Special Issue "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sunghun Jung

Determent of Electric Vehicle Engineering, Dongshin University, Jeonnam, 58245, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy efficient path planning; battery state estimation; unmanned system algorithm and SW development
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Donghoon Shin

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Republic of Korea Naval Academy, Jinhae, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: vehicle dynamics and control; environment perception; V2X communiation; Risk assessment; sensor fusion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) services such as sensing, mapping, goods and equipment delivery, inspection, and monitoring have started to grow rapidly with the rapidly falling prices of both drones and the sensors mounted on them. Many of these services involve the gathering of data and its processing with complex algorithms either in real time or on the cloud, and precise navigation and path-planning of the drones. We invite articles on all aspects of these problems involving UAV services including data processing and sensor fusion, obstacle and collision avoidance, trajectory generation single UAVs or groups of UAVs, communications and networks among UAVs, mission planning for various purposes, and so on.

Articles may be submitted in all the areas that currently abound in the news: inspection of farms, vineyards, ranch animals, petrochemical refineries, oil pipelines, and battlefields; delivery of pesticides and herbicides, food in restaurants, and packages to remote areas and residences; the cutting edge of photography, filming, and journalism; the mapping of various fields—optical, magnetic, acoustic, and chemical; and reconnaissance and tactical bombing in battlefield. Most of these applications are performed by single UAVs till now, though use of a multiplicity of UAVs can significantly improve performance.

Prof. Dr. Sunghun Jung
Dr. Donghoon Shin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
  • data processing and sensor fusion
  • obstacle and collision avoidance
  • trajectory generation
  • communications and networks
  • mission planning

