Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurobiology and Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 24780

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
2. TRE Unit, Division of Psychiatric Specialties, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: ADHD; personality disorders from diagnosis to treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: clinically oriented research in treatment-resistant depression; autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability; main topics include diagnosis, treatment, genetics and neuroimaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

DSM-5, introduced in 2013, allowed a renewed appreciation of the longitudinal, whole-life perspective of neurodevelopmental disorders in psychiatry including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other communication, speech, and language disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID) as well as other specific learning disorders.

However, our understanding of the basic aspects of the pathophysiology of these disorders and efficient therapies are still incomplete. The adult population suffering from these disorders is especially widely under researched and does rarely benefit from adequate treatments.

With this Special Issue of Biomedicines, we aim to present to the readers of the journal the actual state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders and their treatments, from birth to the end of life.

Prof. Nader Perroud
Dr. Markus Mathaus Kosel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • intellectual disability
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • drug treatment
  • neuroimaging

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches
by Markus Kosel and Nader Perroud
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030623 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
This special issue of Biomedicines on Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD): “From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches”, is a precursor of what we hope will develop into a thriving and inspiring transdisciplinary field, including genetics, psychiatry, neurology, as well as basic and applied neurosciences and [...] Read more.
This special issue of Biomedicines on Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD): “From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches”, is a precursor of what we hope will develop into a thriving and inspiring transdisciplinary field, including genetics, psychiatry, neurology, as well as basic and applied neurosciences and molecular biology in the research area [...] Full article

