New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2023) | Viewed by 55557

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Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: periodontal disease; periodontal surgery; dental implants; biomaterials and bone regeneration; epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: dentistry; clinical teaching; innovation in teaching; public health; clinical research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: adhesion; minimal invasive dentistry; dental materials; dental bleaching; aesthetics; computer-assisted design and manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry has seen great technical and technological advances in recent years. These achievements have made it possible to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis, plan treatments more precisely, improve the predictability and durability of certain treatments, make procedures safer and faster, and improve the patient experience and acceptance, among others. The speed at which these advances are developing justifies the publication of a Special Issue that will allow clinicians to be aware of the latest breakthroughs in this field. Topics in this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following: new restorative materials, new regenerative materials, new surgical techniques, CAD-CAM systems, artificial intelligence in dentistry, robotics, and translational research. We encourage the submission of papers from different fields of dentistry and related areas. Original in vivo or in vitro studies that describe new therapeutic approaches or materials are strongly welcomed. Reviews on the aforementioned topics will also be considered for publication.

Prof. Dr. Ricardo Castro Alves
Prof. Dr. José João Mendes
Prof. Dr. Ana Cristina Mano Azul
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral health
  • dentistry
  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • dental imaging
  • digital dentistry
  • artificial intelligence
  • new technologies
  • personalized medicine

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry
by Ricardo Castro Alves, José João Mendes and Ana Cristina Mano Azul
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11483; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011483 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Dentistry has seen significant technical and technological advances in recent years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)

Research

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14 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Advantages of Dynamic Navigation in Prosthetic Implant Treatment in Terms of the Clinical Evaluation and Salivary Pro-Inflammatory Biomarkers: A Clinical Study
by Kacper Wachol, Tadeusz Morawiec, Agnieszka Szurko, Domenico Baldi, Anna Nowak-Wachol, Joanna Śmieszek-Wilczewska and Anna Mertas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9866; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179866 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
Successful implantation in augmented areas relies on adequate bone density and quality, along with thorough planning. The minimisation of the risks involved in the surgery and recovery phases is also of tremendous relevance. The aims of the present research were to clinically and [...] Read more.
Successful implantation in augmented areas relies on adequate bone density and quality, along with thorough planning. The minimisation of the risks involved in the surgery and recovery phases is also of tremendous relevance. The aims of the present research were to clinically and biochemically evaluate the healing process after implant surgery (dental implants) using dynamic surgical navigation following prior bone augmentation. Thirty healthy patients who had implant treatment were analysed. The study participants (30 patients) were randomised between two groups. The 15 patients in the study group were treated with Navident dynamic navigation by using a flapless technique. The control group included 15 subjects in whom the implantation procedure was performed classically using the elevation flap full-thickness method. In all cases, the patient’s clinical condition, the patient’s subjective visual assessment of post-operative pain using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the levels of the salivary biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL 6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) immediately before surgery on the first post-operative day and on the seventh post-operative day were assessed. The healing process was shown to be faster in patients in the study group due to the low invasiveness of the treatment, which was confirmed by lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the study group versus the control group. The statistical analysis used Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test. The implementation of dynamic navigation and the application of the flapless technique reduced post-operative trauma, leading to a reduced risk of infection, reduced patient discomfort, and faster recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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15 pages, 13164 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Retentive Forces from Removable Partial Denture Clasps Manufactured by the Digital Method
by Vitor Anes, Cristina B. Neves, Valeria Bostan, Sérgio B. Gonçalves and Luís Reis
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8072; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148072 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retentive forces over time of removable partial denture clasps fabricated by the digital method. Occlusal rest seats were fabricated on three premolar teeth fixed in acrylic blocks (9 × 20 × 40 mm). Digitization [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retentive forces over time of removable partial denture clasps fabricated by the digital method. Occlusal rest seats were fabricated on three premolar teeth fixed in acrylic blocks (9 × 20 × 40 mm). Digitization of the teeth was performed using a laboratory scanner (Zirkonzahn Scanner S600 GmbH, Gais, Italy). After the analysis and determination of the insertion axis, two types of clasps with mesial occlusal rests were designed per tooth: the back-action and the reverse back-action clasps, using the Partial Planner Zirkonzahn program. The file was sent for fabrication of six metal clasps from a cobalt-chromium SP2 alloy in the EOSINT M270 system by a direct laser sintering process. The Instron 5544 universal testing machine was used to perform 20,000 cycles of clasp insertion and removal in the corresponding tooth with a load cell of 100 N and a speed of 2.5 mm/s. The retentive force was recorded for each of the 1000 cycles, and the change in retention over time was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney test and a significance level of 5%. At 16,000 cycles, a maximum change in retention of 3.74 N was recorded for the back-action clasps and a minimum of −24.28 N at 1000 cycles for the reverse back-action clasps. The reverse back-action clasps exhibited statistically significant lower change in retention than the reverse-action clasps at 4000 and 5000 cycles. No differences were observed in the remaining cycles. During the 20,000 cycles, the change in retention was low regardless of the type of clasp. For most cycles, there were no differences in the change in retention between the two types of clasps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Salivary Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1β, and C-Reactive Protein as a Diagnostic Tool for Plaque-Induced Gingivitis in Children
by Ayshe Salim, Sirma Angelova, Bogdan Roussev, Todorka Sokrateva, Yoana Kiselova-Kaneva, Stefan Peev and Diana Ivanova
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 5046; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13085046 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Plaque-induced gingivitis (PIG) is one of the most widely distributed oral disorders in children. We aimed to identify the diagnostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and c-reactive protein (CRP) in the unstimulated whole saliva of children with different degrees of PIG. The [...] Read more.
