Special Issue "Biosensors and Diagnostic Assays for Rapid Detection of Global Infectious Diseases and Antimicrobial Resistance"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Evangelyn C. Alocilja

Nano-Biosensors Lab, Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Michigan State University, 524 S. Shaw Lane, Room 115, Farrall Agricultural Engineering Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1323, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nano-enabled biosensing; nanoparticles; nanowires; electrochemical sensing approaches; infectious diseases; global health; food/water safety; biodefense; product integrity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is facing a health crisis and most of this occurs in developing countries where poverty is high. Tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, diarrhea, and measles kill millions of people a year, and many of them are children. These diseases know no borders and, with globalization and high-speed mobility, they can spread faster than ever before. Tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS are especially damaging in many countries and communities. Compounding the health crisis is the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. A recent World Bank report stated that Unless addressed swiftly and seriously and on a sustained basis—the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance will be disastrous for human and animal health, food production and global economies.” One approach to tackling antimicrobial resistance is to reduce the use of antibiotics in the first place, especially in humans and animals. Biosensors and other rapid diagnostic tests can help in antibiotic stewardship approaches. Rapid tests are not only critical in medicine, but also in supporting food safety, water quality, food production, environmental health, and many more life-sustaining operations. Thus, the development of state-of-the-art rapid diagnostic tests could be a game-changer in our fight against infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance for a better and healthier world.

Prof. Dr. Evangelyn C. Alocilja
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing of Tuberculosis, an Affordable and Practical Alternative to Current Methods
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010001
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Access to community-based point-of-care, low-cost, and sensitive tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics remains an unmet need. Objective: The objective of this study was to combine principles in nanotechnology, TB biology, glycochemistry, and engineering, for the development of a nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) to quickly
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Access to community-based point-of-care, low-cost, and sensitive tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics remains an unmet need. Objective: The objective of this study was to combine principles in nanotechnology, TB biology, glycochemistry, and engineering, for the development of a nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) to quickly and inexpensively detect acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum samples. Methods: In NCBA, the isolation of AFB from sputum samples was accomplished through glycan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (GMNP) interacting with AFB and then using a simple magnet to separate the GMNP-AFB complex. Acid-fastness and cording properties of mycobacteria were utilized to provide visually observable red-stained clumps of bacteria that were surrounded by brown nanoparticles under a light microscope on prepared smears. The NCBA technique was compared against sputum smear microscopy (SSM) and Xpert MTB/RIF in 500 samples from patients that were suspected to have TB. Results: Statistical analysis showed that NCBA had sensitivity and specificity performances in perfect agreement with Xpert MTB/RIF as gold standard for all 500 samples. SSM had a sensitivity of 40% for the same samples. Conclusion: NCBA technique yielded full agreement in terms of sensitivity and specificity with the Xpert MTB/RIF in 500 samples. The method is completed in 10–20 min through a simple process at an estimated cost of $0.10 per test. Implementation of NCBA in rural communities would help to increase case finding and case notification, and would support programs against drug-resistance. Its use at the first point-of-contact by patients in the healthcare system would facilitate quick treatment in a single clinical encounter, thus supporting the global “End TB Strategy” by 2035. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing Assay Quantitatively Enhances Acid-Fast Bacilli Count in Paucibacillary Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040128
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
A new method using a magnetic nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) was compared with sputum smear microscopy (SSM) for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in sputum samples. Studies were made to compare the NCBA against SSM using sputum samples collected from PTB
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A new method using a magnetic nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) was compared with sputum smear microscopy (SSM) for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in sputum samples. Studies were made to compare the NCBA against SSM using sputum samples collected from PTB patients prior to receiving treatment. Experiments were also conducted to determine the appropriate concentration of glycan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (GMNP) used in the NCBA and to evaluate the optimal digestion/decontamination solution to increase the extraction, concentration and detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The optimized NCBA consisted of a 1:1 mixture of 0.4% NaOH and 4% N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) to homogenize the sputum sample. Additionally, 10 mg/mL of GMNP was added to isolate and concentrate the AFB. All TB positive sputum samples were identified with an increased AFB count of 47% compared to SSM, demonstrating GMNP’s ability to extract and concentrate AFB. Results showed that NCBA increased AFB count compared to SSM, improving the grade from “1+” (in SSM) to “2+”. Extending the finding to paucibacillary cases, there is the likelihood of a “scant” grade to become “1+”. The assay uses a simple magnet and only costs $0.10/test. NCBA has great potential application in TB control programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) Inhibition of Interferon-γ-Mediated Gene Expression in Human Endothelial Cells In Vitro
