Special Issue "New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2021) | Viewed by 3955

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: digital dentistry; imaging; orthodontics; TMJ disorders; oral pathology; oral cancer; orofacial pain; craniofacial growth; oral health; general health; quality of life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in dentistry tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary. Dental clinicians are called to keep up with all the developments that are occurring simultaneously in this field. In this regard, new technologies are available to enhance the effectiveness of the diagnostic process and increase the spectrum of detectable pathologies, dimorphisms, and dysfunctions in the orofacial region, as well as to the new clinical approach to comprehensive dental care.

Some examples of new specific diagnostic systems are caries detection solutions (transillumination, laser-scanning, or fluorescence), software applications that automate the review of intraoral X-rays, advanced dental shade equipment, oral cancer detection systems, and salivary diagnostic tests. Additionally, digital smile design (DSD), facial scanning, photogrammetry and artificial intelligence (AI) are dramatically changing the diagnostic workflow for the assessment of dental/orofacial disharmonies.  

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide the available evidence-based data of innovative advances and knowledge in oral diagnosis as well as to present the upcoming diagnostic and therapeutic technologies in the orofacial field.

In this regard, clinical and research studies aiming to spread the knowledge of new techniques/advances are welcomed. Studies with new approaches or providing novel information are of higher priority. Case reports and reviews including studies involving the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

Prof. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • CBCT
  • digital workflow
  • 3D
  • periodontology
  • oral surgery
  • biomaterials
  • surface matching
  • rendering
  • desktop scanners
  • intraoral scanners
  • face scanners
  • dynamic articulators
  • software for dentistry
  • CAD/CAM
  • guided surgery
  • custom-made appliance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Digital Technologies: From Scientific to Clinical Applications in Orthodontic and Dental Communities
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 4977; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12104977 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The significant progress made in our sector since the introduction of digital technologies has now made it possible to easily obtain all the information necessary to diagnose, design and perform interdisciplinary and complex therapies in a simpler and more reproducible way [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach)