Plaque-induced gingivitis (PIG) is one of the most widely distributed oral disorders in children. We aimed to identify the diagnostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and c-reactive protein (CRP) in the unstimulated whole saliva of children with different degrees of PIG. The study included 45 healthy children (aged between 4–14 years). The participants were divided into four groups according to their Silness–Löe plaque index and Löe–Silness gingival index. ELISA methods for the quantification of salivary IL-6, IL-1β, and CRP were used. The highest levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and CRP were recorded in the group with severe gingivitis—14.96 pg/mL, 28.94 pg/mL, and 490.0 pg/mL, respectively—significantly exceeding those in the control group (9.506 pg/mL, 16.93 pg/mL and 254.4 pg/mL, respectively). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, salivary IL-1β and CRP showed good diagnostic accuracy (0.8 ≤ AUC < 0.9) and IL-6 showed fair diagnostic accuracy (0.7 ≤ AUC < 0.8) with statistical significance to distinguish between children with a moderate degree of PIG and those with a severe degree of PIG. Sensitivity for IL-6, CRP, and IL-1β was 87.5% (p < 0.05), 87.5% (p < 0.01), and 75% (p < 0.01), respectively, and specificity was 63.16% (p < 0.05), 78.95% (p < 0.01), 83.33% (p < 0.01), respectively. Based on our results, we suggest salivary IL-1β and CRP as potential diagnostic tools that can be used to differentiate between moderate and severe PIG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Colour Changes of Acetal Resins (CAD-CAM) In Vivo
by Cristina Gómez-Polo, Ana María Martín Casado, Norberto Quispe, Eva Rosel Gallardo and Javier Montero
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010181 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
To quantify the discolouration of the temporary acetal resins in vivo, based on the weeks of follow-up and the salivary pH in the three thirds of the tooth. To find out if the final CIELAB coordinates can be predicted from the initial colour [...] Read more.
To quantify the discolouration of the temporary acetal resins in vivo, based on the weeks of follow-up and the salivary pH in the three thirds of the tooth. To find out if the final CIELAB coordinates can be predicted from the initial colour coordinates, the salivary pH, the situation (in thirds) and the weeks of follow-up. Colour coordinates (L, C, and h) were recorded by spectrophotometry in 13 participants fitted with hybrid provisional complete dentures made of acetal resin. Colour recordings were made on the day of placement and after several weeks of follow-up (6 to 31 weeks). Salivary pH was also measured as a predictor variable for colour change. The ANOVA statistical test and regression models have been used. The highest colour difference according to ∆Eab* was 27.46 units after 15 weeks of follow-up and the lowest was 7.34 units after 17 weeks of follow-up. Neither in the cervical nor in the middle third any regressor variable (initial L*, initial C*, initial h*, salivary pH and weeks of follow-up) was able to significantly predict any of the final colour coordinates (p > 0.05). The colour change of the temporary acetal resins used exceeds the threshold of clinical acceptability, and it is not acceptable to maintain satisfactory aesthetics. The weeks of follow-up and the salivary pH are not capable of satisfactorily predicting the final color coordinates of the acetal resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 540 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of the Fluorescence-Aided Identification Technique (FIT) for Detecting Residual Composite Remnants after Trauma Splint Removal—A Laboratory Study
by Eva Magni, Wadim Leontiev, Sebastian Soliman, Christian Dettwiler, Christian Klein, Gabriel Krastl, Roland Weiger and Thomas Connert
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10054; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910054 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Distinguishing composite remnants from tooth structure after trauma splint removal can be challenging. This study aimed to compare the Fluorescence-aided Identification Technique (FIT) with conventional light illumination (CONV) in terms of accuracy and time required for the detection of composite remnants after trauma [...] Read more.