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Multi-UAV Mission Allocation under Constraint
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112184
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper is devoted to the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission allocation problem. To solve this problem in a more realistic battlefield environment, an improved mathematical model for UAV mission allocation is proposed. Being different from previous formulations, this model not only considers [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission allocation problem. To solve this problem in a more realistic battlefield environment, an improved mathematical model for UAV mission allocation is proposed. Being different from previous formulations, this model not only considers the difference in the importance of the target but also the constraints of the time window. In addition, an indicator of reconnaissance reward is added to this model. Each target area has a different importance, just as the strategic value of each region is different in combat. In this paper, we randomly generate the value factor for each reconnaissance area. To solve the mathematical model with different operational intentions, a dimensionality reduction process for which the reconnaissance reward is the optimization objective is presented. Finally, based on the improved model, the simulation result with Lingo is compared with that of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with elite strategy (NSGA-II) and genetic algorithm (GA) to verify the reliability and the effectiveness of the improved method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
A Hierarchical Mission Planning Method for Simultaneous Arrival of Multi-UAV Coalition
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9101986
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
A hierarchical mission planning method was proposed to solve a simultaneous attack mission planning problem for multi-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The method consisted of three phases aiming to decouple and solve the mission planning problem. In the first phase, the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) [...] Read more.
A hierarchical mission planning method was proposed to solve a simultaneous attack mission planning problem for multi-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The method consisted of three phases aiming to decouple and solve the mission planning problem. In the first phase, the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) curve was used in the path estimation process for each UAV, which also served as the input for the task allocation process. In the second phase, a task allocation algorithm based on a negotiation mechanism was proposed to assign the targets. Considering the resource requirement, time-dependent value of targets and resource consumption of UAVs, the proposed task allocation algorithm can generate a feasible allocation strategy and get the maximum system utility. In the last phase, a path planning method was proposed to generate a simultaneous arrival PH path for each UAV considering UAV’s kinematic constraint and collision avoidance with obstacles. The comparison simulations showed that the path estimation process using the PH curve and the proposed task allocation algorithm improved the system utility, and the hierarchical mission planning method has potential in a real mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Adaptive Kalman Filter for High-Speed UAVs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091916
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
In order to solve the problems of filtering divergence and low accuracy in Kalman filter (KF) applications in a high-speed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), this paper proposed a new method of integrated robust adaptive Kalman filter: strong adaptive Kalman filter (SAKF). The simulation [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problems of filtering divergence and low accuracy in Kalman filter (KF) applications in a high-speed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), this paper proposed a new method of integrated robust adaptive Kalman filter: strong adaptive Kalman filter (SAKF). The simulation of two high-dynamic conditions and a practical experiment were designed to verify the new multi-sensor data fusion algorithm. Then the performance of the Sage–Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF), strong tracking filter (STF), H filter and SAKF were compared. The results of the simulation and practical experiments show that the SAKF can automatically select its filtering process under different conditions, according to an anomaly criterion. SAKF combines the advantages of SHAKF, H filter and STF, and has the characteristics of high accuracy, robustness and good tracking skill. The research has proved that SAKF is more appropriate in high-speed UAV navigation than single filter algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
Launch Performance Degradation of the Rupture-Type Missile Canister
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071290
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper describes the degradation of launch performance caused by the remnants of a missile canister cover with a sabot interface, on interference with adjacent structures. First, by including the material plastic behavior and element deletion, we predict interference between the structures and [...] Read more.
This paper describes the degradation of launch performance caused by the remnants of a missile canister cover with a sabot interface, on interference with adjacent structures. First, by including the material plastic behavior and element deletion, we predict interference between the structures and the detached part, followed by excessive deformation. Second, we verify that the support ring deformation, which is induced by an interaction with the cover remains, increases for fastener separations with abnormal fastener installations. This increase further triggers interference with the boosters on the bottom of a missile. Lastly, we analyze the variation of material property in a high-speed environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Modeling and Flight Validation of a Small-Scale Compound Helicopter
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061087
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
The compound configuration is a good option for helicopters to break through speed limitation and improve maneuverability. However, the compound configuration applied on the small-scale helicopter has not been investigated in detail. In this study, an 11-state nonlinear dynamics model of a small-scale [...] Read more.
The compound configuration is a good option for helicopters to break through speed limitation and improve maneuverability. However, the compound configuration applied on the small-scale helicopter has not been investigated in detail. In this study, an 11-state nonlinear dynamics model of a small-scale compound helicopter was established with the help of first physical principles and linear modification method. The ducted fan, free-rotate wing and horizontal stabilizer were considered in the compound configurations. To validate the accuracy of the model, high-quality flight data were obtained in hover and forward flights from 15 m/s to 32 m/s. Results show that the overall responses of the developed nonlinear model matched the hover data. In forward flight, it was proved that the nonlinear model has high accuracy in agreement with trim results and time-domain simulations. The wing model works well below 27 m/s. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the elevator and aileron in high speed was also verified in the simulation of a coordinated turn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Collision Avoidance Algorithm for Fixed-Wing UAVs Based on Maneuver Coordination and Planned Trajectories Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040798
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel collision avoidance (CA) algorithm for a cooperative fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The method is based on maneuver coordination and planned trajectory prediction. Each aircraft in a conflict generates three available maneuvers and predicts the corresponding planned trajectories. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel collision avoidance (CA) algorithm for a cooperative fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The method is based on maneuver coordination and planned trajectory prediction. Each aircraft in a conflict generates three available maneuvers and predicts the corresponding planned trajectories. The algorithm coordinates planned trajectories between participants in a conflict, determines which combination of planned trajectories provides the best separation, eventually makes an agreement on the maneuver for collision avoidance and activates the preferred maneuvers when a collision is imminent. The emphasis is placed on providing protection for UAVs, while activating maneuvers late enough to reduce interference, which is necessary for collision avoidance in the formation and clustering of UAVs. The CA has been validated with various simulations to show the advantage of collision avoidance for continuous conflicts in multiple, high-dynamic, high-density and three-dimensional (3D) environments. It eliminates the disadvantage of traditional CA, which has high uncertainty, and takes the performance parameters of different aircraft into consideration and makes full use of the maneuverability of fixed-wing aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Flow around an Oscillating Plate for Lift Enhancement by Plasma Actuators
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040776
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
During insect flight, a feathering motion of the wing’s controls vortex shedding for lift enhancement. In this study, in order to control the flow around a wing flapping with simplified sinusoidal motion, plasma actuators were introduced to simplify the complex feathering motion. In [...] Read more.
During insect flight, a feathering motion of the wing’s controls vortex shedding for lift enhancement. In this study, in order to control the flow around a wing flapping with simplified sinusoidal motion, plasma actuators were introduced to simplify the complex feathering motion. In a wind tunnel, a smoke-wire method was enacted to visualize the flow fields around an oscillating plate with an attack angle of 4° in a uniform flow for the baseline and controlled cases. The actuator placed around the leading edge was found to suppress the flow separation on the top surface. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the control effects on the fluctuating lift, where the control effects by the intermittently driven actuator were also predicted. The actuator installed on the top surface throughout the up-stroke motion was found to suppress vortex shedding from the trailing edge, which resulted in an 11% lift enhancement compared to the baseline case. In regard to the effects of the installation position, it was found that the actuator placed on the top surface was effective, compared to the cases for installation on the bottom surface or both surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Vehicular Communication on Risk Assessment in Automated Driving Vehicles
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122632
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
PDF Full-text (2769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a human-centered risk assessment algorithm designed to find the intervention moment of drive mode and active safety mode while monitoring threat vehicles ahead to overcome effects of vehicular communication on risk assessment in automated driving vehicle. Although a conventional radar [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a human-centered risk assessment algorithm designed to find the intervention moment of drive mode and active safety mode while monitoring threat vehicles ahead to overcome effects of vehicular communication on risk assessment in automated driving vehicle. Although a conventional radar system is known to be best fitted on-board ranging sensor in terms of longitudinal safety, it is generally not enough for a reliable automated driving because of sensing uncertainty of the traffic environments and incomplete perception results due to sensor limitations. This can be overcome by implementing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication which provides complementary source of target vehicle’s dynamic behavior. Using V2V communication with vehicle internal and surround information obtained from the on-board sensor system, future vehicle motion has been predicted. With accurately predicted motion of a remote vehicle, a collision risk and the automated drive mode are determined by incorporating human factor. Effects of the V2V communication on a human-centered risk assessment algorithm have been investigated through a safe triangle analysis. The computer simulation studies have been conducted in order to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. It has been shown that the V2V communication with the proposed risk assessment algorithm allows a faster drive mode decision and active safety intervention moment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
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