Special Issue "Immunosensors and Immunoassays for Environmental, Agricultural and Food Safety Applications"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 4865

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xiude Hua
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: immunosensors; immunoassay; antibody development; phage display technology
Dr. Yirong Guo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: immunoassays or biosensors for rapid detection of small compounds such as pesticides and mycotoxins; antibody preparation; analytical method establishment; mechanism of molecular recognition between antibodies and small molecules
Dr. Yulong Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
Interests: antibody development; immunoassay for pesticide residue and heavy metals; eletrochemical sensor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fields of testing and sensing have been tremendously active of late, especially as the pandemic of COVID-19 leads people to an understanding of the importance of testing and asking for analysis with more accuracy and fast and high throughput. Immunosensor/immunoassay, used to measure the presence or concentration of analytes ranging from small molecules to macromolecules, is one of the most promising testing platforms that meets the demands of being fast, cheap, sensitive and specific, and has wide applicability to environment, agriculture and food.

Relatively established methods like microwell-based immunoassay and lateral flow immunoassay are still growing, and the use of nanomaterials for biosensing has seen explosive growth. Recognition elements such as antibody or peptide remain essential to immunoassay, and how to get these materials with high affinity and specificity is a persistent task. Different transducers convert the recognition process into a quantitative signal towards the aims of more sensitivity and more efficiency; however, the stability is an issue, specifically to complex matrix samples. However, signal amplification strategies, labelling techniques, and sample treatment methods are promoting this area to be more usable and potent.

For that, this Special Issue aims to gather original articles and reviews showing research advances, fabrication, innovative applications, new challenges and future perspectives of immunosensors and immunoassays in important areas including medical diagnostics, chemical and biomolecular analysis in environment, agriculture, and food.

Dr. Xiude Hua
Dr. Yirong Guo
Dr. Yulong Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antibody
  • peptide
  • immunoassay
  • immunosensor
  • nanoparticle
  • food safety
  • agricultural product
  • pesticide residue
  • toxin