Distinguishing composite remnants from tooth structure after trauma splint removal can be challenging. This study aimed to compare the Fluorescence-aided Identification Technique (FIT) with conventional light illumination (CONV) in terms of accuracy and time required for the detection of composite remnants after trauma splint removal. Ten bovine tooth models containing anterior teeth from 12 to 22 with composite remnants after trauma splint removal were used. These models were examined by 10 students and 10 general dentists. Each examiner assessed the 10 models using CONV or FIT three times with an interval of 2 weeks each using a prototype fluorescence-inducing headlamp with a spectral bandwidth of (405 ± 7) nm for FIT and a dental unit lamp for CONV. The examiners charted the location of identified composite remnants, and the procedure time needed for each method was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with R 3.2.2 software with a significance level of α = 5%. FIT was more accurate and less time-consuming than CONV (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between dentists and students concerning accuracy (CONV: p = 0.26; FIT: p = 0.73). Students performed FIT significantly faster than the dentists (p < 0.001). FIT is a quick and reliable method of identifying composite remnants after trauma splint removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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9 pages, 408 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Salivary Nitric Oxide in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Treatment
by Ana-Madalina Raducanu, Sebastian Mihai, Ion Sandu, Andreea Anghel, Cristina Furnica, Raluca Ozana Chistol, Ciprian Adrian Dinu, Dana Tutunaru and Kamel Earar
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8565; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178565 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is considered a regulator of bone response to mechanical stress that mediates adaptive bone formation, the pathological effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and other cytokines; regulates leukocytes and epithelial cell adhesion; inhibits T cell [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is considered a regulator of bone response to mechanical stress that mediates adaptive bone formation, the pathological effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and other cytokines; regulates leukocytes and epithelial cell adhesion; inhibits T cell proliferation; and enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity, as well as other immune-related processes. The aim of the current study was to test the potential use of salivary NO as a biomarker of bone response that is specific and sensitive to local changes, following the application of different types of dental appliances. Material and methods: Salivary NO was determined in 30 patients divided into three groups with 10 participants each: control (C), fixed metal braces group (M), and aligners group (A). Salivary NO was determined four times in each group (before the procedure, at 2 weeks, 30 days, and 60 days after the procedure) using ELISA and rapid semi-quantitative assay with Nitric Oxide Saliva Test Strips (Berkeley, CA, USA). The mean results were compared with the ANOVA test, and the Pearson correlation index was calculated. The results show a significant increase in salivary NO levels by both methods only in the metal braces group, which is suggestive of oxidative damage, increased invasiveness, and bone response to metal braces. In conclusion, our study showed that metal brackets lead to a significant temporary increase in oral oxidative stress as an adaptive reaction to the presence of foreign bodies in the oral cavity. The subsequent concentration decrease at 60 days suggests a normalization of the body’s response to foreign bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Efficacy of Sodium Perborate and Microwave Irradiation for Surface Disinfection of Polymethyl Methacrylate Polymer
by Ziaullah Choudhry, Sofia Malik, Zulfiqar A. Mirani, Shujah A. Khan, Syed M. R. Kazmi, Waqas A. Farooqui, Muhammad A. Ahmed, Khulud A. AlAali, Abdullah Alshahrani, Mohammed Alrabiah, Ahmed H. Albaqawi and Tariq Abduljabbar
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7004; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147004 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Various disinfecting agents showing variable success in disinfecting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are available. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of sodium perborate (denture cleaning tablet-DC), microwave irradiation, and their combination for eradicating candida albicans (C. albicans) from [...] Read more.