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030086
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, now account for more deaths in the Western world than from any other cause. Atherosclerosis has a chronic inflammatory component involving Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, which is known to induce endothelial cell inflammatory responses. On the other
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Cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, now account for more deaths in the Western world than from any other cause. Atherosclerosis has a chronic inflammatory component involving Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, which is known to induce endothelial cell inflammatory responses. On the other hand CNP, which acts via its receptors to elevate intracellular cGMP, is produced by endothelium and endocardium and is upregulated in atherosclerosis. It is believed to be protective, however its role in vascular inflammation is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CNP on human endothelial cell inflammatory responses following IFN-γ stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either IFN-γ (10 ng/mL) or CNP (100 nm), or both in combination, followed by analysis by flow cytometry for expression of MHC class I and ICAM-1. IFN-γ significantly increased expression of both molecules, which was significantly inhibited by CNP or the cGMP donor 8-Bromoguanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (1 µm). CNP also reduced IFN-γ mediated kynurenine generation by the IFN-γ regulated enzyme indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase (IDO). We conclude that CNP downmodulates IFN-γ induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in human endothelial cells via a cGMP-mediated pathway. Thus, CNP may have a protective role in vascular inflammation and novel therapeutic strategies for CVD based on upregulation of endothelial CNP expression could reduce chronic EC inflammation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Assessing the Potential Deployment of Biosensors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Developing Countries: Technological, Economic and Regulatory Aspects
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040119
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
Infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance are major burdens in developing countries, where very specific conditions impede the deployment of established medical infrastructures. Since biosensing devices are nowadays very common in developed countries, particularly in the field of diagnostics, they are at a stage
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Infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance are major burdens in developing countries, where very specific conditions impede the deployment of established medical infrastructures. Since biosensing devices are nowadays very common in developed countries, particularly in the field of diagnostics, they are at a stage of maturity at which other potential outcomes can be explored, especially on their possibilities for multiplexing and automation to reduce the time-to-results. However, the translation is far from being trivial. In order to understand the factors and barriers that can facilitate or hinder the application of biosensors in resource-limited settings, we analyze the context from several angles. First, the technology of the devices themselves has to be rethought to take into account the specific needs and the available means of these countries. For this, we describe the partition of a biosensor into its functional shells, which define the information flow from the analyte to the end-user, and by following this partition we assess the strengths and weaknesses of biosensing devices in view of their specific technological development and challenging deployment in low-resource environments. Then, we discuss the problem of cost reduction by pointing out transversal factors, such as throughput and cost of mistreatment, that need to be re-considered when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of biosensing devices. Beyond the technical landscape, the compliance with regulations is also a major aspect that is described with its link to the validation of the devices and to the acceptance from the local medical personnel. Finally, to learn from a successful case, we analyze a breakthrough inexpensive biosensor that is showing high potential with respect to many of the described aspects. We conclude by mentioning both some transversal benefits of deploying biosensors in developing countries, and the key factors that can drive such applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview Detection Methods of Human and Animal Influenza Virus—Current Trends
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040094
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The basic affairs connected to the influenza virus were reviewed in the article, highlighting the newest trends in its diagnostic methods. Awareness of the threat of influenza arises from its ability to spread and cause a pandemic. The undiagnosed and untreated viral infection
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The basic affairs connected to the influenza virus were reviewed in the article, highlighting the newest trends in its diagnostic methods. Awareness of the threat of influenza arises from its ability to spread and cause a pandemic. The undiagnosed and untreated viral infection can have a fatal effect on humans. Thus, the early detection seems pivotal for an accurate treatment, when vaccines and other contemporary prevention methods are not faultless. Public health is being attacked with influenza containing new genes from a genetic assortment between animals and humankind. Unfortunately, the population does not have immunity for mutant genes and is attacked in every viral outbreak season. For these reasons, fast and accurate devices are in high demand. As currently used methods like Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests lack specificity, time and cost-savings, new methods are being developed. In the article, various novel detection methods, such as electrical and optical were compared. Different viral elements used as detection targets and analysis parameters, such as sensitivity and specificity, were presented and discussed. Full article
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