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Double Competitive Immunodetection of Small Analyte: Realization for Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay of Chloramphenicol
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050343 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 186
Abstract
A new scheme of reagents interaction for lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is proposed, which combines the features of competitive and sandwich assay and provides highly sensitive detection of low-molecular-weight analytes. Namely, the antigen in the sample interferes with the formation of the antibody [...] Read more.
A new scheme of reagents interaction for lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is proposed, which combines the features of competitive and sandwich assay and provides highly sensitive detection of low-molecular-weight analytes. Namely, the antigen in the sample interferes with the formation of the antibody (on the membrane)–hapten-protein–antibody (on the nanoparticle-marker) complex, competing with hapten-protein conjugate in both reactions. The proposed scheme was modelled using COPASI software, with a prediction of limit of detection (LOD) decrease by one order of magnitude compared to the standard competitive LFIA. This feature was experimentally confirmed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey. When tested in spiked honey, the visual LOD was 50 ng/mL for the common scheme and 5 ng/mL for the proposed scheme. Instrumental LOD was 300 pg/mL (1.2 µg/kg in conversion per sample weight of honey) in the standard scheme and 20 pg/mL (80 ng/kg in conversion per sample weight of honey) in the proposed scheme. Full article
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Communication
Establishment and Comparative Analysis of Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay and Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay for the Determination of Trace Quinclorac in Environment
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050338 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 263
Abstract
As a common herbicide in farmland, there has been wide concern over quinclorac residue because of its potential risks to the environment and human health. For the detection and monitoring of quinclorac residue in the environment, enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) [...] Read more.
As a common herbicide in farmland, there has been wide concern over quinclorac residue because of its potential risks to the environment and human health. For the detection and monitoring of quinclorac residue in the environment, enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) were established. The half-maximal inhibition concentrations (IC50) of ELISA and TRFIA were 0.169 mg/L and 0.087 mg/L with a linear range (IC20–IC80) of 0.020–1.389 mg/L and 0.004–1.861 mg/L, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the limit of detection (LOD, IC20) and IC50 of TRFIA improved approximately 5-fold and 2-fold. The cross-reaction rates for the quinclorac analogs were less than 2%. The average recoveries of quinclorac in river water, paddy water, paddy soil, and brown rice samples were 77.3–106.1%, with RSDs of 1.7–12.5%. More importantly, the results of the two methods were consistent with that of the referenced method of UPLC-MS/MS (R2 > 0.98). ELISA and TRFIA both showed good detection performance and could meet the requirements of the quantitative determination of quinclorac. Therefore, the proposed ELISA and TRFIA could be applied to the rapid and sensitive detection and monitoring of quinclorac residue in the environment. Full article
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Article
Development of a Linear Immobilization Carrier-Based Immunoassay for Aflatoxin
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050317 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
We explored the feasibility of developing immunoassay technology with a linear carrier, to develop a simpler and cheaper rapid immunoassay technology. We selected aflatoxins as an example for research, as they are a group of highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds representing a worldwide [...] Read more.
We explored the feasibility of developing immunoassay technology with a linear carrier, to develop a simpler and cheaper rapid immunoassay technology. We selected aflatoxins as an example for research, as they are a group of highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds representing a worldwide threat to human health and life. With a non-competitive immunoassay, we detected and evaluated the effect of 28 different linear materials on antibody immobilization. Mercerized cotton and Dyneema line were chosen from the linear materials for further comparison using a competitive immunoassay, because both showed high-signal values and relatively low background noise. The results showed the sensitive IC50 of mercerized cotton as the reaction carrier was 0.33 ng/mL, and the linear range was 0.16~3.25 ng/mL. The sensitivity using Dyneema line as the reaction carrier was 1.16 ng/mL. The competitive curves of four sample matrices were established to evaluate the stability of the detection system; these were basically consistent with those without sample matrices. In conclusion, both mercerized cotton and Dyneema, will be suggested for the novel development of linear immobilization carrier-based immunoassays for other analytes, and especially to construct inexpensive and easy-to-obtain biological and environmental analytical technologies and biosensors. Full article
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Article
A Novel Full-length IgG Recombinant Antibody Highly Specific to Clothianidin and Its Application in Immunochromatographic Assay
Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040233 - 11 Apr 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The toxicity of clothianidin to non-target organisms has gradually attracted world-wide attention. It is essential to develop reliable methods for the on-site detection of clothianidin residue. In this study, analogue-based heterologous ic-ELISAs were designed to rapidly screen desirable hybridomas, which could [...] Read more.
The toxicity of clothianidin to non-target organisms has gradually attracted world-wide attention. It is essential to develop reliable methods for the on-site detection of clothianidin residue. In this study, analogue-based heterologous ic-ELISAs were designed to rapidly screen desirable hybridomas, which could be used for the construction of recombinant antibodies (RAbs) against clothianidin. Based on the antibody variable region genes, two full-length IgG RAbs (1F7-RAb and 5C3-RAb) were produced by the mammalian cell expression system. The performance of the two RAbs was characterized and compared by heterologous ic-ELISAs and non-competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays. Using heterologous ic-ELISAs, the 1F7-RAb exhibited highly specific and sensitive recognition to clothianidin with an IC50 of 4.62 μg/L, whereas the 5C3-RAb could bind to both clothianidin and dinotefuran. The results of the non-competitive SPR assay further verified that the 1F7-RAb had a higher specificity and affinity to clothianidin than the 5C3-RAb. Finally, a gold immunochromatographic assay based on the novel antibody, 1F7-RAb, was developed for rapid detection of clothianidin with high sensitivity (visual detection limit of 2.5 μg/L), specificity, and good reproducibility, which can be used as an effective supervision tool for clothianidin residue in agricultural and environmental samples. Full article
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Article
Development of a Rapid Gold Nanoparticle Immunochromatographic Strip Based on the Nanobody for Detecting 2,4-DichloRophenoxyacetic Acid