Various disinfecting agents showing variable success in disinfecting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are available. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of sodium perborate (denture cleaning tablet-DC), microwave irradiation, and their combination for eradicating candida albicans (C. albicans) from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base polymer. One hundred and sixty-eight PMMA resin specimens (30 × 30 × 15 mm) were divided into four groups, including control (no disinfection), microwave disinfection in distilled water (MW-DW), sodium perborate with distilled water (DC-DW), and a combination of MW-DC-DW (n = 10). Biofilms of C. albicans were cultured on the PMMA resin denture base specimens for 96 h. The samples were exposed to three different antifungal regimes, i.e., MW, denture cleaning agent-sodium perborate (DC) and DW, and a combination of MW-DC-DW for 1 to 5 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate colony formation. The colony-forming units (CFU) among the experimental groups were assessed using ANOVA, a Kruskal–Wallis test, and a Mann–Whitney test. The mean CFU values were compared with the control for each disinfecting regime at 96 h growth time. For MW-DC-DW, the CFU were significantly low at 2 and 3 min of exposure when compared with the control (DW) (p < 0.05). For the MW-DW treated group, the CFU were significantly low at 3 min of exposure when compared with the control (DW) (p < 0.05). It was also found that for DC-DW, the CFU were significantly low at 5 minutes when compared with the control specimens (DW) (p < 0.05). Microwave disinfection in combination with sodium perborate is a more effective disinfecting regime against C. albicans than that of microwave disinfection and sodium perborate alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1953 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Feldspathic Thickness on Fluorescence of a Variety of Resin Cements and Flowable Composites
by Joana Santos de Cunha Pereira, José Alexandre Reis, Francisco Martins, Paulo Maurício and M. Victoria Fuentes
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136535 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
(1) Background: The shade of resin-based materials and ceramic thickness influence the optical color of laminate restorations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate—in vitro—the effect of resin-based cement shade and ceramic thickness on fluorescence of feldspathic laminate veneers; (2) Methods: 180 [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The shade of resin-based materials and ceramic thickness influence the optical color of laminate restorations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate—in vitro—the effect of resin-based cement shade and ceramic thickness on fluorescence of feldspathic laminate veneers; (2) Methods: 180 samples of feldspathic ceramic A2 shade with two different thicknesses (0.5 and 0.8 mm) were obtained. The samples were cemented to composite resin substrates with one of the following materials in different shades (n = 10): resin cement (Variolink Esthetic in Light, Neutral and Warm shades; or RelyX Veneer in B0.5 /white, Translucent and A3 Opaque/yellow opaque shades); flowable composite resin (G-aenial Flo in A2 and A3 shades) or a pre-heated composite resin (Filtek Supreme XTE, A3 body shade). The fluorescence spectra were obtained by means of a spectrofluorometer. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey, and Student’s t-tests were performed (α = 0.05); (3) Results: Fluorescence values were significantly influenced by the resin-based agent tested (p < 0.001), the thickness of ceramic (p < 0.001), and their interaction (p < 0.001). The lowest fluorescence values were achieved by RelyX Veneer resin cement regardless its shade and the ceramic thickness; (4) Conclusions: both the shade of resin-based agent and the feldspathic ceramic thickness influenced the fluorescence of laminate restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 5898 KiB  
Article
Clinical Outcomes of the Double Lateral Sliding Bridge Flap Technique with Simultaneous Connective Tissue Graft in Sextant V Recessions: Three-Year Follow-Up Study
by Norberto Quispe-López, Antonio Castaño-Séiquer, Beatriz Pardal-Peláez, Pablo Garrido-Martínez, Cristina Gómez-Polo, Jesús Mena-Álvarez and Javier Montero-Martín
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031038 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
The presence of isolated or multiple gingival recessions in the mandibular anterior region is a challenge for the clinician, as they may be associated with a shallow vestibule, high frenum insertion and/or little or no attached gingiva. Only limited evidence is available on [...] Read more.
The presence of isolated or multiple gingival recessions in the mandibular anterior region is a challenge for the clinician, as they may be associated with a shallow vestibule, high frenum insertion and/or little or no attached gingiva. Only limited evidence is available on the use of the double lateral sliding bridge flap technique with connective tissue graft (CTG) technique for treating gingival recessions in the mandibular anterior region. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the clinical and esthetic outcomes of the double lateral sliding bridge flap technique with CTG on isolated and multiple gingival recessions at the level of the mandibular incisors. Nine patients required treatment of gingival recessions in the mandibular incisors at the University of Salamanca (Spain) (seven females, two males; mean age: 27.9 ± 6.9) with a total of 14 isolated (42.9%) and multiple (57.1%) Miller class II and III gingival recessions. After a mean follow-up of 36 months, the mean percentage of root coverage was 80.5% for all treated recessions. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), were observed for reduction in recession depth, increased width of keratinized tissue and increased gingival thickness, this being dependent on the Miller class. The esthetic outcome was acceptable, with a final mean esthetic score of 7.4 out of 10. The double lateral sliding bridge flap surgical technique with CTG is an effective procedure for the coverage of isolated and multiple gingival recessions in the anterior mandibular region, as it offers satisfactory esthetic results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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9 pages, 10209 KiB  
Article
Effect of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Differentiation Potential of Human Deciduous Dental Pulp Fibroblast-like Cells
by Masae Okuno, Sho Aoki, Saki Kawai, Rie Imataki, Yoko Abe, Kyoko Harada and Kenji Arita
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10119; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110119 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Human mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various cell types and are useful for applications in regenerative medicine. Previous studies indicated that dental pulp exfoliated from deciduous teeth is a valuable alternative for dental tissue engineering because it contains stem cells with a [...] Read more.
