Special Issue "Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Burcak Ebin

Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and chemical Engineering, Industrial Materials Recycling
Website | E-Mail
Interests: recycling of alkaline, NiMH and Li-ion battery waste by pyrometallurgical processes, recycling of WEEEs, production of battery electrode materials, powder preparation, nanomaterials, spray pyrolysis process
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Martina Petranikova

Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and chemical Engineering, Industrial Materials Recycling
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrometallurgical process to recover valuable metals from primary sources (ores, concentrates) and secondary sources (spent portable and car batteries, steel making dust, mining waste, waste of electric and electronic equipment, etc.)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The supply and management of energy are at the center of our daily concerns and represent a socio-economic priority. Energy storage devices will increasingly be needed, not only for portable electronic device usage, but also for electrical vehicle fleets and renewable energy applications. Battery systems should store surplus electricity from the smart grid for hours, days, and even weeks, if necessary, because electricity generation from renewable sources fluctuates with weather conditions, Likewise, the replacement of internal combustion cars by electric vehicles to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and to limit our dependence towards fossil fuels stimulate the search for energy storage devices including batteries, fuel cells, electrolysis for hydrogen production, pumped-storage power plants, etc.

Many electrochemical storage technologies have been developed since the first lead-acid battery invented in 1859 by Gaston Planté. Over the last two decades, the rapid progress in battery technologies have directly affected modern life, not only through various applications, but also with energy and carbon footprints of their production and manufacturing, from mining to end-of-life product management. Each technology finds its place depending on applications. For instance, lithium-ion batteries are largely used for portable applications because this technology provides a high energy density. Although battery technologies are mature, there are still many challenges to be faced in the development of performance, safe and sustainable technologies for dedicated applications. A good balance must be found between battery performance, safety and recycling ability, as well as reliable raw material supply.

This Special Issue will be published within the framework of an international meeting on the “Circular Economy of Batteries: Production and Recycling” (http://www.ceb2018.org), which will be held at Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Sweden. This meeting will gather academics and industrialists to initiate discussions and introduce recent advances in the development of sustainable, efficient, and safe batteries. The following topics will be addressed in the Special Issue: Raw materials for battery technologies, electrolytes, electrode materials, design and development, applications (stationary batteries, electrified transportation, and smart grids), collection and regulation, and recycling.

Therefore, this Special Issue will gather, for the first time, contributions from several different communities: Electrochemistry, battery manufacturers, material science, engineering processes, extractive metallurgy, recycling, and Life Cycle Assessment.