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020084 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a systemic conductive herbicide widely used across the world. With the large-scale and continuous use of 2,4-D, its possible harm to the environment and non-target organisms has attracted increasing attention, and the construction of a stable rapid on-site detection [...] Read more.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a systemic conductive herbicide widely used across the world. With the large-scale and continuous use of 2,4-D, its possible harm to the environment and non-target organisms has attracted increasing attention, and the construction of a stable rapid on-site detection method is particularly important. In order to achieve on-site rapid detection of 2,4-D, we developed a gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip method with the visual elimination value was 50 ng/mL, and a quantitative detection limit of 11 ng/mL based on a nanobody. By combing with the color snap, the immunochromatographic strip could quantitatively analyze the amounts of 2,4-D. Meanwhile, a colorimetric card based on the true color of the test strips was developed for the qualitative analysis of 2,4-D on-site. The samples (water, fruits and vegetables) with and without 2,4-D were detected by the immunochromatographic strips, and the results showed the accuracy and reliability. Thus, this assay is a rapid and simple on-site analytical tool to detect and quantify 2,4-D levels in environmental samples, and the analytical results can be obtained in about ten minutes. In addition, the nanobody technology used in this study provides an inexhaustible supply of a relatively stable antibodies that can be archived as a nanobody, plasmid or even its sequence. Full article
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Article
A Polydopamine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Quenching Quantum Dots-Based Dual-Readout Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Carbendazim in Agriproducts
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020083 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
In this study, a fluorometric and colorimetric dual-readout lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using antibody functionalized polydopamine-coated gold nanoparticles ([email protected]) as a probe was developed for the detection of carbendazim (CBD). Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coated with polydopamines (PDA) by the oxidation of [...] Read more.
In this study, a fluorometric and colorimetric dual-readout lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using antibody functionalized polydopamine-coated gold nanoparticles ([email protected]) as a probe was developed for the detection of carbendazim (CBD). Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coated with polydopamines (PDA) by the oxidation of dopamine to synthesize [email protected] nanoparticles. The [email protected] nanoparticles mediated ZnCdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) fluorescence quenching and recovery, resulting in a reverse fluorescence enhancement detection format of CBD. The CBD detection was obtained by the competition between the CBD and the immobilized antigen for [email protected] labelled antibody binding, resulting in a significant fluorescence increase and colorimetry decrease corresponded to the concentration of CBD. Dual readout modes were incorporated into the LFIA using the colorimetry signal under natural light and the fluorescence signal under UV light. The cut-off value in the mode of the colorimetric signal and fluorometric signal for CBD detection was 0.5 μg/mL and 0.0156 μg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity of LFIA of the fluorescence mode was 32 times higher than that of the colorimetry mode. There was negligible cross reactivity obtained by using LFIA for the determination of thiabendazole, benomyl, thiophanate-methyl, and thiophanate-ethyl. Consistent and satisfactory results have been achieved by comparing the results of [email protected] and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC—MS/MS) testing spiked cucumber and strawberry samples, indicating good reliability of the [email protected] Full article
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Article
A Sensitive Aptasensor Using Biotin-Streptavidin System for Patulin Detection in Apple Juice
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020059 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
Patulin contamination in fruits, vegetables, and their products is considered a serious health risk factor for food safety and human health. Thus, a rapid, simple detection method for patulin is becoming important, which could provide a tool for routine screening and food surveys. [...] Read more.
Patulin contamination in fruits, vegetables, and their products is considered a serious health risk factor for food safety and human health. Thus, a rapid, simple detection method for patulin is becoming important, which could provide a tool for routine screening and food surveys. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive aptamer-based lateral flow assay (FLA) using Streptavidin functionalized gold nanoparticles for sensitive patulin detection. An excellent dynamic range for patulin detection was obtained (2.7~139.8 ng/mL in the buffer and 7.07~359.5 ng/mL in the sample) with no affinity for other mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), citrinin or tenuazonic acid (TEA). The limit of detection was 0.19 ng/mL in the buffer and 0.36 ng/mL in the real sample. The recoveries were 83.3% to 107.1%, with a satisfactory RSD value from 6.5% to 7.5%. Hence the established LFA could be used as a rapid, simple, on-site screening tool for PAT determination in apple juice. Full article
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Article
Butyl Benzyl Phthalate in Urban Sewage by Magnetic-Based Immunoassay: Environmental Levels and Risk Assessment
Biosensors 2022, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12010045 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
A magnetic-based immunoassay (MBI) combined with biotin-streptavidin amplification was proposed for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) investigation and risk assessment. The values of LOD (limit of detection, IC10) and IC50 were 0.57 ng/mL and 119.61 ng/mL, with a detection range of [...] Read more.
A magnetic-based immunoassay (MBI) combined with biotin-streptavidin amplification was proposed for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) investigation and risk assessment. The values of LOD (limit of detection, IC10) and IC50 were 0.57 ng/mL and 119.61 ng/mL, with a detection range of 0.57–24,977.71 ng/mL for MBI. The specificity, accuracy and precision are well demonstrated. A total of 36 environmental water samples of urban sewage from Zhenjiang, China, were collected and assessed for BBP contamination. The results show that BBP-positive levels ranged from 2.47 to 89.21 ng/mL, with a positive rate of 77.8%. The health effects of BBP in the urban sewage were within a controllable range, and the ambient severity for health (ASI) was below 1.49. The highest value of AS for ecology (ASII) was 7.43, which indicates a potential harm to ecology. The entropy value of risk quotient was below 100, the highest being 59.47, which poses a low risk to the environment and ecology, indicating that there is a need to strengthen BBP controls. The non-carcinogenic risk of BBP exposure from drinking water was higher for females than that for males, and the non-carcinogenic risk from drinking-water and bathing pathways was negligible. This study could provide an alternative method for detecting BBP and essential information for controlling BBP contamination. Full article
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