Human mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various cell types and are useful for applications in regenerative medicine. Previous studies indicated that dental pulp exfoliated from deciduous teeth is a valuable alternative for dental tissue engineering because it contains stem cells with a relatively high proliferation rate. For clinical application, it is necessary to rapidly obtain a sufficient number of cells in vitro and maintain their undifferentiated state; however, the abundance of stem cells in the dental pulp tissue is limited. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) has been applied in regenerative medicine because it activates cell proliferation. Here, we examined the effects of NTAPP to activate the proliferation of human deciduous dental pulp fibroblast-like cells (hDDPFs) in vitro. Compared with untreated cells, NTAPP increased cell proliferation by 1.3-fold, significantly upregulated well-known pluripotent genes for stemness (e.g., Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog), and activated the expression of stem cell-specific surface markers (e.g., CD105). Overall, NTAPP activated the proliferation of various mesodermal-derived human adult stem cells while maintaining their pluripotency and stemness. In conclusion, NTAPP is a potential tool to expand the population of various adult stem cells in vitro for medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Implant Level Intraoral Scanning and Photogrammetry Impression Techniques in a Complete Arch with Angled and Parallel Implants: An In Vitro Study
by Hani Tohme, Ghida Lawand, Rita Eid, Khaled E. Ahmed, Ziad Salameh and Joseph Makzoume
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9859; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219859 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
(1) Background: Stereophotogrammetry has recently been investigated showing high accuracy in complete implant supported cases but has scarcely been investigated in cases of tilted implants. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital impression techniques (intraoral scanning [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Stereophotogrammetry has recently been investigated showing high accuracy in complete implant supported cases but has scarcely been investigated in cases of tilted implants. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital impression techniques (intraoral scanning and photogrammetry) at the level of intraoral scan bodies in terms of angular deviations and 3D discrepancies. (2) Methods: A stone master cast representing an edentulous maxilla using four implant analogs was fabricated. The two anterior implants were parallel to each other, and the two posterior implants were at an angulation of 17 degrees. Digital intraoral scanning (DIOS) impressions were taken after connecting implant level scan bodies to the master cast and STL files were exported (n = 15). Digital photogrammetry (DPG) impressions were captured using a PiC Camera after tightening implant level PiC optical markers and STL files were exported (n = 15). Superimposition was carried out by a software for determining the accuracy of both. (3) Results: Significant angular discrepancies (ΔA) and 3D deviations of scan bodies were found among the groups in trueness with lower deviations for the DPG (p value < 0.001). However, trueness within ISBs varied between angular and 3D deviations and outcomes were not specific to determine the effect of implant angulation. In precision, no significant differences were detected within ISBs and among both groups in terms of angular deviation. However, DPG had less deviations than DIOS group in terms of 3D deviations (p value < 0.001). (4) Conclusion: Digital photogrammetry technique conveyed the utmost accuracy in both trueness and precision for the intraoral scan bodies among both impression methods assessed. In addition, implant angulation did not influence the precision of the impression techniques but affected their trueness without explicit conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 2293 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and the Apical Diameter Size on the Debridement Efficacy of Infected Root Canals: A Multivariate Statistical Assessment of Histological Data
by Marcela Alcota, Jimena Osorio, Claudia Díaz, Ana Ortega-Pinto, Cristián Peñafiel, Juan C. Rivera, Daniela Salazar, Germán Manríquez and Fermín E. González
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7495; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167495 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
The removal of necrotic and vital pulp substrates and microorganisms and their toxins from the root canal system (RCS) has been found to be the basis for a successful endodontic treatment. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of passive [...] Read more.
The removal of necrotic and vital pulp substrates and microorganisms and their toxins from the root canal system (RCS) has been found to be the basis for a successful endodontic treatment. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on the elimination of the organic remnant tissue from infected, narrow and curved mandibular root canals during their instrumentation. For this purpose, mesiobuccal canals from mandibular first molars were instrumented with the RaCe rotary system, using PUI activation or conventional irrigation (CI) and two apical diameters (#25 and #35). The root canal cleanness of the samples was evaluated by microscopy and using a modified Langeland’s ordinal scale. Parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) of the samples were performed. When PUI was used, there was a significant reduction of the organic remnant in the apical enlargement of 25 at 2 mm from the apex (p < 0.001). After pooling the groups, regardless of the depth of the observation (2 and 4 mm from the apex), the pair #35 + PUI vs. #25 + CI showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). The effect of PUI explained 65% of the overall variance when compared with the CI samples. The use of PUI reduced the organic material of narrow infected and curved root canals with an apical enlargement of #25 and #35. When PUI is not used, a biomechanical instrumentation up to a diameter ≥#35 is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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8 pages, 2660 KiB  
Article
Reliability and Agreement of Three Devices for Measuring Implant Stability Quotient in the Animal Ex Vivo Model
by Monica Blazquez-Hinarejos, Constanza Saka-Herrán, Victor Diez-Alonso, Raul Ayuso-Montero, Eugenio Velasco-Ortega and Jose Lopez-Lopez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083453 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by different RFA devices; however, inter- and intra-rater reliability and agreement of these instruments remain unknown. Thirty implants were placed in [...] Read more.
