Special Issue "Deficiencies of Behavioral or Phenotypes Characteristics Based on Environments, Genetics, Disease and Another Factors"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tomoyoshi Komiyama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
Interests: diagnosis; prognostic factor; clinical genetics; neuroscience; molecular pharmacology; gene mutation; drug resistance; mitochondrial DNA; polymorphism; heteroplasmy; nucleotide differentiation index; cell signaling; catecholamine receptors; gene expression; evolution; molecular phylogeny; domestication; phenotype

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this Special Issue comprehensively encapsulates a wide range of fields, such as medical diagnosis, evolution, phylogeny, taxonomy, ecology, behavioral science, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, and anthropology. In addition, the Special Issue aims to incorporate cutting-edge technologies in life science, reflecting the trend to consistently develop the research approach in this field by drawing on diverse perspectives and an in-depth understanding of the research problem. This approach to research will be reflected in the subsequent results, which combine a series of studies on behavioral characteristics, character (phenotype) developments, gene function., etc.

The Special Issue will focus on developing a full understanding of research motivations and questions and will draw on the behavioral characteristics of living organisms and any different experimental data from biology to enhance the analysis of relationships based on many biological methods.

Dr. Tomoyoshi Komiyama
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • behavior
  • diagnosis factor
  • disease
  • genetics
  • neuroscience
  • pharmacology
  • evolution
  • phenotype
  • adaptation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Drinking Molecular Hydrogen Water Is Beneficial to Cardiovascular Function in Diet-Induced Obesity Mice
Biology 2021, 10(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050364 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Molecular hydrogen (MH) reportedly exerts therapeutic effects against inflammatory diseases as a suppressor of free radical chain reactions. Here, the cardiovascular protective effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen water (MHW) were investigated using high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. MHW was prepared using [...] Read more.
Molecular hydrogen (MH) reportedly exerts therapeutic effects against inflammatory diseases as a suppressor of free radical chain reactions. Here, the cardiovascular protective effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen water (MHW) were investigated using high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. MHW was prepared using supplier sticks and degassed water as control. MHW intake for 2 weeks did not improve blood sugar or body weight but decreased heart weight in DIO mice. Moreover, MHW intake improved cardiac hypertrophy, shortened the width of cardiomyocytes, dilated the capillaries and arterioles, activated myocardial eNOS-Ser-1177 phosphorylation, and restored left ventricular function in DIO mice. MHW intake promoted the histological conversion of hypertrophy to hyperplasia in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with the upregulation of thermogenic and cardiovascular protective genes in BAT (i.e., Ucp-1, Vegf-a, and eNos). Furthermore, the results of a colony formation assay of bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) indicated that MHW activated the expansion, differentiation, and mobilization of EPCs to maintain vascular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the intake of MHW exerts cardiovascular protective effects in DIO mice. Hence, drinking MHW is a potential prophylactic strategy against cardiovascular disorders in metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Monitoring of Acetylcholine Release from Nerve Endings in Salivary Gland
Biology 2021, 10(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050351 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
A microdialysis technique was used to monitor acetylcholine levels in the local interstitial fluid in rat submandibular glands, with the aim of determining parasympathetic nerve activity in vivo. The dialysis probe housed a 10 × 0.22 mm semipermeable membrane (molecular weight cutoffs: 50,000 [...] Read more.
A microdialysis technique was used to monitor acetylcholine levels in the local interstitial fluid in rat submandibular glands, with the aim of determining parasympathetic nerve activity in vivo. The dialysis probe housed a 10 × 0.22 mm semipermeable membrane (molecular weight cutoffs: 50,000 Da). When the probe was perfused at 2 μL/min in vitro, the mean relative recovery of acetylcholine was 41.7% ± 2.5%. The dialysis probes were implanted in the submandibular glands of anesthetized rats and perfusion with Ringer’s solution, at 2 μL/min, was performed. Acetylcholine concentrations in the dialysate were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. The results revealed the following: (1) that mixing Eserine with Ringer’s solution allowed acetylcholine in the salivary glands to be quantified; (2) that acetylcholine concentrations in the dialysate were highly variable and unstable over the first 120 min after probe implantation, but reached a nearly stable level (4.8 ± 2.7 nM) thereafter in the presence of 100 µM of Eserine; and (3) that electrical stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, or perfusion with high potassium Ringer’s solution, significantly increased acetylcholine concentrations in the dialysate. These results indicate that the present microdialysis technique offers a powerful tool for detecting changes in parasympathetic activity within the salivary glands. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Evolution of Molybdenum Dependent Nitrogenase in Cyanobacteria
Biology 2021, 10(4), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040329 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by helping to convert nitrogen into a form usable by other organisms. Bacteria capable of fixing nitrogen are found in six phyla including Cyanobacteria. Molybdenum dependent nitrogenase (nif) genes are thought [...] Read more.
Nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by helping to convert nitrogen into a form usable by other organisms. Bacteria capable of fixing nitrogen are found in six phyla including Cyanobacteria. Molybdenum dependent nitrogenase (nif) genes are thought to share a single origin as they have homologs in various phyla. However, diazotrophic bacteria have a mosaic distribution within the cyanobacterial lineage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the cause of this mosaic distribution. We identified nif gene operon structures in the genomes of 85 of the 179 cyanobacterial strains for which whole genome sequences were available. Four nif operons were conserved in each diazotroph Cyanobacterium, although there were some gene translocations and insertions. Phylogenetic inference of these genes did not reveal horizontal gene transfer from outside the phylum Cyanobacteria. These results support the hypothesis that the mosaic distribution of diazotrophic bacteria in the cyanobacterial lineage is the result of the independent loss of nif genes inherited from common cyanobacterial ancestors in each lineage. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Drinking Hydrogen Water Restores Metabolic Cardiomyopathy via Cardiovascular Protective Activation in Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet Induced Obesity Mice
Authors: Haruchika Masuda1*, Atsuko Sato1, Kumiko Miyata1, Tomoko Shizuno2, Takayuki Asahara2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Physiology, Tokai Univ. School of Med., Japan 2 Dept. of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1143, Japan
Abstract: Molecular hydrogen (MH) has been demonstrated to cause therapeutic effects for inflammatory diseases, working as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Herein, we investigated the cardiovascular protective effects of drinking molecular hydrogen water (MHW) under obesity, using high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) mice. MHW was prepared by the supplier sticks and degassed as control water (DGW). Two-weeks drinking of MHW did not improve blood sugar and body weight, but it lightened the heart weight in DIO mice. Drinking MHW improved metabolic cardiac hypertrophy in DIO mice: it caused shortened width of cardiomyocytes as well as dilated capillaries and arterioles. Moreover, cardiomyocytes with Ser-1177 phosphorylated eNOS positivity were more abundant, compared to DIO mice drinking DG water. Also, echocardiography showed restored cardiac left ventricular function in the treated mice. MHW drinking disclosed the histological conversion of hypertrophy to hyperplasia in brown adipose tissue (BAT) with the upregulation of thermogenic as well as cardiovascular protective gene expression in BAT, i.e., uncoupled protein-1, VEGF, and eNOS. These findings indicate that drinking MHW exerts the beneficial effect of cardiovascular protection via alleviating brown adipose tissue remodeling under impaired metabolic environment in DIO mice. Collectively, drinking MHW is expected as a prophylactic strategy against cardiovascular disorders in metabolic syndrome.

