Special Issue "High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dimitris P. Makris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agricultural Sciences, Green Processes & Biorefinery Group, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Interests: antioxidants; biorefinery; food waste valorization; green processes; polyphenols
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,
I’m delighted to let you know that a new special issue is to be launched, entitled “High-performance Green Extraction of Natural Products”

There is to-date a large number of studies pertaining to the exploitation of plant resources (herbs, botanicals, processing by-products) for the production of extracts enriched in bioactive substances. The interest has been focused on the development of efficient and cost-effective downstream processes, which aim at producing commodities on the basis of either crude or purified extracts.

Traditional extraction techniques, including percolation, decoction/infusion generation, maceration, etc, are currently been replaced by cutting-edge, sophisticated technologies with higher efficiency and selectivity, and a more eco-friendly profile. Advanced extraction methodologies based on ultrasonication, microwaves, pulsed electric fields, high voltage discharges, enzymes, pressurized liquids, supercritical fluids etc., have in many instanced been proven more targeted, high-performing, straight-forward, fast, sustainable, fully automated and with relatively low capital cost.

This Special Issue addresses the concept of innovative and emerging strategies that aim at effectively implementing green technologies for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant resources. Contributions pertaining to novel solvents, investigation of their properties, sustainable production of isolated bioactive compounds or whole extracts, and their utilization in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries are particularly welcome.

Dr. Dimitris P. Makris
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • green extraction
  • natural products
  • phytochemicals
  • sustainable production

