Special Issue "Multidisciplinary Insights on Bone Healing"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alexandre Anesi
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
Interests: bioceramics based bone grafting materials for regenerative biomedicine; bioceramics biocompatibility through in vitro/cytotoxicity assays, and /in vivo /implantation in animal model; bone cutting device evaluation, both for rotatory instruments and piezosurgical osteotomes; microsurgical flap reconstruction for head & neck defects; head & neck surgical oncology
Dr. Francesco Cavani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Human Morphology, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
Interests: effects of physical energy applied to biological systems, in particular evaluation of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields and ultrasound on bone tissue and cartilage in animal models in vivo; histomorphometry and histology on bone; cartilage and teeth; effect of drugs on bone metabolism; bone regeneration in implant dentistry and surgery

Special Issue Information

At the basis of the bone healing process there is a sophisticated multifactorial “system” composed of both macro- and microscopic agents that interact each other in order to obtain a recovery of the correct morphological and functional features. Bone-tissue-specific agents and extra-bone factors can influence the final outcome at several levels; all of them are characterized by complex and multidisciplinary perspectives that have raised many questions that have yet to be fully elucidated. The consequence has been the raising of the curtain on this fascinating topic, which must be looked at from different angles in order to be correctly framed.

Basic research with a transitional approach and clinical applications about the bone healing process are manifold: fracture can be either iatrogenic (antiresorptive therapies) or spontaneous, involving a healthy or an impaired bone; moreover, adequate bone healing of osteotomic surfaces is essential in several surgical specialties. Interdisciplinarity between pre-clinical (e.g., the interaction of tissue and biophysical energy), medical (e.g., innovative pharmacological protocols) and surgical specialties, as well as regenerative medicine strategies, may result in a common enrichment in terms of knowledge of bone healing processes and an improvement in applying these notions for the safety of patients. We hope that researchers with different areas of expertise will consider contributing to this Special Issue.

Dr. Alexandre Anesi
Dr. Francesco Cavani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bone healing 
  • bone regeneration 
  • bone diseases and related pathologies 
  • bone tissue engineering 
  • bone substitute

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration Based on PCL and Mg-Containing Bioactive Glasses
Biology 2021, 10(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050398 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in additive manufacturing for the construction of scaffolds for tissue engineering because of its good bioresorbability, biocompatibility, and processability. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its inadequate mechanical support, slow degradation rate and the lack of bioactivity and [...] Read more.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in additive manufacturing for the construction of scaffolds for tissue engineering because of its good bioresorbability, biocompatibility, and processability. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its inadequate mechanical support, slow degradation rate and the lack of bioactivity and ability to induce cell adhesion and, thus, bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated 3D PCL scaffolds reinforced with a novel Mg-doped bioactive glass (Mg-BG) characterized by good mechanical properties and biological reactivity. An optimization of the printing parameters and scaffold fabrication was performed; furthermore, an extensive microtopography characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy was carried out. Nano-indentation tests accounted for the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, whereas SBF tests and cytotoxicity tests using human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were performed to evaluate the bioactivity and in vitro viability. Our results showed that a 50/50 wt% of the polymer-to-glass ratio provides scaffolds with a dense and homogeneous distribution of Mg-BG particles at the surface and roughness twice that of pure PCL scaffolds. Compared to pure PCL (hardness H = 35 ± 2 MPa and Young’s elastic modulus E = 0.80 ± 0.05 GPa), the 50/50 wt% formulation showed H = 52 ± 11 MPa and E = 2.0 ± 0.2 GPa, hence, it was close to those of trabecular bone. The high level of biocompatibility, bioactivity, and cell adhesion encourages the use of the composite PCL/Mg-BG scaffolds in promoting cell viability and supporting mechanical loading in the host trabecular bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Insights on Bone Healing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Eggshell on Bone Regeneration in Preclinical In Vivo Studies
Biology 2020, 9(12), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120476 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
The aim of this study is to systemically review the available evidence on the in vivo behavior of eggshell as a guided bone regeneration substitute material. Five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE) were searched up to October 2020. In vivo [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to systemically review the available evidence on the in vivo behavior of eggshell as a guided bone regeneration substitute material. Five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE) were searched up to October 2020. In vivo animal studies with a bone defect model using eggshell as a grafting material were included. Risk of bias was assessed using SYRCLE tool and the quality assessment using the ARRIVE guidelines. Overall, a total of 581 studies were included in the study, 187 after duplicate removal. Using the inclusion and exclusion criteria 167 records were further excluded. The full text of the remaining 20 articles was assessed for eligibility and included in the qualitative and quantitative assessment synthesis. There were different methods of obtaining eggshell grafting materials. Eggshell is a biocompatible grafting material, with osteoconduction proprieties. It forms new bone similar to Bio-Oss and demineralized freeze-dried bone matrix. It can be combined with other materials to enhance its proprieties. Due to the high variability of the procedures, animals, production and assessment methods, no meta-analysis could be performed. Eggshell might be considered a promising biomaterial to be used in bone grafting procedures, though further research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Insights on Bone Healing)
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Open AccessReview
Interaction between Laser Light and Osteoblasts: Photobiomodulation as a Trend in the Management of Socket Bone Preservation—A Review
Biology 2020, 9(11), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9110409 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Bone defects are the main reason for aesthetic and functional disability, which negatively affect patient’s quality of life. Particularly, after tooth extraction, the bone of the alveolar process resorbs, limiting the optimal prosthetic implant placement. One of the major pathophysiological events in slowly- [...] Read more.
Bone defects are the main reason for aesthetic and functional disability, which negatively affect patient’s quality of life. Particularly, after tooth extraction, the bone of the alveolar process resorbs, limiting the optimal prosthetic implant placement. One of the major pathophysiological events in slowly- or non-healing tissues is a blood supply deficiency, followed by a significant decrease in cellular energy amount. The literature shows that photons at the red and infrared wavelengths can interact with specific photoacceptors located within the cell. Through this mechanism, photobiomodulation (PBM) can modify cellular metabolism, by increasing mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we present a review of the literature on the effect of PBM on bone healing, for the management of socket preservation. A search strategy was developed in line with the PRISMA statement. The PubMed and Scholar electronic databases were consulted to search for in vivo studies, with restrictions on the year (<50 years-old), language (English), bone socket preservation, and PBM. Following the search strategy, we identified 269 records, which became 14, after duplicates were removed and titles, abstract and inclusion-, exclusion-criteria were screened. Additional articles identified were 3. Therefore, 17 articles were included in the synthesis. We highlight the osteoblast–light interaction, and the in vivo therapeutic tool of PBM is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Insights on Bone Healing)
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