Special Issue "New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ricardo Castro Alves
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: periodontal disease; periodontal surgery; dental implants; biomaterials and bone regeneration; epidemiology
Prof. Dr. José João Mendes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: dentistry; clinical teaching; innovation in teaching; public health; clinical research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ana Cristina Mano Azul
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), CiiEM, Egas Moniz - Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: adhesion; minimal invasive dentistry; dental materials; dental bleaching; aesthetics; computer-assisted design and manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry has seen great technical and technological advances in recent years. These achievements have made it possible to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis, plan treatments more precisely, improve the predictability and durability of certain treatments, make procedures safer and faster, and improve the patient experience and acceptance, among others. The speed at which these advances are developing justifies the publication of a Special Issue that will allow clinicians to be aware of the latest breakthroughs in this field. Topics in this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following: new restorative materials, new regenerative materials, new surgical techniques, CAD-CAM systems, artificial intelligence in dentistry, robotics, and translational research. We encourage the submission of papers from different fields of dentistry and related areas. Original in vivo or in vitro studies that describe new therapeutic approaches or materials are strongly welcomed. Reviews on the aforementioned topics will also be considered for publication.

Prof. Dr. Ricardo Castro Alves
Prof. Dr. José João Mendes
Prof. Dr. Ana Cristina Mano Azul
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health
  • dentistry
  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • dental imaging
  • digital dentistry
  • artificial intelligence
  • new technologies
  • personalized medicine

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effect of the Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and the Apical Diameter Size on the Debridement Efficacy of Infected Root Canals: A Multivariate Statistical Assessment of Histological Data
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7495; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167495 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The removal of necrotic and vital pulp substrates and microorganisms and their toxins from the root canal system (RCS) has been found to be the basis for a successful endodontic treatment. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of passive [...] Read more.
The removal of necrotic and vital pulp substrates and microorganisms and their toxins from the root canal system (RCS) has been found to be the basis for a successful endodontic treatment. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on the elimination of the organic remnant tissue from infected, narrow and curved mandibular root canals during their instrumentation. For this purpose, mesiobuccal canals from mandibular first molars were instrumented with the RaCe rotary system, using PUI activation or conventional irrigation (CI) and two apical diameters (#25 and #35). The root canal cleanness of the samples was evaluated by microscopy and using a modified Langeland’s ordinal scale. Parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) of the samples were performed. When PUI was used, there was a significant reduction of the organic remnant in the apical enlargement of 25 at 2 mm from the apex (p < 0.001). After pooling the groups, regardless of the depth of the observation (2 and 4 mm from the apex), the pair #35 + PUI vs. #25 + CI showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). The effect of PUI explained 65% of the overall variance when compared with the CI samples. The use of PUI reduced the organic material of narrow infected and curved root canals with an apical enlargement of #25 and #35. When PUI is not used, a biomechanical instrumentation up to a diameter ≥#35 is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Article
Reliability and Agreement of Three Devices for Measuring Implant Stability Quotient in the Animal Ex Vivo Model
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083453 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by different RFA devices; however, inter- and intra-rater reliability and agreement of these instruments remain unknown. Thirty implants were placed in [...] Read more.
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by different RFA devices; however, inter- and intra-rater reliability and agreement of these instruments remain unknown. Thirty implants were placed in three different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured parallel and perpendicular (lingual) to the peg axis with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by two different investigators and furthermore, one performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.65 for the Osstell® Beacon; 0.57 to 0.86 for the Penguin®; and −0.01 to 0.60 for the MegaISQ®. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® (66.3) in a parallel measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® (60.1) in a parallel measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® in a parallel measurement. Osstell® Beacon and MegaISQ® showed lower reliability than Penguin®. Osstell® had good agreement for measuring ISQ both in parallel and perpendicular, and MegaISQ® had the best agreement for measuring ISQ in parallel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Article
Evaluation of the Trueness of Digital Implant Impressions According to the Implant Scan Body Orientation and Scanning Method
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073027 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
This study investigated the trueness of a digital implant impression according to the orientation of the implant scan body (ISB) and the scanning method. With the flat surface of the ISB facing either the buccal or proximal direction, the ISB was scanned using [...] Read more.