Title: The evolution of nif genes in cyanobacteria
Authors: Tomoaki Watanabe1, Tokumasa Horiike2
Affiliation: 1 United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan 2 Department of Bioresource Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan
Abstract: Nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by helping to convert nitrogen into a form usable by other organisms. Bacteria that can fix nitrogen are found in six phyla, including cyanobacteria. Nitrogen fixation-related genes (nif genes) are thought to share a single origin, as they have homologs in various phyla. However, it is known that nitrogen-fixing bacteria have a mosaic distribution within the cyanobacterial lineage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the cause of the mosaic distribution of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the Cyanobacteria. We performed genomic analyses on 194 cyanobacteria for which whole genome sequences were available. Among them, the operon structure of the nif gene was found on the genomes of 85 cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic inference of the proteins encoded by the nif genes that form the operon revealed that the topology of the phylogenetic tree is also diverse. Phylogenetic analysis using cyanobacterial Nif proteins and homologs of other phyla showed that, with the exception of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101, the cyanobacterial Nif proteins are composed of a monophyletic group. These results support the hypothesis that the mosaic distribution of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in cyanobacterial lineages is the result of independent loss of Nif genes inherited from a common ancestor of cyanobacteria in each lineage, and indicate frequent horizontal transfer of Nif genes among cyanobacteria.

Title: Potentiality of vaccinia virus in the era of reverse vaccinology
Authors: Akiko Eto1, Yasuhiro Kanatani2
Affiliation: 1) Department of Health Crisis Management, National Institute of Public Health, Japan 2) Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan
Abstract: The relationship between gene deficiency and phenotype is also significant in vaccine development. The phenotype of attenuation of a live vaccine depends on gene deficiency characteristics, achieved by, for example, a considerable number of passages in cultured cells. These characteristics directly define the value of a vaccine. LC16m8 is a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s. LC16m8 was obtained in the passage of a strain with the cell's small vacuolation as a virus phenotype. Vacuole formation in cells involved a group of genes related to temperature sensitivity and was associated with a deficiency in the B5R gene encoding an extracellular protein. With this mutation in the B5R gene, and LC16m8’s ability to replicate in host cells and local reactions, known as "take," occurred after vaccination of LC16m8. Currently, the focus on omics data and systems biology increases in vaccinology, as seen in other biomedical science fields. The relationship between immunologic phenotype to vaccination and molecular signatures have been increasingly investigated. These trends yield expectations that the vaccine's design framework moves from a classical, empirical process to a rational one, which is based on a deeper understanding of the biological mechanism of complex immune responses to the vaccination. Here, we review the studies of LC16m8 and discuss their possibility for future use by describing the system's biological research advances on the vaccinia virus.

Title: In vivo monitoring of acetylcholine in salivary glands by microdialysis
Authors: Masanobu Yoshikawa1 and Mitsuru Kawaguchi2
Affiliation: 1 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine Tokai University, Japan 2 Tokyo Dental College, Japan
Abstract: To estimate the parasympathetic nerve activity of salivary glands in vivo, a microdialysis technique was applied to rat submandibular glands in an attempt to monitor acetylcholine levels in the local interstitial fluid. The dialysis probe consisted of a 10 x 0.22 mm semipermeable membrane with a molecular weight of 50,000 cutoffs. When the probe was perfused at 2 μl/min in vitro, the mean relative recovery of acetylcholine was 39.9 ± 2.1%. Dialysis probes were implanted in the submandibular glands of anesthetized rats and perfused with Ringer’s solution at 2 μl/min. Acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. 1) After probes were implanted, acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate were highly variable and unstable over the first 120 min but reached a nearly stable level (4.8 ± 2.7 nM) thereafter. 2) Electrical stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve or perfusion with high potassium Ringer’s solution significantly increased acetylcholine concentrations in dialysate. After the stimulation or the perfusion, acetylcholine concentrations returned to their basal levels. The microdialysis technique can be a powerful tool for monitoring of acetylcholine levels in local interstitial fluid of salivary glands and detection of their changes in parasympathetic activity within the salivary glands.

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