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by different RFA devices; however, inter- and intra-rater reliability and agreement of these instruments remain unknown. Thirty implants were placed in three different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured parallel and perpendicular (lingual) to the peg axis with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by two different investigators and furthermore, one performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.65 for the Osstell® Beacon; 0.57 to 0.86 for the Penguin®; and −0.01 to 0.60 for the MegaISQ®. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® (66.3) in a parallel measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® (60.1) in a parallel measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® in a parallel measurement. Osstell® Beacon and MegaISQ® showed lower reliability than Penguin®. Osstell® had good agreement for measuring ISQ both in parallel and perpendicular, and MegaISQ® had the best agreement for measuring ISQ in parallel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Trueness of Digital Implant Impressions According to the Implant Scan Body Orientation and Scanning Method
by Bora Lee, Na-Eun Nam, Seung-Ho Shin, Jung-Hwa Lim, June-Sung Shim and Jong-Eun Kim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073027 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
This study investigated the trueness of a digital implant impression according to the orientation of the implant scan body (ISB) and the scanning method. With the flat surface of the ISB facing either the buccal or proximal direction, the ISB was scanned using [...] Read more.
This study investigated the trueness of a digital implant impression according to the orientation of the implant scan body (ISB) and the scanning method. With the flat surface of the ISB facing either the buccal or proximal direction, the ISB was scanned using one tabletop scanner (T500) and three types of intraoral scanner (TRIOS 3, CS3600, and i500). The effects of differences in the scanning method and ISB orientation were assessed. Postalignment data were subsequently obtained with the abutments generated using a digital library, and superimposed with reference data using a best-fit algorithm, followed by root-mean-square error (RMSE) analysis. The RMSE was lower in the buccal groups (28.15 ± 8.87 μm, mean ± SD) than in the proximal groups (31.94 ± 8.95 μm, p = 0.031), and lower in the full-scan groups (27.92 ± 10.80 μm) than in the partial-scan groups (32.16 ± 6.35 μm, p = 0.016). When using the tabletop scanner, the trueness was higher when the ISB was connected buccally (14.34 ± 0.89 μm) than when it was connected proximally (29.35 ± 1.15 μm, p < 0.001). From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the operator should connect the ISB so that its flat surface faces the buccal direction, and attempt to scan all areas. Additionally, it is advantageous to connect an ISB buccally when using a tabletop scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Review

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15 pages, 1081 KiB  
Review
Bisphosphonates and Their Influence on the Implant Failure: A Systematic Review
by Cristiana Gomes Rebelo, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Nuno Bernardo, Patrícia Couto and Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3496; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063496 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to study the relationship between the use of bisphosphonates (oral or intravenous) and its effect on implant osseointegration. Methods: The focused question was “In patients medicated with bisphosphonates and who underwent surgery to place dental [...] Read more.
Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to study the relationship between the use of bisphosphonates (oral or intravenous) and its effect on implant osseointegration. Methods: The focused question was “In patients medicated with bisphosphonates and who underwent surgery to place dental implants, what is the influence of that medication (of different generations) on the failure of dental implants (O)?” Following specific eligibility criteria, four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, DOAJ) were electronically screened to search the articles. Specific MeSH terms were used in combinations with Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” for the research. In addition, a manual search was done. The data extracted were the (i) author, (ii) year of publication, (iii) country, (iv) research question, (v) study design, (vi) patient information, (vii) the number of patients included, (viii) patient/implant status, (ix) the number of implants evaluated, (x) type of implant, (xi) risk factors, and (xii) findings obtained. Moreover, the following were also registered: the (i) type, generation, duration, and route for BP administrated; (ii) the presence of any systemic condition and drug treatment; (iii) follow-up (months); and (iv) implant failure rate (%). The quality assessment of the included studies was carried out using the Modified Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Results: A total of 491 articles were found (183 in PubMed/MEDLINE, 171 in Scopus, 65 in Web of Science, and 72 articles in DOAJ), and 17 articles were considered for full-text reading. After the exclusion of 3 articles, 14 were included in this systematic review (11 case reports, 2 retrospective, and 1 prospective study). The reasons for the bisphosphonates intaking included osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, knee cancer, and osteogenesis imperfecta. The oral administration involved Alendronato (eight studies), Risedronate (three studies), and Ibandronate (three studies); whereas the intravenous administrations were Zoledronate (seven studies), Clodronato (one study), and Pamidronato (three studies). The duration of use of bisphosphonates at the time of implant placement was diverse; it ranged from no interruption of bisphosphonate intaking up to its discontinuation for 2, 3, or 6 months before surgery, with respective use being resumed 1, 3, or 8 months after surgery. Antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid) was performed before the intervention in two cases and after the intervention in three cases. Finally, the percent of implant failure rate when intaking BPs had an average of 49.96%. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this systematic review, it was possible to conclude that a high mean failure rate of implant osseointegration (49.96%) was found, regardless of the generation of bisphosphonates used. Moreover, the failure rate was lower in patients using second generation bisphosphonates (Alendronate and Pamidronate) and was higher with the IV administration compared to the oral administration of bisphosphonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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19 pages, 2801 KiB  
Review
Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review
by Perrine Saïz, Nuno Taveira and Ricardo Alves
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178070 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 9404
Abstract
Purpose: Probiotics may exclude or antagonize oral pathogens and be useful to prevent oral dysbiosis and treat oral diseases. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits of probiotics in oral health and disease, and in dental practice; Methods: Primary articles [...] Read more.