Research

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Article
Is Any Feature of the Stabilometric Evaluation Clinically Relevant in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders? A Cross-Sectional Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4473; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104473 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 550
Abstract
Current neuroanatomical evidence showed the anatomical relationship between the temporomandibular joint innervation with the vestibular system. However, there is no clear evidence regarding if temporomandibular disorders are associated with balance impairments. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the clinical relevance [...] Read more.
Current neuroanatomical evidence showed the anatomical relationship between the temporomandibular joint innervation with the vestibular system. However, there is no clear evidence regarding if temporomandibular disorders are associated with balance impairments. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the clinical relevance of stabilometric features in populations with temporomandibular disorders and to analyze the influence of the mandibular position and visual afference in the balance scores in both healthy and clinical populations. This observational study was conducted in one sample of healthy controls and one sample with temporomandibular disorders. Sociodemographic data (age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and foot size), clinical data (presence or absence of temporomandibular disorders) and stabilometric data under six different conditions were collected. Sixty-nine subjects (43.5% male; 36.2% patients) were assessed. No differences between Temporomandibular disorders and healthy groups were found in any stabilometric outcomes, unlike oscillation area with closed eyes and medium interscuspidal position (p < 0.01). Although visual feedback showed to be relevant (p < 0.0001), mandibular position produced no differences in any stabilometric measurement (p > 0.05). This study found that healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders showed no balance differences in the stabilometric outcomes assessed. Although visual input played an important role in the balance, mandibular position seems to be irrelevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach)
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Article
Predictive Model for Occlusal Vertical Dimension Determination and Digital Preservation with Three-Dimensional Facial Scanning
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7890; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217890 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
(1) Background: Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in the optimal maxillo–mandibular relationship is an important parameter to establish when complex dental rehabilitation has to be done. The optimal method to measure OVD is still a challenge in everyday practice. The aim of the present [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in the optimal maxillo–mandibular relationship is an important parameter to establish when complex dental rehabilitation has to be done. The optimal method to measure OVD is still a challenge in everyday practice. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability of the correlation between OVD and some anthropometric and cephalometric methods described in the literature. The validity of OVD registration using a facial scanner was also assessed. (2) Materials and Methods: 150 dentate participants, aged 20–25 years, were randomly selected using sealed envelopes. Anthropometric measurements between specific standard points were performed: Subnasion–Prementon (Sn–PM) and Subnasion–Gnation (Sn–Gn) in maximum intercuspation and in the rest mandibular position, right and left pupil to the corresponding chelion. The cephalometric measurements registered were the lower facial angle and the angle between mandibular and Frankfurt planes. The distance Sn–Gn in maximum intercuspation was compared to all other parameters. Facial scanning, with a mobile phone and installed dedicated application, was performed on ten subjects, randomly selected using the same method among the participants, and the obtained 3D files were analyzed. The digital measurements were compared, for validity, to the clinical measurements. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, for comparing clinical Sn–Gn in maximum intercuspation position to the other parameters. (3) Results: A strong agreement between all measured anthropometric parameters of the facial scan and clinical contact measurement method was registered. None of the measured parameters could predict the exact OVD. (4) Conclusions: In the limits of our study, the facial scanning could be used for predictable registration of OVD and the stored digital information could be preserved through life and use for oral rehabilitation. However, if OVD needs to be determined, several measurement methods, including cephalometric measurements, need to be used simultaneously to reach a final decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach)
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Article
Mesial Rotation of the Upper First Molar: Association with Anterior Dental Crowding in Mixed and Permanent Dentition
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5301; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155301 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The position of the upper first molar (UFM) is currently considered the “key of occlusion”. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the mesiorotated UFM, and its relationship with anterior dental crowding in mixed and permanent dentition. Intra-oral scans [...] Read more.
The position of the upper first molar (UFM) is currently considered the “key of occlusion”. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the mesiorotated UFM, and its relationship with anterior dental crowding in mixed and permanent dentition. Intra-oral scans of upper dental arches of 180 subjects with mixed dentition and 169 subjects with permanent dentition were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the presence of UFM mesiopalatal rotation and presence of anterior crowding. The occlusal relationship and the presence of caries were also recorded. In subjects with permanent dentition, there was a statistically significant correlation between anterior crowding and UFM mesiopalatal rotation (Pearson’s chi-square = 9.03; p = 0.06). Among cases with permanent dentition, subjects with UFM mesiopalatal rotation showed an OR = 3.28 (95% CI = 0.99–10.93; p = 0.042) of moderate/severe anterior dental crowding, respect to subjects without UFM rotation. In subjects with mixed dentition, there was a statistically significant correlation between molar occlusal relationship and UFM mesiopalatal rotation (Pearson’s chi-square = 14.98; p = 0.002), and subjects with molar class II showed a OR = 10.2 (95% CI = 2.16–48.22; p = 0.0005) to present UFM mesiopalatal rotation, with respect to subjects with molar class I. UFM mesiopalatal rotation is associated to anterior dental crowding in permanent dentition, and to class II malocclusion in mixed dentition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach)
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Other

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Case Report
Mandibular Coronoid Process Hypertrophy: Diagnosis and 20-Year Follow-Up with CBCT, MRI and EMG Evaluations
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104504 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Coronoid process hypertrophy (CPH) consists of an abnormal volumetric increment of the mandibular coronoid process; as this process grows gradually, the infratemporal space needed for the rotation and translation of the mandible is reduced, which results in a reduction of the range of [...] Read more.
Coronoid process hypertrophy (CPH) consists of an abnormal volumetric increment of the mandibular coronoid process; as this process grows gradually, the infratemporal space needed for the rotation and translation of the mandible is reduced, which results in a reduction of the range of mouth opening and lateral excursion, limiting mouth opening. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare case of hypertrophy of coronoid processes with associated temporomandibular ankylosis, monitored for over 20 years. The patient was first visited when he had a facial trauma at the age of 4. Then he was followed through clinical, functional, instrumental, bi-dimensional and three-dimensional radiological evaluations up to the age of 24. Physical therapy was initiated at the age of 10 to improve the condition of the masticatory muscles, while at the age of 14, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations were performed to reduce muscle tension and, a bite plane was delivered to control the parafunctional activity of the jaw in the night and self-control instruction was provided for daytime habits. The adult patient has not accepted surgical intervention; thus, the future objective is to continue monitoring over the years to avoid a detrimental progression of the medical condition through physical and functional therapies while waiting for patient consent to surgery if needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orofacial Diagnosis and Clinical Approach)
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