Research

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16 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
Link between History of Childhood Maltreatment and Emotion Dysregulation in Adults Suffering from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Borderline Personality Disorder
by Eva Rüfenacht, Eléonore Pham, Rosetta Nicastro, Karen Dieben, Roland Hasler, Sébastien Weibel and Nader Perroud
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101469 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Childhood maltreatment (CM) may have a long-term effect on emotion regulation. This study aimed to explore the relationship between CM and emotion dysregulation (ED) in a heterogeneous population. Four hundred seventy French-speaking outpatients (N = 279 ADHD, N = 70 BPD, N [...] Read more.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) may have a long-term effect on emotion regulation. This study aimed to explore the relationship between CM and emotion dysregulation (ED) in a heterogeneous population. Four hundred seventy French-speaking outpatients (N = 279 ADHD, N = 70 BPD, N = 60 ADHD + BPD, N = 61 clinical controls) completed the Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ). Reports of childhood maltreatment experiences were significantly associated with increased levels of emotion reactivity in all our groups and in the whole population, with a greater use of non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and insecure attachment patterns. Emotional abuse showed the strongest effect. Further analysis indicated that an anxious attachment style significantly mediated the relationship between CM and the use of non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotion reactivity. The results of our study suggest an impact of CM on ED and a potentially marked effect of emotional abuse. They also indicate a potentially mediating role of insecure attachment in the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and emotion reactivity and a higher use of non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies in adulthood. Full article
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15 pages, 991 KiB  
Article
Sphingolipid and Endocannabinoid Profiles in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
by Nathalie Brunkhorst-Kanaan, Sandra Trautmann, Yannick Schreiber, Dominique Thomas, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Robert Gurke, Gerd Geisslinger, Andreas Reif and Irmgard Tegeder
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091173 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Genes encoding endocannabinoid and sphingolipid metabolism pathways were suggested to contribute to the genetic risk towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present pilot study assessed plasma concentrations of candidate endocannabinoids, sphingolipids and ceramides in individuals with adult ADHD in comparison with healthy [...] Read more.
Genes encoding endocannabinoid and sphingolipid metabolism pathways were suggested to contribute to the genetic risk towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present pilot study assessed plasma concentrations of candidate endocannabinoids, sphingolipids and ceramides in individuals with adult ADHD in comparison with healthy controls and patients with affective disorders. Targeted lipid analyses of 23 different lipid species were performed in 71 mental disorder patients and 98 healthy controls (HC). The patients were diagnosed with adult ADHD (n = 12), affective disorder (major depression, MD n = 16 or bipolar disorder, BD n = 6) or adult ADHD with comorbid affective disorders (n = 37). Canonical discriminant analysis and CHAID analyses were used to identify major components that predicted the diagnostic group. ADHD patients had increased plasma concentrations of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P d18:1) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (S1P d18:0). In addition, the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and arachidonoylglycerol were increased. MD/BD patients had increased long chain ceramides, most prominently Cer22:0, but low endocannabinoids in contrast to ADHD patients. Patients with ADHD and comorbid affective disorders displayed increased S1P d18:1 and increased Cer22:0, but the individual lipid levels were lower than in the non-comorbid disorders. Sphingolipid profiles differ between patients suffering from ADHD and affective disorders, with overlapping patterns in comorbid patients. The S1P d18:1 to Cer22:0 ratio may constitute a diagnostic or prognostic tool. Full article
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22 pages, 5726 KiB  
Article
Attention to Face as a Predictor of Developmental Change and Treatment Outcome in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Kenza Latrèche, Nada Kojovic, Martina Franchini and Marie Schaer
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080942 - 2 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
The beneficial effect of early intervention is well described for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Response to early intervention is, however, highly heterogeneous in affected children, and there is currently only scarce information about predictors of response to intervention. Based on the [...] Read more.
The beneficial effect of early intervention is well described for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Response to early intervention is, however, highly heterogeneous in affected children, and there is currently only scarce information about predictors of response to intervention. Based on the hypothesis that impaired social orienting hinders the subsequent development of social communication and interactions in children with ASD, we sought to examine whether the level of social orienting modulates treatment outcome in young children with ASD. We used eye-tracking technology to measure social orienting in a group of 111 preschoolers, comprising 95 young children with ASD and 16 children with typical development, as they watched a 29 s video of a woman engaging in child-directed speech. In line with previous studies, we report that attention to face is robustly correlated with autistic symptoms and cognitive and adaptive skills at baseline. We further leverage longitudinal data in a subgroup of 81 children with ASD and show that the level of social orienting at baseline is a significant predictor of developmental gains and treatment outcome. These results pave the way for identifying subgroups of children who show a better response to early and intensive intervention, a first step toward precision medicine for children with autism. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 548 KiB  
Review
Inflammation, Anxiety, and Stress in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
by Luigi F. Saccaro, Zoé Schilliger, Nader Perroud and Camille Piguet
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101313 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 11003
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and serious neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Chronic and childhood stress is involved in ADHD development, and ADHD is highly comorbid with anxiety. Similarly, inflammatory diseases and a pro-inflammatory state have been associated [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and serious neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Chronic and childhood stress is involved in ADHD development, and ADHD is highly comorbid with anxiety. Similarly, inflammatory diseases and a pro-inflammatory state have been associated with ADHD. However, while several works have studied the relationship between peripheral inflammation and stress in affective disorders such as depression or bipolar disorder, fewer have explored this association in ADHD. In this narrative review we synthetize evidence showing an interplay between stress, anxiety, and immune dysregulation in ADHD, and we discuss the implications of a potential disrupted neuroendocrine stress response in ADHD. Moreover, we highlight confounding factors and limitations of existing studies on this topic and critically debate multidirectional hypotheses that either suggest inflammation, stress, or anxiety as a cause in ADHD pathophysiology or inflammation as a consequence of this disease. Untangling these relationships will have diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic implications for ADHD patients. Full article
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15 pages, 5242 KiB  
Review
Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for Self-Regulatory Failures in Adolescents Suffering from Externalizing Symptoms: A Scoping Review
by Lauriane Constanty, Caroline Lepage, Joëlle Rosselet Amoussou, Emilie Wouters, Velia Decoro, Lisa De-Paz, Charlotte Hans, Hazal Ergüneş, Jonas Sangra, Kerstin Jessica Plessen and Sébastien Urben
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091081 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Introduction: Deficits of self-regulation (SR) are a hallmark of externalizing (EXT: offending or aggressive behaviors) symptoms in adolescence. Objectives: This scoping review aims (1) to map non-pharmaceutical interventions targeting SR processes to reduce EXT symptoms in adolescents and (2) to identify research gaps, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Deficits of self-regulation (SR) are a hallmark of externalizing (EXT: offending or aggressive behaviors) symptoms in adolescence. Objectives: This scoping review aims (1) to map non-pharmaceutical interventions targeting SR processes to reduce EXT symptoms in adolescents and (2) to identify research gaps, both of which will provide recommendations for future studies. Methods: Systematic searches were carried out in eight bibliographic databases up to March 2021, combining the following concepts: self-regulation, externalizing symptoms, adolescents, and non-pharmaceutical interventions. Results: We identified 239 studies, including 24,180 youths, mainly from North America, which described a plethora of non-pharmaceutical interventions targeting SR to alleviate EXT symptoms in adolescents (10–18 years of age). The majority of studies (about 70%, k = 162) represent samples with interventions exposed to “selective” or “indicated” prevention. Curriculum-based (i.e., multiple approaches targeting several domains such as emotion, cognition, and social) interventions (31.4%) were the most common type of intervention. Moreover, studies on cognitive-based interventions, mind-based interventions, and emotional-based interventions have increased over the last decades. Network analyses allowed us to identify several hubs between curriculum-based interventions, cognitive SR processes, as well as aggressiveness, conduct problems, and irritability/anger dysregulation. In addition, we identified gaps of studies concerning the physiological SR processes and on some types of interventions (i.e., body-based interventions and externally mediated interventions) or, more specifically, on promising tools, such as biofeedback, neurofeedback, as well as programs targeting neuropsychological processes (e.g., cognitive remediation). Conclusions: This scoping review stresses the plethora of interventions, identified hubs, and emerging fields, as well as some gaps in the literature, which together may orient future studies. Full article
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