Purpose: Probiotics may exclude or antagonize oral pathogens and be useful to prevent oral dysbiosis and treat oral diseases. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits of probiotics in oral health and disease, and in dental practice; Methods: Primary articles published between January 2012 and 30 December 2020 with full text available were searched in PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, B-on, and SciELO; Results: The electronic search identified 361 references of which 91 (25.2%) met all the inclusion criteria. In total, data from 5374 participants with gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, caries, orthodontic conditions, halitosis, or oral conditions associated with chemo-radiotherapy were included. Despite major inconsistencies between clinical trials, probiotics have been found to contribute to reduce S. mutans counts (L. paracasei SD1), reduce probing depth in chronic periodontitis (B. animalis subsp. lactis DN-173010 with L. reuteri), reduce levels of volatile sulfur compounds and halitosis (L. salivarius WB21), treat oral mucositis and improve the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer chemo-radiotherapy (L. brevis CD2). Combinations of probiotic bacteria tend to lead to higher clinical efficacy than any individual probiotic agent; Conclusion: Oral probiotics influence favorably the oral microbiota and provide benefits to the oral ecosystem in periodontal diseases, cariology, halitosis, orthodontics and management of oral mucositis resulting from cancer treatment. However, the use of probiotics in dental practice or in self-management preventive strategies requires additional well controlled clinical trials to determine the most effective probiotic combinations, the most appropriate probiotic vehicle, and the frequency of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 637 KiB  
Review
The Use of Autogenous Teeth for Alveolar Ridge Preservation: A Literature Review
by João Cenicante, João Botelho, Vanessa Machado, José João Mendes, Paulo Mascarenhas, Gil Alcoforado and Alexandre Santos
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041853 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3513
Abstract
Alveolar ridge resorption is a natural consequence of teeth extraction, with unpleasant aesthetic and functional consequences that might compromise a future oral rehabilitation. To minimize the biological consequences of alveolar ridge resorption, several surgical procedures have been designed, the so-called alveolar ridge preservation [...] Read more.
Alveolar ridge resorption is a natural consequence of teeth extraction, with unpleasant aesthetic and functional consequences that might compromise a future oral rehabilitation. To minimize the biological consequences of alveolar ridge resorption, several surgical procedures have been designed, the so-called alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) techniques. One important characteristic is the concomitant use of biomaterial in ARP. In the past decade, autogenous teeth as a bone graft material in post-extraction sockets have been proposed with very interesting outcomes, yet with different protocols of preparation. Here we summarize the available evidence on autogenous teeth as a biomaterial in ARP, its different protocols and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Other

18 pages, 3907 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association between IL-1A, IL-1B and IL-1RN Polymorphisms and Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by José Maria Cardoso, Sofia Duarte, Ana Clara Ribeiro, Paulo Mascarenhas, Susana Noronha and Ricardo Castro Alves
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146958 - 09 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Recent studies report that individuals with polymorphisms in the genes that encode for interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β (IL-1A and IL1B, respectively) and for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) may be more susceptible in developing peri-implantitis. Therefore, the current systematic review evaluates what is reported [...] Read more.
Recent studies report that individuals with polymorphisms in the genes that encode for interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β (IL-1A and IL1B, respectively) and for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) may be more susceptible in developing peri-implantitis. Therefore, the current systematic review evaluates what is reported about the role of genetics, more specifically of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on IL-1 and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) on IL-1RN, in the development of peri-implantitis. This systematic review was carried out by screening PubMed, B-on, Cochrane and Scopus databases, for articles English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no limit regarding the publication year. Eight articles were selected for systematic review and four for meta-analytic syntheses. Our results show that although there is a lack of consensus in the literature, there seems to be an association between IL-1A, IL-1B, and IL-1RN polymorphisms with peri-implantitis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that patients who have the polymorphic allele at position +3954 of the IL-1B gene have on average almost twice the risk of developing peri-implantitis (odds ratio = 1.986, 95% confidence interval). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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8 pages, 3734 KiB  
Technical Note
Alteration of the Occlusal Vertical Dimension for Prosthetic Restoration Using a Target Tracking System
by Hwa-Jung Lee, June-Sung Shim, Hong-Seok Moon and Jong-Eun Kim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6196; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136196 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
Clinicians and researchers have used various methods to reproduce the maxillomandibular relationship and mandibular movement of individual patients using an articulator, with efforts being made to reduce errors associated with the conventional technique. When a change to a vertical dimension is required during [...] Read more.