Dr. Burcak Ebin
Assist. Prof. Martina Martina Petranikova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Recovery of Cobalt from Spent Lithium-Ion Mobile Phone Batteries Using Liquid–Liquid Extraction
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this paper was to propose and test a continuous cobalt recovery process from waste mobile phone batteries. The procedure started with dismantling, crushing, and classifying the materials. A study on leaching with sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to propose and test a continuous cobalt recovery process from waste mobile phone batteries. The procedure started with dismantling, crushing, and classifying the materials. A study on leaching with sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out with subsequent selective separation of cobalt by means of liquid–liquid extraction. The best extraction conditions were determined based on a sequence of experiments that consisted of selecting the best extractant for cobalt, then assessing the impact of extractant concentration, pH, and contact time on the extraction yield. With these conditions, an extraction isotherm was obtained and correlated with a mathematical model to define the number of extraction stages for a countercurrent process using the McCabe–Thiele method. Then, a similar study was done for stripping conditions and, as a last step, cobalt electroplating was performed. The proposed process offers a solution for the treatment of these batteries, avoiding potential problems of contamination and risk for living beings, as well as offering an opportunity to recover valuable metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
On the Use of Statistical Entropy Analysis as Assessment Parameter for the Comparison of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
The principle of the circular economy is to reintroduce end-of-life materials back into the economic cycle. While reintroduction processes, for example, recycling or refurbishing, undoubtedly support this objective, they inevitably present material losses or generation of undesired by-products. Balancing losses and recoveries into [...] Read more.
The principle of the circular economy is to reintroduce end-of-life materials back into the economic cycle. While reintroduction processes, for example, recycling or refurbishing, undoubtedly support this objective, they inevitably present material losses or generation of undesired by-products. Balancing losses and recoveries into a single and logical assessment has now become a major concern. The present work broadens the use of relative statistical entropy and material flow analysis to assess the recycling processes of two lithium-ion batteries previously published in the literature. Process simulation software, that is, HSC Sim®, was employed to evaluate with a high level of accuracy the performance of such recycling processes. Hereby, this methodology introduces an entropic association between the quality of final recoveries and the pre-processing stages, that is, shredding, grinding, and separation, by a parameter based on information theory. The results demonstrate that the pre-processing stages have a significant impact on the entropy value obtained at the final stages, reflecting the losses of materials into waste and side streams. In this manner, it is demonstrated how a pre-processing system capable of separating a wider number of components is advantageous, even when the final quality of refined products in two different processes is comparable. Additionally, it is possible to observe where the process becomes redundant, that is, where processing of material does not result in a significant concentration in order to take corrective actions on the process. The present work demonstrates how material flow analysis combined with statistical entropy can be used as a parameter upon which the performance of multiple recycling processes can be objectively compared from a material-centric perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
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Open AccessArticle
Considerations when Modelling EV Battery Circularity Systems
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
The electric vehicle market is expected to grow substantially in the coming years, which puts new requirements on the end-of-life phase and on the recycling systems. To a larger extent, the environmental footprint from these vehicles is related to raw material extraction and [...] Read more.
The electric vehicle market is expected to grow substantially in the coming years, which puts new requirements on the end-of-life phase and on the recycling systems. To a larger extent, the environmental footprint from these vehicles is related to raw material extraction and production, and, consequently, a material- and energy-efficient 3R system (reuse, remanufacturing, recycling) is urgently needed. The ability to understand and model the design and development of such a system therefore becomes important. This study contributes to this by identifying factors that affect 3R system design and performance, relating these factors to the various actors and processes of the system and categorising them according to time from implementation to impact. The above is achieved by applying a PEST analysis (political, economic, social and technological factors), differentiating between political, economic, social and technological factors. Data were gathered from literature, by interviews and by a number of workshops in the automotive industry and the 3R system and observations at meetings, etc. The study confirms some previous results on how vehicle battery 3R systems work and adds knowledge about the influencing factors, especially the timeframes and dynamics of the system, necessary for modelling the system and the influencing factors. For practitioners, the results indicate how to use appropriate models and which factors are most relevant to them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Recycling of Alkaline Batteries via a Carbothermal Reduction Process
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Primary battery recycling has important environmental and economic benefits. According to battery sales worldwide, the most used battery type is alkaline batteries with 75% of market share due to having a higher performance than other primary batteries such as Zn–MnO2. In [...] Read more.
Primary battery recycling has important environmental and economic benefits. According to battery sales worldwide, the most used battery type is alkaline batteries with 75% of market share due to having a higher performance than other primary batteries such as Zn–MnO2. In this study, carbothermal reduction for zinc oxide from battery waste was completed for both vacuum and Ar atmospheres. Thermodynamic data are evaluated for vacuum and Ar atmosphere reduction reactions and results for Zn reduction/evaporation are compared via the FactSage program. Zn vapor and manganese oxide were obtained as products. Zn vapor was re-oxidized in end products; manganese monoxide and steel container of batteries are evaluated as ferromanganese raw material. Effects of carbon source, vacuum, temperature and time were studied. The results show a recovery of 95.1% Zn by implementing a product at 1150 °C for 1 h without using the vacuum. The residues were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
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Open AccessArticle
Circular Business Models for Extended EV Battery Life
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home [...] Read more.
In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
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