Batteries and Electric Vehicles

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 November 2021) | Viewed by 54760

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, USA
Interests: batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles; batteries for long drive range applications; compact batteries; fast charging batteries; charging station storage devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues;

The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has proven to be a crucial factor in decreasing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. EV technologies are environmentally beneficial as they have the potential to minimize air pollution, airborne diseases, climate change, energy consumption, and the water footprint. This Special Issue will cover the key topics in hybrid and electric vehicles, including power trains, controls, battery management, motors, and power electronics.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Hybrid and Electric Vehicles;
  • Autonomous Vehicles;
  • Autonomous and Connected vehicles;
  • Electric Vehicle Batteries;
  • Power Wall Batteries;
  • Smart Grid and Smart Cities;
  • Battery Charging;
  • Smart Homes;
  • Application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in Residential and Commercial Facilities;
  • Electronics Packaging Cooling;
  • Electronics Packaging Failure;
  • EMI/RFI and Compliance in Electronics Packaging;
  • Shock and Vibrations in Electronics Packaging;
  • Drones and Drone Delivery.

Prof. Dr. Fred Barez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electric vehicle batteries
  • hybrid and electric vehicles
  • autonomous vehicles
  • autonomous and connected vehicles
  • power wall batteries
  • smart grids and smart cities
  • battery charging
  • smart homes
  • electronics packaging
  • drones and drone delivery

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5384 KiB  
Article
The Impact of an Overlaid Ripple Current on Battery Aging: The Development of the SiCWell Dataset
by Erik Goldammer, Marius Gentejohann, Michael Schlüter, Daniel Weber, Wolfgang Wondrak, Sibylle Dieckerhoff, Clemens Gühmann and Julia Kowal
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020011 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7529
Abstract
Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The [...] Read more.
Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The ripple current generated by the main inverter is demonstrated with a measurement obtained from an electric vehicle. A simulation model is presented which is based on an artificial reference DC bus, according to ISO 21498-2, and uses driving cycles in order to obtain current profiles relevant for battery cycling. A prototype of a battery cycling tester capable of high frequency and precise ripple current generation was developed and is used to cycle cells with superimposed ripple currents within an aging study. To investigate the impact of the frequency and the amplitude of the currents on the battery’s lifetime, these ripple parameters are varied between different test series. Cell parameters such as impedance and capacity are regularly characterized and the aging of the cells is compared to standard DC cycled reference cells. The aging study includes a total of 60 automotive-sized pouch cells. The evaluation of ripple currents and their impact on the battery can improve the state-of-health diagnosis and remaining-useful life prognosis. For the development and validation of such methods, the cycled cells are monitored with a measurement system that regularly measures current and voltage with a sampling rate of 2 MHz. The resulting dataset is suitable for the design of future ripple current aging studies as well as for the development and validation of aging models and methods for battery diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Electric Vehicles)
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26 pages, 5776 KiB  
Article
Early Detection of Failing Automotive Batteries Using Gas Sensors
by Christiane Essl, Lauritz Seifert, Michael Rabe and Anton Fuchs
Batteries 2021, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7020025 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 13671
Abstract
Safety for automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) applications is of crucial importance, especially for electric vehicle applications using batteries with high capacity and high energy density. In case of a defect inside or outside the cell, serious safety risks are possible including extensive heat [...] Read more.
Safety for automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) applications is of crucial importance, especially for electric vehicle applications using batteries with high capacity and high energy density. In case of a defect inside or outside the cell, serious safety risks are possible including extensive heat generation, toxic and flammable gas generation, and consequently fire and explosion. New regulations (GB 38031-2020) require a warning for passengers at least five minutes before serious incidents. This regulation can hardly be fulfilled with state-of-the-art battery monitoring. In this study, gases produced during battery failure before and during a thermal runaway (TR) are investigated in detail and the use of different gas sensors as early detectors of battery incidents is tested and proposed. The response of several commercially available gas sensors is tested in four battery failure cases: unwanted electrolysis of voltage carrying parts, electrolyte vapor, first venting of the cell and the TR. The experiments show that battery failure detection with gas sensors is possible but depends highly on the failure case. The chosen gas sensor can detect H2 produced by unwanted electrolysis and electrolyte vapor and gases produced by degassing of state-of-the-art LIBs. The results may contribute significantly to failure detection and improvement of battery safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Electric Vehicles)
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26 pages, 6817 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Heat Transfer Modeling and Experimental Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Considering: Tab and Surface Temperature, Separator, Electrolyte Resistance, Anode-Cathode Irreversible and Reversible Heat
by Anosh Mevawalla, Satyam Panchal, Manh-Kien Tran, Michael Fowler and Roydon Fraser
Batteries 2020, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040061 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 81 | Viewed by 9971
Abstract
The temperature and heat produced by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles is an important field of investigation as it determines the power, performance, and cycle life of the battery pack. This paper presented both laboratory data and simulation results at [...] Read more.
The temperature and heat produced by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles is an important field of investigation as it determines the power, performance, and cycle life of the battery pack. This paper presented both laboratory data and simulation results at C-rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C at an ambient temperature of approximately 23 °C. During experiment thermocouples were placed on the surface of the battery. The thermal model assumed constant current discharge and was experimentally validated. It was observed that temperature increased with C-rates at both the surface and the tabs. We note that at 4C the battery temperature increased from 22 °C to 47.40 °C and the tab temperature increased from 22 °C to 52.94 °C. Overall, the simulation results showed that more heat was produced in the cathode than the anode, the primary source of heat was the electrolyte resistance, and the battery temperature was the highest near the tabs and in the internal space of the battery. Simulation of the lithium concentration within the battery showed that the lithium concentration was more uniform in the anode than in the cathode. These results can help the accurate thermal design and thermal management of Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Electric Vehicles)
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Review

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15 pages, 3864 KiB  
Review
Overview of Optical Digital Measuring Challenges and Technologies in Laser Welded Components in EV Battery Module Design and Manufacturing
by Heikki Saariluoma, Aki Piiroinen, Anna Unt, Jukka Hakanen, Tuomo Rautava and Antti Salminen
Batteries 2020, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6030047 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 21962
Abstract
Ensuring the precision and repeatability of component assembly in the production of electric vehicle (EV) battery modules requires fast and accurate measuring methods. The durability of EV battery packs depends on the quality of welded connections, therefore exact positioning of the module components [...] Read more.
Ensuring the precision and repeatability of component assembly in the production of electric vehicle (EV) battery modules requires fast and accurate measuring methods. The durability of EV battery packs depends on the quality of welded connections, therefore exact positioning of the module components is critical for ensuring safety in exploitation. Laser welding is a non-contact process capable of welding dissimilar materials with high precision, for that reason it has become the preferred joining method in battery production. In high volume manufacturing, one of the main production challenges is reducing the time required for assessment of dimensional and geometrical accuracy prior to joining. This paper reviews the challenges of EV battery design and manufacturing and discusses commercially available scanner-based measurement systems suitable for fabrication of battery pack components. Versatility of novel metrological systems creates new opportunities for increasing the production speed, quality and safety of EV battery modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Electric Vehicles)
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