Special Issue "Deficiencies of Behavioral or Phenotypes Characteristics Based on Environments, Genetics, Disease and Another Factors"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.
Interests: diagnosis; prognostic factor; clinical genetics; neuroscience; molecular pharmacology; gene mutation; drug resistance; mitochondrial DNA; polymorphism; heteroplasmy; nucleotide differentiation index; cell signaling; catecholamine receptors; gene expression; evolution; molecular phylogeny; domestication; phenotype
The scope of this Special Issue comprehensively encapsulates a wide range of fields, such as medical diagnosis, evolution, phylogeny, taxonomy, ecology, behavioral science, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, and anthropology. In addition, the Special Issue aims to incorporate cutting-edge technologies in life science, reflecting the trend to consistently develop the research approach in this field by drawing on diverse perspectives and an in-depth understanding of the research problem. This approach to research will be reflected in the subsequent results, which combine a series of studies on behavioral characteristics, character (phenotype) developments, gene function., etc.
The Special Issue will focus on developing a full understanding of research motivations and questions and will draw on the behavioral characteristics of living organisms and any different experimental data from biology to enhance the analysis of relationships based on many biological methods.
Dr. Tomoyoshi Komiyama
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- diagnosis factor
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Drinking Hydrogen Water Restores Metabolic Cardiomyopathy via Cardiovascular Protective Activation in Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet Induced Obesity Mice
Authors: Haruchika Masuda1*, Atsuko Sato1, Kumiko Miyata1, Tomoko Shizuno2, Takayuki Asahara2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Physiology, Tokai Univ. School of Med., Japan 2 Dept. of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1143, Japan
Abstract: Molecular hydrogen (MH) has been demonstrated to cause therapeutic effects for inflammatory diseases, working as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Herein, we investigated the cardiovascular protective effects of drinking molecular hydrogen water (MHW) under obesity, using high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) mice. MHW was prepared by the supplier sticks and degassed as control water (DGW). Two-weeks drinking of MHW did not improve blood sugar and body weight, but it lightened the heart weight in DIO mice. Drinking MHW improved metabolic cardiac hypertrophy in DIO mice: it caused shortened width of cardiomyocytes as well as dilated capillaries and arterioles. Moreover, cardiomyocytes with Ser-1177 phosphorylated eNOS positivity were more abundant, compared to DIO mice drinking DG water. Also, echocardiography showed restored cardiac left ventricular function in the treated mice. MHW drinking disclosed the histological conversion of hypertrophy to hyperplasia in brown adipose tissue (BAT) with the upregulation of thermogenic as well as cardiovascular protective gene expression in BAT, i.e., uncoupled protein-1, VEGF, and eNOS. These findings indicate that drinking MHW exerts the beneficial effect of cardiovascular protection via alleviating brown adipose tissue remodeling under impaired metabolic environment in DIO mice. Collectively, drinking MHW is expected as a prophylactic strategy against cardiovascular disorders in metabolic syndrome.
Title: The evolution of nif genes in cyanobacteria
Authors: Tomoaki Watanabe1, Tokumasa Horiike2
Affiliation: 1 United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan 2 Department of Bioresource Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan
Abstract: Nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by helping to convert nitrogen into a form usable by other organisms. Bacteria that can fix nitrogen are found in six phyla, including cyanobacteria. Nitrogen fixation-related genes (nif genes) are thought to share a single origin, as they have homologs in various phyla. However, it is known that nitrogen-fixing bacteria have a mosaic distribution within the cyanobacterial lineage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the cause of the mosaic distribution of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the Cyanobacteria. We performed genomic analyses on 194 cyanobacteria for which whole genome sequences were available. Among them, the operon structure of the nif gene was found on the genomes of 85 cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic inference of the proteins encoded by the nif genes that form the operon revealed that the topology of the phylogenetic tree is also diverse. Phylogenetic analysis using cyanobacterial Nif proteins and homologs of other phyla showed that, with the exception of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101, the cyanobacterial Nif proteins are composed of a monophyletic group. These results support the hypothesis that the mosaic distribution of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in cyanobacterial lineages is the result of independent loss of Nif genes inherited from a common ancestor of cyanobacteria in each lineage, and indicate frequent horizontal transfer of Nif genes among cyanobacteria.
Title: Potentiality of vaccinia virus in the era of reverse vaccinology
Authors: Akiko Eto1, Yasuhiro Kanatani2
Affiliation: 1) Department of Health Crisis Management, National Institute of Public Health, Japan 2) Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan
Abstract: The relationship between gene deficiency and phenotype is also significant in vaccine development. The phenotype of attenuation of a live vaccine depends on gene deficiency characteristics, achieved by, for example, a considerable number of passages in cultured cells. These characteristics directly define the value of a vaccine. LC16m8 is a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s. LC16m8 was obtained in the passage of a strain with the cell's small vacuolation as a virus phenotype. Vacuole formation in cells involved a group of genes related to temperature sensitivity and was associated with a deficiency in the B5R gene encoding an extracellular protein. With this mutation in the B5R gene, and LC16m8’s ability to replicate in host cells and local reactions, known as "take," occurred after vaccination of LC16m8. Currently, the focus on omics data and systems biology increases in vaccinology, as seen in other biomedical science fields. The relationship between immunologic phenotype to vaccination and molecular signatures have been increasingly investigated. These trends yield expectations that the vaccine's design framework moves from a classical, empirical process to a rational one, which is based on a deeper understanding of the biological mechanism of complex immune responses to the vaccination. Here, we review the studies of LC16m8 and discuss their possibility for future use by describing the system's biological research advances on the vaccinia virus.
Title: In vivo monitoring of acetylcholine in salivary glands by microdialysis
Authors: Masanobu Yoshikawa1 and Mitsuru Kawaguchi2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine Tokai University, Japan 2 Tokyo Dental College, Japan
Abstract: To estimate the parasympathetic nerve activity of salivary glands in vivo, a microdialysis technique was applied to rat submandibular glands in an attempt to monitor acetylcholine levels in the local interstitial fluid. The dialysis probe consisted of a 10 x 0.22 mm semipermeable membrane with a molecular weight of 50,000 cutoffs. When the probe was perfused at 2 μl/min in vitro, the mean relative recovery of acetylcholine was 39.9 ± 2.1%. Dialysis probes were implanted in the submandibular glands of anesthetized rats and perfused with Ringer’s solution at 2 μl/min. Acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. 1) After probes were implanted, acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate were highly variable and unstable over the first 120 min but reached a nearly stable level (4.8 ± 2.7 nM) thereafter. 2) Electrical stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve or perfusion with high potassium Ringer’s solution significantly increased acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate. After the stimulation or the perfusion, acetylcholine concentrations returned to their basal levels. The microdialysis technique can be a powerful tool for monitoring of acetylcholine levels in local interstitial fluid of salivary glands and detection of their changes in parasympathetic activity within the salivary glands.