Clinicians and researchers have used various methods to reproduce the maxillomandibular relationship and mandibular movement of individual patients using an articulator, with efforts being made to reduce errors associated with the conventional technique. When a change to a vertical dimension is required during the conventional prosthesis construction process, the maxillary and mandibular casts are mounted on the mechanical articulator using a facebow and bite registration and the elevation of the anterior guide pin of the articulator is used. However, this can inevitably cause errors due to differences between the articulator hinge movement and the actual trajectory of the patient. There has recently been increasing interest in tracking the trajectory of jaw motion of a patient, and this paper presents a new technique for altering the vertical dimension based on the measured trajectory. Target materials for performing tracking are attached to the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth to record opening and closing movements of the patient’s mouth in real time and align the patient’s scanned intraoral data or cast data. The movements of the targets are replaced with the movement of the patient’s oral scan data. Additionally, then the occlusal vertical dimension is set to a new position based on the obtained trajectory. After determining the optimal vertical dimension with consideration of the space required for restoration, maxillary and mandibular STL files are exported and the designed cast is created using a 3D printer. The printed cast is mounted on an articulator for subsequent procedures. This approach maintains the patient’s actual maxillomandibular relationship at various vertical heights and can also reduce the chair time required when adjusting for errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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4 pages, 675 KiB  
Technical Note
Digital Workflow to Fabricate Complete Dentures for Edentulous Patients Using a Reversing and Superimposing Technique
by Hwa-Jung Lee, Jeongho Jeon, Hong Seok Moon and Kyung Chul Oh
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135786 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3849
Abstract
This technical procedure demonstrates a 4-step completely digital workflow for the fabrication of complete dentures in edentulous patients. The digital scan data of the edentulous arches were obtained using an intraoral scanner, followed by the fabrication of modeless trial denture bases using additive [...] Read more.
This technical procedure demonstrates a 4-step completely digital workflow for the fabrication of complete dentures in edentulous patients. The digital scan data of the edentulous arches were obtained using an intraoral scanner, followed by the fabrication of modeless trial denture bases using additive manufacturing. Using the trial denture base and a wax rim assembly, the interarch relationship was recorded. This record was digitized using an intraoral scanner and reversed for each maxillary and mandibular section individually. The digital scan data directly obtained using the intraoral scanner were superimposed over the reversed data, establishing a proper interarch relationship. The artificial teeth were arranged virtually and try-in dentures were additively manufactured. Subsequently, the gingival and tooth sections were additively manufactured individually and characterized. Thus, fabrication of digital complete dentures can be accomplished using digital data characteristics. The workflow includes data acquisition using an intraoral scanner, data processing using reverse engineering and computer-aided design software programs, and additive manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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7 pages, 1660 KiB  
Case Report
Minimally Invasive Dentistry for Pre-Eruptive Enamel Lesions—A Case Series
by Mariana Manaia, Larissa Rocha, José Saraiva, Ana Coelho, Inês Amaro, Carlos Miguel Marto, Francisco Vale, Manuel Marques Ferreira, Anabela Paula and Eunice Carrilho
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4732; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114732 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Pre-eruptive enamel lesions occur during tooth formation and include fluorosis, traumatic hypomineralization, and molar incisor hypomineralization. Minimally invasive treatment approaches, such as microabrasion, should be considered for these cases. This article presents a case series of three patients with pre-eruptive enamel defects in [...] Read more.
Pre-eruptive enamel lesions occur during tooth formation and include fluorosis, traumatic hypomineralization, and molar incisor hypomineralization. Minimally invasive treatment approaches, such as microabrasion, should be considered for these cases. This article presents a case series of three patients with pre-eruptive enamel defects in esthetically compromised tooth regions which were treated with the microabrasion technique: two fluorosis cases, moderate and advanced, and one hypomineralization case of traumatic etiology. In Cases 1 and 3, there was a significant improvement in esthetics with a total resolution of the enamel defects. However, a slight yellowish coloration may be detected at close observation. In Case 2 (advanced fluorosis), although there was no full resolution of the white spots, there was a clear improvement in esthetics. Microabrasion is a safe and effective, minimally invasive treatment for pre-eruptive enamel lesions. It does not require local anesthesia, it is less destructive than restorative interventions, and allows good esthetic outcomes with no significant postoperative sensitivity. Its efficacy is directly related to the lesions’ severity and depth. Although there are some limitations, further improvement can be achieved with dental bleaching. More invasive treatments might be considered if results are still unsatisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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