectral shape influence of one sensor on another. We show that the multiplexing approach is highly efficient and that a sensing network with an arbitrary number of ball resonators can be designed with reasonable penalties for the sensing capabilities. Furthermore, we validate this concept in a four-sensor multiplexing configuration, for the simultaneous detection of two different cancer biomarkers across a widespread range of concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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12 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Ions’ Trace-Level Detection Using a Portable Fiber Optic—Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor
by Bianca-Georgiana Şolomonea, Luiza-Izabela Jinga, Vlad-Andrei Antohe, Gabriel Socol and Iulia Antohe
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080573 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Environmental pollution with cadmium (Cd) is a major concern worldwide, with prolonged exposure to this toxic heavy metal causing serious health problems, such as kidney damage, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases, only to mention a few. Herein, a gold-coated reflection-type fiber optic–-surface plasmon resonance [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution with cadmium (Cd) is a major concern worldwide, with prolonged exposure to this toxic heavy metal causing serious health problems, such as kidney damage, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases, only to mention a few. Herein, a gold-coated reflection-type fiber optic–-surface plasmon resonance (Au-coated FO-SPR) sensor is manufactured and functionalized with (i) bovine serum albumin (BSA), (ii) chitosan, and (iii) polyaniline (PANI), respectively, for the sensitive detection of cadmium ions (Cd2+) in water. Then, the three sensor functionalization strategies are evaluated and compared one at a time. Out of these strategies, the BSA-functionalized FO-SPR sensor is found to be highly sensitive, exhibiting a limit of detection (LOD) for Cd2+ detection at nM level. Moreover, the presence of Cd2+ on the FO-SPR sensor surface was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and also quantified consecutively for all the above-mentioned functionalization strategies. Hence, the BSA-functionalized FO-SPR sensor is sensitive, provides a rapid detection time, and is cheap and portable, with potential applicability for monitoring trace-level amounts of Cd within environmental or potable water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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17 pages, 6645 KiB  
Article
A Soft and Skin-Interfaced Smart Patch Based on Fiber Optics for Cardiorespiratory Monitoring
by Daniela Lo Presti, Daniele Bianchi, Carlo Massaroni, Alessio Gizzi and Emiliano Schena
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060363 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Wearables are valuable solutions for monitoring a variety of physiological parameters. Their application in cardiorespiratory monitoring may significantly impact global health problems and the economic burden related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Here, we describe a soft biosensor capable of monitoring heart (HR) [...] Read more.
Wearables are valuable solutions for monitoring a variety of physiological parameters. Their application in cardiorespiratory monitoring may significantly impact global health problems and the economic burden related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Here, we describe a soft biosensor capable of monitoring heart (HR) and respiratory (RR) rates simultaneously. We show that a skin-interfaced biosensor based on fiber optics (i.e., the smart patch) is capable of estimating HR and RR by detecting local ribcage strain caused by breathing and heart beating. The system addresses some of the main technical challenges that limit the wide-scale use of wearables, such as the simultaneous monitoring of HR and RR via single sensing modalities, their limited skin compliance, and low sensitivity. We demonstrate that the smart patch estimates HR and RR with high fidelity under different respiratory conditions and common daily body positions. We highlight the system potentiality of real-time cardiorespiratory monitoring in a broad range of home settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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Review

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17 pages, 1791 KiB  
Review
Progress and Trends of Optical Microfiber-Based Biosensors
by Yasmin Mustapha Kamil, Muhammad Hafiz Abu Bakar, Nurul Hida Zainuddin, Mohd Hanif Yaacob and Mohd Adzir Mahdi
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020270 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Biosensors are central to diagnostic and medicinal applications, especially in terms of monitoring, managing illness, and public health. Microfiber-based biosensors are known to be capable of measuring both the presence and behavior of biological molecules in a highly sensitive manner. In addition, the [...] Read more.
Biosensors are central to diagnostic and medicinal applications, especially in terms of monitoring, managing illness, and public health. Microfiber-based biosensors are known to be capable of measuring both the presence and behavior of biological molecules in a highly sensitive manner. In addition, the flexibility of microfiber in supporting a variety of sensing layer designs and the integration of nanomaterials with biorecognition molecules brings immense opportunity for specificity enhancement. This review paper aims to discuss and explore different microfiber configurations by highlighting their fundamental concepts, fabrication processes, and performance as biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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38 pages, 17951 KiB  
Review
Optically Active Nanomaterials and Its Biosensing Applications—A Review
by Santosh Kumar, Zhi Wang, Wen Zhang, Xuecheng Liu, Muyang Li, Guoru Li, Bingyuan Zhang and Ragini Singh
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010085 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4504
Abstract
This article discusses optically active nanomaterials and their optical biosensing applications. In addition to enhancing their sensitivity, these nanomaterials also increase their biocompatibility. For this reason, nanomaterials, particularly those based on their chemical compositions, such as carbon-based nanomaterials, inorganic-based nanomaterials, organic-based nanomaterials, and [...] Read more.
This article discusses optically active nanomaterials and their optical biosensing applications. In addition to enhancing their sensitivity, these nanomaterials also increase their biocompatibility. For this reason, nanomaterials, particularly those based on their chemical compositions, such as carbon-based nanomaterials, inorganic-based nanomaterials, organic-based nanomaterials, and composite-based nanomaterials for biosensing applications are investigated thoroughly. These nanomaterials are used extensively in the field of fiber optic biosensing to improve response time, detection limit, and nature of specificity. Consequently, this article describes contemporary and application-based research that will be of great use to researchers in the nanomaterial-based optical sensing field. The difficulties encountered during the synthesis, characterization, and application of nanomaterials are also enumerated, and their future prospects are outlined for the reader’s benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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25 pages, 3671 KiB  
Review
Semiconductor Multimaterial Optical Fibers for Biomedical Applications
by Lingyu Shen, Chuanxin Teng, Zhuo Wang, Hongyi Bai, Santosh Kumar and Rui Min
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100882 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4025
Abstract
Integrated sensors and transmitters of a wide variety of human physiological indicators have recently emerged in the form of multimaterial optical fibers. The methods utilized in the manufacture of optical fibers facilitate the use of a wide range of functional elements in microscale [...] Read more.
Integrated sensors and transmitters of a wide variety of human physiological indicators have recently emerged in the form of multimaterial optical fibers. The methods utilized in the manufacture of optical fibers facilitate the use of a wide range of functional elements in microscale optical fibers with an extensive variety of structures. This article presents an overview and review of semiconductor multimaterial optical fibers, their fabrication and postprocessing techniques, different geometries, and integration in devices that can be further utilized in biomedical applications. Semiconductor optical fiber sensors and fiber lasers for body temperature regulation, in vivo detection, volatile organic compound detection, and medical surgery will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
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