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial “High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products”
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217672 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 386
Abstract
There has been, to-date, a large number of studies pertaining to the exploitation of plant resources (herbs, botanicals, processing by-products) for the production of extracts enriched with bioactive substances [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Green Extracts from Coffee Pulp and Their Application in the Development of Innovative Brews
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6982; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196982 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Coffee pulp, a by-product of coffee production, contains valuable compounds such as caffeine and chlorogenic acid with high antiradical activity. In this study, aqueous solutions of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were used as a non-conventional solvent for the extraction of targeted compounds from coffee pulp. [...] Read more.
Coffee pulp, a by-product of coffee production, contains valuable compounds such as caffeine and chlorogenic acid with high antiradical activity. In this study, aqueous solutions of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were used as a non-conventional solvent for the extraction of targeted compounds from coffee pulp. The parameters of β-CD concentration (Cβcd), liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), and temperature (T) were evaluated based on the antiradical activity (AAR) and the caffeine content (CCaf). The optimum operational conditions were found to be Cβcd: 9.25 mg/mL, L/S: 30 mL/g and T: 80 °C. The sensory profiles of brews prepared with coffee and coffee pulp with or without cyclodextrin were studied with quantitative descriptive analysis. The brew from the by-product had fruity, botanic, sweet and sourness sensory properties, and cyclodextrin was found to be able to affect the overall taste of the brew. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Deep Eutectic Solvents on Extraction of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds and Skin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4830; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144830 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
In the past few years, research efforts have focused on plant exploitation for deriving some valuable compounds. Extraction has been usually performed using petrochemical and volatile organic solvents, but nowadays, increased recognition of environmental pollution has prompted the utilization of green solvents as [...] Read more.
In the past few years, research efforts have focused on plant exploitation for deriving some valuable compounds. Extraction has been usually performed using petrochemical and volatile organic solvents, but nowadays, increased recognition of environmental pollution has prompted the utilization of green solvents as alternatives. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to exploit deep eutectic solvents (DES) (choline chloride: citric acid and choline chloride: glucose) as solvents for extracting valuable phenolic antioxidants from grapes. Investigation was conducted on ten grape varieties, observing seeds and skin as different matrix. Total polyphenol content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric microassay. Antioxidant activity was investigated using four different tests and results were combined in a unique Antioxidant Composite Index (ACI) to reveal comprehensive information about this biological activity. Polyphenol compounds were identified and quantified with the aim of HPLC-diode array detector (DAD). Overall results support that DES (particularly choline chloride: citric acid) were comparable to conventional solvent, and in most cases even outperformed acidified aqueous ethanol (concerning extraction efficiency and antioxidant activity). Regardless of varietal distinctions, grape seeds have higher antioxidant capacity compared to grape skin, and such findings are according to their phenol compound concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of a Low-Temperature and High-Performance Green Extraction Process for the Recovery of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals from Waste Potato Peels Using Hydroxypropyl β-Cyclodextrin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3611; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103611 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
Potato peels (PP) are a major agri-food side-stream originating from potato processing, but to date, their green valorization as a bioresource of antioxidant polyphenols is limited to extraction processes involving mainly water/ethanol-based solvents, whereas other eco-friendly methodologies are scarce. This study aimed at [...] Read more.
Potato peels (PP) are a major agri-food side-stream originating from potato processing, but to date, their green valorization as a bioresource of antioxidant polyphenols is limited to extraction processes involving mainly water/ethanol-based solvents, whereas other eco-friendly methodologies are scarce. This study aimed at developing a simple, straight-forward and green extraction methodology to effectively recover PP polyphenols, using hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). After an initial assay to identify the optimal HP-β-CD concentration that would provide increased extraction yield, optimization based on response surface methodology enabled maximization of the extraction performance, providing a total polyphenol yield of 17.27 ± 0.93 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent g−1 dry mass, at 30 °C. Testing of temperatures higher than 30 °C and up to 80 °C did not favor higher yields. The extracts obtained with HP-β-CD were slightly richer in polyphenols than extracts prepared with conventional solvents, such as aqueous ethanol and methanol, displaying similar antioxidant characteristics. The major polyphenols that could be identified in the extracts were neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acids. The outcome of this study demonstrated that HP-β-CD may be used as a highly effective green means of recovering PP polyphenols, at near-ambient temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ultrasonication Pretreatment on the Production of Polyphenol-Enriched Extracts from Moringa oleifera L. (Drumstick Tree) Using a Novel Bio-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010220 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Moringa oleifera L. leaves are a plant tissue particularly rich in polyphenolic phytochemicals with significant bioactivities, and there has been significant recent interest for the production of extracts enriched in these substances. The current investigation is aimed at establishing a green extraction process, [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera L. leaves are a plant tissue particularly rich in polyphenolic phytochemicals with significant bioactivities, and there has been significant recent interest for the production of extracts enriched in these substances. The current investigation is aimed at establishing a green extraction process, using a novel eco-friendly natural deep eutectic solvent, composed of glycerol and nicotinamide. Furthermore, sample ultrasonication prior to batch stirred-tank extraction was studied to examine its usefulness as a pretreatment step. Optimization of the extraction process through response surface methodology showed that the maximum total polyphenol yield (82.87 ± 4.28 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry mass) could be achieved after a 30 min ultrasonication pretreatment, but the difference with the yield obtained from the non-pretreated sample was statistically non-significant (p < 0.05). Extraction kinetics revealed that the activation energy for the ultrasonication-pretreated samples was more energy-demanding, a fact attributed to phenomena pertaining to washing of the readily extracted polyphenols during pretreatment. Liquid-chromatography-diode array-mass spectrometry showed that ultrasonication pretreatment may have a limited positive effect on polyphenol extractability, but the overall polyphenolic profile was identical for the ultrasonication-pretreated and non-pretreated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Deep Eutectic Solvents to Prepare Mixture Extracts of Three Long-Lived Trees with Maximized Skin-Related Bioactivities
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132581 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
This study aims to apply deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as safe and efficient extraction media that could yield maximized skin-related bioactivities from a mixture of long-lived trees. Ginkgo biloba L., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl., and Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don, native to [...] Read more.
This study aims to apply deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as safe and efficient extraction media that could yield maximized skin-related bioactivities from a mixture of long-lived trees. Ginkgo biloba L., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl., and Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don, native to Asia, were examined as potential resources of cosmeceutical products. Various DESs synthesized from cosmetics-compatible compounds were used to prepare leaf extracts. A DES containing glycerol and xylitol yielded the highest extractability for isoquercetin, and was selected as the optimal solvent. Isoquercetin has various bioactivities and was found in the extracts of the leaves of all three trees. Then, a series of mixtures of the tree leaves were prepared according to a simplex-centroid mixture design, and their DES-extracts were tested for skin-related activities, including antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-elastase activities. The mixture design resulted in two special cubic models and one quadratic model best fitted for describing the antioxidant and anti-elastase activities, and the anti-tyrosinase activity, respectively. Based on the established models, three different optimal formulations of the three kinds of tree leaves were suggested for maximized responses. The present strategy, which is based on the simplex-centroid mixture design with a DES as the extraction solvent, could be applied to developing new materials from a mixture of natural resources, suitable for the cosmetics and related fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Deep Eutectic Solvents as Extraction Media for Valuable Flavonoids from Natural Sources
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194169 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
The present review article attempts to summarize the use of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction of flavonoids, one of the most important classes of plant secondary metabolites. All of the applications reviewed have reported success in isolation and extraction of the target [...] Read more.
The present review article attempts to summarize the use of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction of flavonoids, one of the most important classes of plant secondary metabolites. All of the applications reviewed have reported success in isolation and extraction of the target compounds; competitive, if not superior, extraction rates compared with conventional solvents; and satisfactory behavior of the extract in the latter applications (such as direct analysis, synthesis, or catalysis), wherever attempted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Green Extraction of Natural Products)
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