This study investigated the trueness of a digital implant impression according to the orientation of the implant scan body (ISB) and the scanning method. With the flat surface of the ISB facing either the buccal or proximal direction, the ISB was scanned using one tabletop scanner (T500) and three types of intraoral scanner (TRIOS 3, CS3600, and i500). The effects of differences in the scanning method and ISB orientation were assessed. Postalignment data were subsequently obtained with the abutments generated using a digital library, and superimposed with reference data using a best-fit algorithm, followed by root-mean-square error (RMSE) analysis. The RMSE was lower in the buccal groups (28.15 ± 8.87 μm, mean ± SD) than in the proximal groups (31.94 ± 8.95 μm, p = 0.031), and lower in the full-scan groups (27.92 ± 10.80 μm) than in the partial-scan groups (32.16 ± 6.35 μm, p = 0.016). When using the tabletop scanner, the trueness was higher when the ISB was connected buccally (14.34 ± 0.89 μm) than when it was connected proximally (29.35 ± 1.15 μm, p < 0.001). From the findings of this study it can be concluded that the operator should connect the ISB so that its flat surface faces the buccal direction, and attempt to scan all areas. Additionally, it is advantageous to connect an ISB buccally when using a tabletop scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Review

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Review
Probiotics in Oral Health and Disease: A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178070 - 31 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Purpose: Probiotics may exclude or antagonize oral pathogens and be useful to prevent oral dysbiosis and treat oral diseases. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits of probiotics in oral health and disease, and in dental practice; Methods: Primary articles [...] Read more.
Purpose: Probiotics may exclude or antagonize oral pathogens and be useful to prevent oral dysbiosis and treat oral diseases. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits of probiotics in oral health and disease, and in dental practice; Methods: Primary articles published between January 2012 and 30 December 2020 with full text available were searched in PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, B-on, and SciELO; Results: The electronic search identified 361 references of which 91 (25.2%) met all the inclusion criteria. In total, data from 5374 participants with gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, caries, orthodontic conditions, halitosis, or oral conditions associated with chemo-radiotherapy were included. Despite major inconsistencies between clinical trials, probiotics have been found to contribute to reduce S. mutans counts (L. paracasei SD1), reduce probing depth in chronic periodontitis (B. animalis subsp. lactis DN-173010 with L. reuteri), reduce levels of volatile sulfur compounds and halitosis (L. salivarius WB21), treat oral mucositis and improve the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer chemo-radiotherapy (L. brevis CD2). Combinations of probiotic bacteria tend to lead to higher clinical efficacy than any individual probiotic agent; Conclusion: Oral probiotics influence favorably the oral microbiota and provide benefits to the oral ecosystem in periodontal diseases, cariology, halitosis, orthodontics and management of oral mucositis resulting from cancer treatment. However, the use of probiotics in dental practice or in self-management preventive strategies requires additional well controlled clinical trials to determine the most effective probiotic combinations, the most appropriate probiotic vehicle, and the frequency of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Review
The Use of Autogenous Teeth for Alveolar Ridge Preservation: A Literature Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041853 - 19 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Alveolar ridge resorption is a natural consequence of teeth extraction, with unpleasant aesthetic and functional consequences that might compromise a future oral rehabilitation. To minimize the biological consequences of alveolar ridge resorption, several surgical procedures have been designed, the so-called alveolar ridge preservation [...] Read more.
Alveolar ridge resorption is a natural consequence of teeth extraction, with unpleasant aesthetic and functional consequences that might compromise a future oral rehabilitation. To minimize the biological consequences of alveolar ridge resorption, several surgical procedures have been designed, the so-called alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) techniques. One important characteristic is the concomitant use of biomaterial in ARP. In the past decade, autogenous teeth as a bone graft material in post-extraction sockets have been proposed with very interesting outcomes, yet with different protocols of preparation. Here we summarize the available evidence on autogenous teeth as a biomaterial in ARP, its different protocols and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Other

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Technical Note
Alteration of the Occlusal Vertical Dimension for Prosthetic Restoration Using a Target Tracking System
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6196; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136196 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Clinicians and researchers have used various methods to reproduce the maxillomandibular relationship and mandibular movement of individual patients using an articulator, with efforts being made to reduce errors associated with the conventional technique. When a change to a vertical dimension is required during [...] Read more.
Clinicians and researchers have used various methods to reproduce the maxillomandibular relationship and mandibular movement of individual patients using an articulator, with efforts being made to reduce errors associated with the conventional technique. When a change to a vertical dimension is required during the conventional prosthesis construction process, the maxillary and mandibular casts are mounted on the mechanical articulator using a facebow and bite registration and the elevation of the anterior guide pin of the articulator is used. However, this can inevitably cause errors due to differences between the articulator hinge movement and the actual trajectory of the patient. There has recently been increasing interest in tracking the trajectory of jaw motion of a patient, and this paper presents a new technique for altering the vertical dimension based on the measured trajectory. Target materials for performing tracking are attached to the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth to record opening and closing movements of the patient’s mouth in real time and align the patient’s scanned intraoral data or cast data. The movements of the targets are replaced with the movement of the patient’s oral scan data. Additionally, then the occlusal vertical dimension is set to a new position based on the obtained trajectory. After determining the optimal vertical dimension with consideration of the space required for restoration, maxillary and mandibular STL files are exported and the designed cast is created using a 3D printer. The printed cast is mounted on an articulator for subsequent procedures. This approach maintains the patient’s actual maxillomandibular relationship at various vertical heights and can also reduce the chair time required when adjusting for errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Technical Note
Digital Workflow to Fabricate Complete Dentures for Edentulous Patients Using a Reversing and Superimposing Technique
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135786 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
This technical procedure demonstrates a 4-step completely digital workflow for the fabrication of complete dentures in edentulous patients. The digital scan data of the edentulous arches were obtained using an intraoral scanner, followed by the fabrication of modeless trial denture bases using additive [...] Read more.
This technical procedure demonstrates a 4-step completely digital workflow for the fabrication of complete dentures in edentulous patients. The digital scan data of the edentulous arches were obtained using an intraoral scanner, followed by the fabrication of modeless trial denture bases using additive manufacturing. Using the trial denture base and a wax rim assembly, the interarch relationship was recorded. This record was digitized using an intraoral scanner and reversed for each maxillary and mandibular section individually. The digital scan data directly obtained using the intraoral scanner were superimposed over the reversed data, establishing a proper interarch relationship. The artificial teeth were arranged virtually and try-in dentures were additively manufactured. Subsequently, the gingival and tooth sections were additively manufactured individually and characterized. Thus, fabrication of digital complete dentures can be accomplished using digital data characteristics. The workflow includes data acquisition using an intraoral scanner, data processing using reverse engineering and computer-aided design software programs, and additive manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Case Report
Minimally Invasive Dentistry for Pre-Eruptive Enamel Lesions—A Case Series
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4732; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114732 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Pre-eruptive enamel lesions occur during tooth formation and include fluorosis, traumatic hypomineralization, and molar incisor hypomineralization. Minimally invasive treatment approaches, such as microabrasion, should be considered for these cases. This article presents a case series of three patients with pre-eruptive enamel defects in [...] Read more.
Pre-eruptive enamel lesions occur during tooth formation and include fluorosis, traumatic hypomineralization, and molar incisor hypomineralization. Minimally invasive treatment approaches, such as microabrasion, should be considered for these cases. This article presents a case series of three patients with pre-eruptive enamel defects in esthetically compromised tooth regions which were treated with the microabrasion technique: two fluorosis cases, moderate and advanced, and one hypomineralization case of traumatic etiology. In Cases 1 and 3, there was a significant improvement in esthetics with a total resolution of the enamel defects. However, a slight yellowish coloration may be detected at close observation. In Case 2 (advanced fluorosis), although there was no full resolution of the white spots, there was a clear improvement in esthetics. Microabrasion is a safe and effective, minimally invasive treatment for pre-eruptive enamel lesions. It does not require local anesthesia, it is less destructive than restorative interventions, and allows good esthetic outcomes with no significant postoperative sensitivity. Its efficacy is directly related to the lesions’ severity and depth. Although there are some limitations, further improvement can be achieved with dental bleaching. More invasive treatments might be considered if results are still unsatisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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